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Full text of "Hall's chronicle : containing the history of England, during the reign of Henry the Fourth, and the succeeding monarchs, to the end of the reign of Henry the Eighth, in which are particularly described the manners and customs of those periods. Carefully collated with the editions of 1548 and 1550"

[Original Title.] 
THE VNION 



at THE 




TWO NOBLE AND ILLUSTRE FAMELIES 



LANCASTRE & YORKE, 

BEETNO LONG IH CONT.NUAL B.SCENS.ON FOR THE CROUNE OF TH,S NOBLE REALME, 

WITH AIL THE 

ACTES DONE IN BOTHE THE TYMES OF THE PRINCES, 
EOTHE OF THE ONE LINAGE AND OF THE OTHER, 

BEGINNYNG AT THE TYME OF KYNG HENRY THE FOWERTH, 

THE FIRST AUCTHOR OF THIS DEUISION, 

AND SO SUCCESSIUELY PROCEADVNO TO THE REIGNE OF THE HIGH AND PRUDENT PRINCE 

KYNG HENRY THE EIGHT, 

THE VNDUBITATE FLOWER AND VERY HEIRE OF BOTH THE SAYD LINAGES. 

1548, 



HALL'S 



CHRONICLE; 



CONTAINING 



THE HISTORY OF ENGLAND, 



DURING 



THE REIGN OF HENRY THE FOURTH, 

AND THE 

SUCCEEDING MONARCHS, 

-s 

TO THE 

END OF THE REIGN OF HENRY THE EIGHTH, 

IN WHICH ARE PARTICULARLY DESCRIBED THE MANNERS AND CUSTOMS 

OF THOSE PERIODS. 

CAREFULLY COLLATED WITH THE EDITIONS OF 1548 AND 1550. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR J. JOHNSON; F. C. AND J. RIVINGTON; T. PAYNE; WILKIE 

OBINSON; LONGMAN, HURST, REES AND < 
CADELL AND DAVIES; AND J. MAWMAN. 

1809. 



FOR j. JOHNSON; F. c. AND j. RIVINGTON; T. PAYNE; WILKJE ~ J/ 
AND ROBINSON; LONGMAN, HURST, REES AND ORMJE; <\ / 1 



Dfl 



G . Woodfall, Printer." 
Paternoster-row. 



f TO THE 

MOST MIGHTIE, VERTEOUS AND EXCELLENT PRINCE 

EDWARD THE SIXT, 

BY THE GRACE OI GOD, 

KYNG OF ENGLAND, FRAUNCE AND IRELAND, 

DEFENDOROFTHE CATHOLIKE FAITH, AND VNDER GOD SUPREME HED, OF 

THE CHURCHES OF ENGLAND AND IRELAND. YOUR MOSTE HUMBLE SUB- 

IECT EDWARD HALLE, WISSHETH HEALTH, HONOR, AND FELICITIEj 



the cancard enemie to Fame and renoune the suckyng serpet of 
auncient memory, the dedly darte to the glory of princes, and the defacer of 
all conquestes and notable actes, so muche bare rule in the firste and seconde age of 
the worlde, that nothyng was set out to mennes knowledge ether how the world 
was made either howe man and beastes wer created, or how the worlde was de- 
stroyed by water til father Moses had by deuine inspiracio in the third age, in- 
uented letters, the treasure of memorie, and set furth fiue notable bokes, to the greate 
comfort of all people liuyng at this daie. Likewise Mercurie in Egipte inuented 
letters and writyng, whiche Cadmus after brought into Grece. So euery nacio 
was desirous to enhaunce lady Fame, and to suppresse that dedly beast Obliuio. 
For what diuersitie is betwene a noble prince & a poore begger, ye a reasonable man 
and a brute beast, if after their death there be left of theim no remembrance or token. 
So that euidently it appereth that Fame is the triumphe of glory, and memory by 
litterature is the verie dilator and setter furth of Fame. How muche therfore are 
princes, gouernoures, and noble menne bounde to theim whiche haue so huely set 
furth the hues and actes of their parentes, that all though thei bee ded by mortall 
death, yet thei by writyng and Fame liue and bee continually present. If no man 
had written the goodnesse of noble Augustus, nor the pitie of merciful Traian, 
how shoulde their successours haue folowed ther steppes in vertue and princely 
qualit.es: on the contrarie parte, if the crueltie of Nero, the vngracious life of Ca- 
ligula had not beene put in remembrance, young Princes and fraile gouernors might 
likewise haue fallen in a like pit, but by redyng their Vices and seyng their mische- 

1 ueous 



VI 



ueou.s ende, thei bee compelled to leaue their euill waies, and embrace the good 
qualities of notable princes and prudent gouernours : Tims, writyng is the keye to 
enduce vertue, and represse vice : Thus memorie maketh menne ded many a thou- 
sande yere still to Hue as though thei wer present ; Thus Fame triumpheth vpon 
death, and renoune vpon Obliuion, and all by reason of writyng and historic. 

Alas my soueraigne Lorde, my herte lamenteth to knowe and remembre what 
rule this tyrante Obliuion bare in this realme, in the tyme of the Britons. For from 
the first habitacion of this land, no man of the Britons either set furthe historic of 
their begynnyng, or wrote the hole liues of their princes & kynges, excepte Gildas 
whiche inueighed against the euill doynges of a fewe tyrantes and euill gouer- 
nours. In so muche that Cesar writeth, that when he was in this realme, the people 
could not tel their linage, nor their begynnyng. ^ But one Geffrey of Monmothe 
a thousand yere and more after lulius Cesar, translated a certayn Britishe or Welshe 
boke, conteinyng the commyng of Brute with the sequele of his linage, tnl the 
tyme of Cadwalader, whiche Britishe boke if it had slept a litle lenger, Brute 
with al his posteritie had ben buried in the poke of Obliuion, for lacke of writyng. 

The strong Saxons, after thei had gayned this lande, set vp the biiner of Fame, 
and had their liues notably writte by diuerse and sundery famous clerkes, euen 
from their firste entery into this lande, till the firste Monarchy, and so successyuely. 
In the Normans tyme, many notable woorkes hath been set furthe, some of one 
prince perticulerly, & some of mo : So that in fine, all the stories of kynges, from 
kyng Willyam the firste, to kyng Edward the third, bee set furthe at length by 
diuerse authours in the Latin toungue, as by Matthewe of Paris sometyme religious 
in saincte Albons and other. After whome lohn Frossart wrote the liues of kyng 
Edward the third, and kyng Richard the seconde, so compendeously and so largely, 
that if there were not so many thynges spoken of in his long woorkes, I might be- 
leue all written in his greate volumes to bee as trewe as the Gospell. But I haue 
redde an olde Prouerbe, whiche saithe, that in many woordes, a lye or twayne sone 
male scape. Sithe the ende of Frossarte whiche endeth at the begynnyng of kyng 
Henry the fourthe, no man in the Englishe toungue, hath either set furth their ho- 
nors accordyng to their desertes, nor yet declared many notable actes worthy of 
memorie dooen in the tyme of seuen Kynges, wliic*he after kyng Richarde suc- 
ceded : Excepte Robert Fabian and one with out name, whiche wrote the common 
English Chronicle, men worthy to be praysed for their diligence, but farre shptyng 
wide from the butte of an historic. 

Wherefore moste drad and benigne souereigne Lord, lest cancarde Obliuion 

should 



Vll 

*.* 



should deface the glory of these seuen Princes, to whom you be of all sides lineall 
heire and very inheritour, I haue compiled and gathered (and not made) out of 
diuerse writers, as well forayn as Englishe, this simple treatise whiche I haue na- 
med the vnion of the noble houses of Lancaster and Yorke, conioyned together by 
the godly mariage of your moste noble graundfather, and your verteous grand- 
mother. CFor as kyng henry the fourthe was the beginnyng and rote of the great 
discord and deuision : so was the godly matrimony, the final ende of all discen- 
cions, titles and debates. \ 

Besechyng your highe Maiestie, to take this my simple and rude woorke, accord- 
yng to your accustomed goodnesse in good part, not regardyng the thyng, but my 
good will to my natiue countree, whose fame for lacke of writyng may muche be 
darkened and defaced, and thus I pray to the celestmll Lorde to send you victorie 
ouer your enemies, Peace with your confederates, loue of your subiectes : and in 
conclusion, perpetuall ioye & eternall fehcitee. 



RICHARD GRAFTON TO THE READER, 



I must craue of the most gentle reader, charitably to iudge of me the imprinter 
of thisworke, if ought herin shalbe sene vnto the of purpose to bee omitted either 
not sufficiently delated and set furth, or elles somethyng to playnly spoken, in the 
which might be noted affeccion, that thou wilt excuse me therin, for I professe 
that I haue as nere as in me lay, nether altered nor added any thyng of my selfe 
in the whole woorke, otherwise the the aucthor writ the same. But this is to be 
noted, that the Aucthor therof, who though not to al me, yet to many very wel 
knowe, was a man in the later tyme of his lyfe not so paynfull and studious as be- 
fore he had ben : wherfore he perfited and writt this historic no farther then to the 
foure and twentie yere of kyng Henry the eight : the rest he left noted in diuers and 
many pamphletes and papers, whych so diligently- & truly as I coulde, I gathered 
the same together, & haue in suchewise compiled them, as may after thesaied yeres, 
apere in this woorke : but vtterly without any addicion of myne. Therfore my re- 
questand desyr as aforesaied,is, that thou wilt truly and charitably iudge me: And so 
sone as my leasure will serue, for thine ease & ready fyndyng of any thyng herein 
conteyned I purpose to gather an exact table of the whole woorke. 

IF The 



The names of the aucthors aswell Latin as other, out of the 
whiche this worke was first gathered, and after compiled and 
conioyned. 

LATIN AUCTHORS. FRENCHE AUCTHOR.S. 

Polichronicon. Enguerant de Munstrellet. 

Cronica Cronicarum. lean Buchet. 

/- ' -' " .' . 

Nauclerus. lean Mayer de Beiges. 

Polidorus. Argenton. 

Paulus ^Emilius. La Mere dez Histories. 

Voluteranus. Les annales de Fraunce. 

Gauguinus. Les annales de Aquitayne. 

Albertus Krantz. Les Croniq ; de Britayne. 

Michael Ricius. Giles Corozett. 

Hector Boetius. Les Croniques de Normandi. 

loannes Maior. Le Rosarie. 

Abbas Wyssenbergensis. Le genolagie des Roys 

Carion. 

Supplementum Cronicarum. 

Gesta Tholosanorum. 

Cronica Brabancie. 

ENGLISHE "WRITERS. 

Treuisa. Ihon Hardyng. 

Fabian. The Chronicles of London. 

Sir Thomas Moore. Ihon Basset. 

Caxton. Balantyne. 

And out of other diuers Pamphlettes, the names of whom are to moste menne vn- 
knowen. 



The names of the histories coteigned in this Volume. 

An introduccion into the deuision of the two houses of Lancastre and Yorke. 

i. The vnquiet tyme of kyng Hery the Fowerth. 
ii. The victorious actes of kyng Henry the v. 
iii. The troubleous season of kyng Henry the vi. 
iiii. The prosperous reigne of kyng Edward the iiij. 

v. The pitifull life of kyng Edward the v. 
vi. The tragicall doynges of kyng Richard the iij. 
vii. The politike gouernaunce of kyng Henry the vij. 
viii. The triumphant reigne of king Henry the viij. FINIS. 



1F An 



AN INTRODUCTION 



INTO THE HISTORY OF 



KYNG HENRY THE FOURTHE. 



WHAT mischiefs hath insurged in realmes by intestine deuision, wiiat depopulacion 
"Tfath ensued in countries by ciuil! discencio, what detestable murder hath been 
comitted in citees by seperate faccions, and what calamitee hath ensued in famous regios 
by domestical discord & vnnaturall controuersy : Rome hath felt, Italy can testifie, 
Fraunce can bere witnes, Beame can tell, Scotlande maie write, Denmarke can shewe, 
and especially this noble realme of Englande can apparantly declare and make demonstra^ 
ci-on. For who abhorreth not to expresse the heynousf factes comitted in Rome, by the 
ciuill war betwene Julius Cesar and hardy Popey by_j^^h^ejdisc_orde^ tJ3,e__brig]it glory of 
the triuphant Rome was eclipsed & shadowed ? $hp can reherce what mischefes and what 
plages the pleasant countree of Italy hath tasted and suffered by the sedicious faccions of 
the Guelphes and Gebelynes ? Who can reporte the misery that daiely hath ensued in 
Fraunce, by the discorde of the houses of Burgoyne and Orliens : Or in Scotland betwene 
the brother and brother, the vncle and the nephew ? \J^ic>. can curiously endite the inani- 
folde battailles that were fought in the realme of Beame, betwene the eatholikes and the 
pestiferous sectes of the Adamites and others? WJtiat damage discencion hath clooen in 

*~~*^ ^^~^ O - - i --- i i ui ay~ || ~" 

iG_ernan^^_nj^J^jirnarke, all Christians at this daie can well declare. And the Turke can 
bere good testimony, wfiiche by the discord of christen princes hath amplified greatly His , 
seigniory and dominion. yBut what miserie, what murder, end what execrable plagues this 
famous region hath suffered by the deuision and discencion of the renoumed houses of 
La.ncas.tre. and YorkeJjny witte cannot comprehende nor .my toung declare nether yet iny 
penne fully set furthe.J 

FOR what noble man liueth at this daie, or what gentleman of any auncient stocke or 
progeny is clere, whose linage hath not ben infested. and plaged with this vnnaturall dcui- 
^IPJlh-. All the other discordes, sectes and faccions almoste liuely florishe and continue al 
this presente tyme, to the greate dieplesure and prejudice of all the Christian publike welth. 
But the olde deuided controuersie betwene the fornamed families of Lacastre aild Yorke, 
by the vnion of Matrimony celebrate and consummate betwene the high and mighty Prince 
Kyng Henry the seuenth and the lady Elizabeth his moste worthy Quene, the one beeyng 
indubitate heire of the hous of Lancastre, and the other of Yorke was suspended and ap- 
palled in the person of their moste noble, puissat and mighty heire kyng Henry the eight, 
and by hym clerely buried and perpetually extinct. So that all men (more clerer then the 

B sonne) 

i 

/ 

V.. i 





8 ( AN INTRODUCCION INTO THE HISTORY OF 

sonne) male apparantly perceiue, that as by discord greate thynges decaie and fall to ruine> 
so the same by concord be reuiued and erected. In likewise also all regions whiche by 
deuisio and discencion be vexed, molested and troubled, bee by vnion and agrernent 
releued pacified and enriched. 

BY vnion of the Godhed to the manhod, manne was ioyned to God whiche before by 
the temptacion of the subtle serpente, was from hym segregate and deuided. By the vnion 
of the catholike churche and the outworne sinagoge, not only the hard ceremonies and dedly 
peines of the Mosaicall law wer clerely abholished and made frustrate, but also Christian, 
libertie is inferred and Christes religion stablished & erected. By the vnion of man & 
woman in the holy Sacrament of Matrimony the generacion is blessed, and the synne of 
the body clene extincte & put awaie. By the vnion of manage, peace betwene realme and 
realme is exalted, and loue betwene countree and countree is norished. By coniunciS of 
matrimony, malice is extinct, amitie is embraced, and indissoluble aliance and consanguinite 
is procured.^VThat profile, what comfort, what ioy succeded in the realme of England by 
the vnion of tRe fornamed two noble families, you shall apparantly perceiue by the sequele 
of thjsjiu^^iid_vj]]ejaj^e^mtory J . > Cdnd because there can be no vnion or agrement but 
in respect of a diuision, it is consequent to reso that I manifest to you not onely the 
originall cause and foutain of the same, but also declare the calamities, trebles & miseries 
whiche happened and chaunced duryng the tyrne of the said contentious discencionTj 

FOR the whiche you shall vnderstande (accordyng as it is in an Acte of Parhamente 



made in the firste yere of the reigne of Kyng Edwarde the fourthe specified and declared.) 
Ti>e lyne That the highe and mightie Prince kyng Henry the third of that name, had issue Edward 
He*ry n fh e his firste begotten sonne borne at Westminster the eleuenth Kalendes of luly in the vigile 
third. o f Saincte Marke and Marcilian in the yere of our Lorde a thousande twoo hundrd. xxix. 
And Edmonde his seconde begotten sonne borne oh the dayc of saincte Marcell in the 
yere of our Lorde a thousande twoo hundred, xlv. Whiche Edwarde after the death of 
king Henry his father, was entitled and called kyng Edward the first, and had issue his first 
begotten sonne entitled and called after the death of kyng Edward his father, kyng Edward 
the second, which had issue the right noble and honorable prince kyng Edward the third 
whiche kyng Edward had issue Edwarde his first begotten sone prince of Wales, Willya of ' 
Hatfeld the second begotten sonne, "Lionell duke of Clarence the. iij. begotten sonne, Ihon 
of Gaunt duke of Lancaster the. iiij. begotten sonne, Edmond of Langley duke of Yorke 
the.'v. begotten sonne, Thomas of Wodstocke duke of Glocestre the. vj. begotten sonne, 
and Willyam of Wynsor the. vij. begotten sonne. The saied prince Edward died in y life 
of his father kyng Edward the. iij. & had issue Richard borne at Burdeaux, whiche after the 
death of kyng Edward the. iij. as cosin and heire to hym, that is to saie sonne to the saied 
Edwarde prince of Wales sonne to the saied kyng Edward the thirde succeded hym in 
royall estate and dignitee, lawfully entitled and called kyng Richarde the seconde and died 
without issue, Lionell duke of Clarence the third begotten sonne of the saied kyng Edward 
the third, had issue Philippe his only doughter whiche was maried to Edmond Mortymer 
erle of Marche and had issue Roger Mortymer erle of Marche : whiche Roger had issue 
Edmond Mortimer erle of Marche, Anne and Elienor, whiche Edmond and Elianor died 
without issue. And the saied Anne was maried to Richard erle of Cambrige sonne to 
Edmond of Langley duke of Yorke the fifth begotten sonne of the said kyng Edwarde the 
thirde whiche Richarde had issue thee famous prince Richard Plantagenet duke of Yorke 
whiche had issue that noble prince kyng Edward the fourth father to Quene Elizabeth vnited 
in matrimony to the high and sage prince kyng Henry the. vij. 

If Ihon duke of Lancastre had issue Henry erle of Darby, and Ihon erle of Somersette. 
This Henry eile of Darby had issue, kyng Henry the fifth father to kyng Henry the sixte 
whiche begat prince Edwarde that was slayne at Tewkesbury, and diseased without issue. 
Ihon the erle of Somersette before named, sonne to Ihon duke of Lancastre, engendered 
Ihon duke of Somersette father to the lady Margarete Countes of Richemonde mother to the 

noble 



KYNG HENRY THE FOURTHE. 3 

noble and haute Prince Kyng Henry the seuenth whiche espoused lady Elizabeth the heire 
of the "lustre family of Yorke, by the whiche manage the deu.se , or badge of the hous ot 
Lan astre whiche was the redde Rose, was vnite and loyned with the white Rose whiche 
iL the cognisance and ensigne of the noble progeny ot Yorke, as by the genealogy con- 
-*eined in the ende of this woorke more plainly shall appere. 

f This aforenamed Henry erle of Darby beeyng created alitle before duke of Herfforde, 
.-anrudente and police persone, but not more politike then welbeloued and ye : not .so 
welbeloued of all, as of some highly disdayned, began to confer with bymsel how that 
kyng Richarde his eosyn germaine was now brought to that trade of liuyng that he htle or 
nothyn* regarded the counsaill of his vncles, nor of other graue and sadde persones, but 
<HdalUhyn* at his pleasure, settyng his will and appetite in stede of lawe and reason. 
wterefor y e on a daie beeyng in the compaigny of Thomas Mowbrey hrste duke of Norffolke 
and erle Marshall, beganne to breake his mynde to hym more for dolour and lamentac.on 
An for malice or displeasure, rehersyng howe that kyng Richarde htle estemed and lesse 
regarded the nobles and Princes of his realme, and as muche as laie in hym soughte occa- 
sions inuented causes and practised priuely howe to destroye the more part of the.m : to 
some thretenyng death, to other manacyng exile and banishment forgettyng and not remem- 
brvn* what blofte it was to his honor, and what detnmente and damage it was to the publike 
wealfhe to suffre his realme to lose the aunciente fame and pnstmate renoume by his 
sloutha'nd negligence, and that all thynges bothe in the tyme of peace and also of warre, 
aswellin the realme as without, waxed worsse and worsse, and had neuer prosperous 
successe nor fortunate conclusion. And because noble menue murmured, and the conion 
people grudged, and all menne wondered at his vnprincely doynges, he desired the duke of 
Noklke, whiche was one of the kynges priay counsaill and well heard with hym, to adu.se 
the kyn to turne the lefe and to take a better lesson. When the Duke of Norffolke had 
heard fully his deuise, he toke it not in good parte, but rekened y he had gotten a praie 
bv the whiche he should obtayne greater fauor of the kyng then euer he had, ano so he at 
that tyme dissimuled the matter (as he was in deede bothe a depe dissimuler and a 
pleasaunte flaterer.) And after when he had oportunite and sawe his tyme, was very glad 
fas tell tales and scicophantes bee, when thei haue any thyng to instill in to the eares and 
heddes of Princes) to declare to the kyng what he had heard, and to agrauate and make 
the offence the greater, he muche more added but nothyng diminished. 

This matter somewhat quickened and more tikeled the waueryng rayed of kyng Richard, 

.and brought hym into a great fury. But when the water of fumitory was well disgested in 

his stomacke, he determined to here bothe the parties indifferently, and called to hym the 

duke of Lancastre and his counsaill, and also the dukes of Herftorde and Norffolk, & caused 

the accuser to report opely the worries' to him declared, whiche rehersed tueim again as 

he had before related to the kyng. [When Duke Henry heard the tale otherwise reported 

then he ether thought or saied, somewhat vnquieted for the noue tie of the^thyng, or 

troubled wi7nieltor-thevntruth of the matter, stode stil & paused a good while lokyng 

5nJBay>5lhTEH^ a good corage to hym, makyng low obe.sace 

besought his highnes lo^coceiue no mistrust in" hym til he had seen & herd more. Ihen 

turnvno hymself to his accuser, declared worde by worde what he had said shewyng the 

causi & occasion why he so spake, deniyng fiersly al the other new muecions a leged & 

proponed to his charge : affirmyng y if the kyng would permit & suffre hym he would proue 

his acusor vntrue, vniust & afalse forger of lies & sedicious tales by the stroke of a spere 

& del of a swerd. The duke of Norffolke affirmed constantly his saiyng to be true & 

refused not the cobate. The kyng demaunded of them if thei would agre betwene them- 

selfes, whiche thei both denied and threw doune their gages, by my truth q the kyng, it_you 

of vourselfes will not agre I will not study how to agre you: and then he grauted the the 

battail! & assigned the place to be at the citee of Couentree in the moneth of August next 

ensuyng, where he caused a supteous theatre and listes royal gorgeously to be prepared. 



AN INTRODUCTION INTO THE HISTORY OF 

of his brother the duke of Glocestre, to spoyle and robbe the soonne of his other brother. 
For he before this tyme asmuche as his pacience could beare, did tollerate and suflfre the 
deathe of his brother, the exile of his nephiew, and an hundred mo injuries, whiche for the 
itie and youth of the kyng, he remitted and sepulted in obliuion. And therefore con- 
sidering that the glorye of the publique wealthe of his natiue countree was like to apall by 
reason that the kyng was not moste ingenious, & had no manne nere hym that would 
boldely admonishe hym of his office & duetie, thought it the acte of a wise man in tyme 
to get hym to a restyng place, and to leaue y foloyng of suche a doubtfull capitain whiche 
with a leade sworde would cut his owne throte bolle. Wherfore he with the duke of 
Aumarle his soonne went to his house at Langley reioysyng that there was nothyng in the 
common wealthe mishappened either by his deuice or concent, daiely empioryng aide of 
almightye God to deuerte from kyng Richarde the darke clowde whiche he sawe depend- 
yng ouer his hed. 

In this ceason kyng Richard sailed into Irelande as diuers authores testifie, but what he 
did there is no parte of my processe, whiche dependeth on the sequeie of this deuisio. 
While king Richard was in Irelande, the graue persones of the nobilitee, the sage prelates 
of the clergy y sad tnagestrates & rulers of the citees, tounes & commineltie perceauyng 
daily more more the realme to fall into ruyne and desolacion (in mauer irrecuperable as 
long as kyng Richard either liued or reigned,) after long deliberacion, wrote into Fraunce 
.to duke Henry, whom thei nowe called (as he was in deede) duke of Lancastre and Herf- 
ford, solicityng and requiryng hym w,ith all diligente celeritee to conueighe hym self into 
Englande, promisyng hym all their aide, power and assistence, if he expellyng kyng 
llichard as a manne not mete nor conueniente for so princely an office and degree, would 
take vpon hym the sceptre rule and diademe of his natiue countree and firste nutntiue 
soyle. And for that cause thei sente the reuerent father Thomas Arundell archebisshop 
,of Cauntorbury with certein lordes and citezens of diuerse citees and buroghes in habite 
palliate and dissimuled, into the citee of Paris, some goyng one waie and some another, but 
all assemblyng together at the house of Clugny where the duke then soiourncd. VI hen he 
sawe the archebisshop his especiall frend and looked on otlier his fautoures and lowers, if 
be thanked God, no manne oughte to maruell, if he welcommed these ambassadors no 
creature can wondre; but if he reioyced and applauded not at their accesse and commyng, 
wise menne maie thynke folie & fooles maie laugh hym to skorne. When he was of them 
saluted, and thei of hyrn not onely resaluted but heartely welcommed & frendely euter- 
teyned. The archebisshop desiryng the duke to absent all other persons than suche as 
wer his copanions, eaied these or like wordes to hymA. 

An oracion When your louyng and naturall kynsmen and patricians moste noble and mightie prince, 

ThomL y had muche and long tyme considred and debated with theiselues of their affaires and 

Arundeii busines in this tempesteous world and ceason (in the whiche no manne of our nacion is 

bishoppeof sure of his life, nor enioyeth his landes and seigniories withoute dreade nor possedeth his 

Cauntorbu- niouables without terrour or feare, whiche outragious dooynges many yeres occupied hath 

dukerf ?ry brought the publique wealthe of our aboundat countree almoste to wrecke and vtter exter- 

Laucaster. m inion) their last ankerholde refuge and conforte was to studye and inuestigate howe to 

haue a gouernour and ruler whiche should excell and florishe in wisedome, policie and 

justice aboueall other. By whiche reason a greate nombre of the nobilitee and in maner 

all the comminaltie, beyng led and persuaded (whe thei had well cast their iyes and marked 

all the peres and nobles of the realme of Englande) thei could fynde no duke, nor marques, 

no erle nor other potentate within all the realme, to whose empire and authoritye thei 

would bee subiect and vassalls so gladly as to yours. For this I assure you (and you 

knowe it aswell as I) that wee miserable subiectes haue so long borne the yoke of waton 

vnwitty kyng Richard, and haue paciently tollerate the pernicious persecucion of his gredy 

and auaricious councellers, and haue wynked at the pollyng and extorcion of his vnmeasur- 

able officiers, that oure backes bee so galde that we can- no more suifre, and our chynne 

6 bones 



KYNG HENRY THE FOURTHS. 

bones so weake that wee can no lenger cary. And thcrfore necessitee and not will, reason__ 
and not affeccion, constancy and not leuytie enforceth vs to implore and desire youre aide 
and comforte, to whom wee bee sent by the moste part of the nobilitee and also of the 
more parte of the vniuersall comminaltie, to desire and require you to take vpon you the 
high power, gouernaunce and sceptre of your natiue countree and paternall inheritaunce, 
and the same to gouerne, rule and defende accordyng to your approued wisedome and long 
experimeted pollecie, whom wee haue euer knowen to bee of that Justice, of that prudence 
and of that integritee that you will commaunde, admonishe or attempt eny thyng whiche 
shall not bee iust, honest and laudable. Whiche request if you well considre and diligently 
pondre preuely with yourself, you shall facilye perceaue that nothyng more profitable, more 
honest, or more glorious can by eny waies happen or chaunce to you then to accepte and 
concorde to the same. For what can you more expecte and wishe, then to commaude and 
dooe all thynges accordyng to right, reason and honestie ? Wee offre not to you golde, 
siluer, perle or precious stone, but p_ur countree, qur bodies, goodes and vs all to vse as 
youres and not as cures, desiryng you to geue to vs in recompence, indifferecy quietnes 
and peace, and to restore to her seate and trone again, the lady iustice, whiche hath so long 
been banished out of our nacion, to thentent that wise, sage and good persones (whose 
desire and appetite is euer to Hue well) maie honour, loue and embrace you as a gouernour 
and kyng sent from God, and that malicious and obstinate persones (whose conscience is 
grudged with daily offences, and whom the feare of iustice and ponishement dooth continu- 
ally vexe and perturbe, fearyng you as the skourge and plague of their facinorus dooynges 
and mischeueous actes) maie either sone amende, or shortely auoyde your countree and 
region. Nowe occacion is offred, refuse it not, by the whiche your wisedome, pollecie and 
valiantnes shall apere to the vniuersall worlde, by the whiche you shall not onely bryng vs 
into an vnitie and monacord, but also represse all sedicion and cancard dissimulacion : then 
the noble men shall triumphe, the riche men shall liue without feare, the poore and nedy 
persones shall not bee oppressed nor confounded, and you for your so doyng, shall obtein 
thankes of your creatour, loue of your people, fauour of your neighboures, fame and 
honoure sempiternall. _TWhe the bishop had ended, the duke pawsed awhile, and then put 
of his hood and saiedT] 

My lorde of Cauntourbury and you my other frendes and louers, your commyng to vs Theau 
is verie pleasaunt, but more ioyous is your message, for wee of our owne naturall disposi- 
cion for the good will and synguler aft'eccion that you haue euer borne to vs, haue loued, 
embraced and highly estemed you and all your dooynges. Surely we would you knewe ^n,n 
with what sorowe and agony of mynde wee haue borne your vexacions, calamities and Wfho 
oppressions (as for the manifest iniuries and opprobrious offences dooen and committed C " torbur 3'- 
against vs as you knowe well inough, wee wolle not speake at this tyme) of the whiche wee 
estemed oure selfe a partener, as a thyng common betwene vs. TTor as it is heard that 
the hed shall not feele when the hand or eny other meinbre is greued or sickeA so it is 
vnlike that eny displeasure or discommoditee should happen to you with whiche wee 
should not taste in parte, suche vicinetie is emong membres, and suche communitie is 
emong frendes. tJVherfore, neither for atnbicion of worldly honour, nor for desire oF 
Empire or rule, or for affeccion of worldly riches and mucke of the worlde, we wolle agree 
to your peticio, but onely to relieue your miserable calamitie, to restore iustice to her 
auncient rome & preheminence, & to defend the poore innocet people from the extorte 
powre of the gredy cormerates & rauenous oppressours, requiryng you to ioyne with vs & 
we with you in aduaucyng forward this our incepted purpose & pretesed entrepricel 

When the duke was condiscended to the bishoppes request, the bisshop and his complices 
departed into Englande, makyng relacion to their confederates of the dukes agremet and 
pleasure, exhortyng euery manne to be prest and ready at his arryuall. 

After their departure, the duke fayned to the Frenche kyng that he would go into 
Brytein to visite his frende duke Ihon of Brytein. The Frenche kyng tbynkyng him to 

meane 



AN 1NTUODUCCION INTO THE HISTORY OF 

meane inwardly as he outwardly dissimuled, -sent' to the duke of Brytein letters of com- 
niendacion in fauour of the duke of Lancastre. But if he had knowcn that his entent was 
to transfret -into Englande and depose his soonne in lawe kynjg Richard, he would surelj 
haue stopped hym a .ty.de, and let his purpose and passage. ' What should I_jJaie ? tliat 
-aJialbe. The duke passed into Brytein and there condu^e3~~anch'wagcd 



certeync menne of warre and shippes, and with good wynde and better spede sailed in to 
Englad and landed at Rauespurre in holdrenes as moste wryters affirme. But some sale 
that he landed at Plynimoth, and other at Portesmouth, but where soeuer he^arryued, sure 



it is that he tooke lande peaceably without any againsaie or interrupcion. (I will not bee 
tedyous to you in rehersy tig 'howe the erles of Northumbrelande and Westmerlancfe, ~fKe 
lordes Percy, Rose, Willoughby and other resorted 'to hym, and'taking an othe of hym that 
he should not dooe to kyng Richard any bodelye harme, and made to hym homage and 
became his liege men. I omit howe children applauded, howe wemen reioyced, and howe 
inenne cryed oute for ioye in euery toune and village where he passed. I j^limjuishe 
farther the concourse of people, the number ' of horses, whiche occurred to hym as he 
journeyed toward London, reioysyng at his repaire and commyng to the Citie. Ijviljiot 
speake of the procession and singing of the Cleargie, nor of the pleasant salutacibns nor 
eloquent oracions made to hym by the Prelacie, nor of the presentes, welcomynges, laudes, 
gratificacions made to hym by the citiesens and comminaltee of the citie of London, but I 
wil go to the purpose. Whe he was come to London he consulted with -his frendes diuers 

v _dayes, to whome came Thomas Earle of Arundell sone to Richard of ArundelLby kyng 
Richard a litell afore put to deathe, whiche had lately escaped out of prison. /When the 
Duke had perceaued the fauour of the \$6bilitie, the affection of the Cleargie and the 
sincere loue of the comminalte toward e hyrh and his procedynges, he marched foreward 
with a greate company toward the West coflntrey, and in passyng by the waie, the people 
assembled in great and houge multitudes^as the nature of the common people is, euer 
desirous of newe Changes) callyng him their UVng, deprauyng and railyng on kyug Richard, 
as an innocent a dastarde, a meicocke and n6pworthy to'beare the name of a kyng. When 
he had assembled together a conuenient nomber of people for his purpose and was clerely 
determyned to depose kynge Rycharde from his rule and dignitie, he proclaimed open 
warre agaynst hym and all his partakers fautours and frendes. 'Kyng Richarde toeyng in 
Irelande was certified of the Dukes arriuall, from whence (when he had pacified the 
sauage and wilde people) he retourned agayne into England, entending to resiste and 
defend the eminent peril and apparant ieopardy, and for the more tuicio and safegard 
entred into the strong caste! of Flinte in North Wales, x. myles distaunt from Chester. J 

en kyng Richard perceued that the people by plumpes fled from him to Duke Henry, 
he was amased and doubted what councell sodeinlie to take, far on the one part he sawe his 
title iust, trewe, and vnfallible, and beside that he had no small truste in the Wfclshemen, 
his conscience to be cleane rjm-e imjcaajjulate without spot or enuy : on the other side, he 
sawe the puissaunce^of~his aduersaries, the soda!*) departyng of them that he niooste 
trusted, and all thynges turned vpsydoune, with thAr^binges he beyng more abashed then 
encouraged, compelled by necessitie, determined tcMyfoe hym selfe in that castell till he 
xnyghte see the worlde stable and in more suretieT""fFor nowe he euidentely espied and 
manifestly perceaued that he was lefte, lowted and forsaken of theym by whom in tyme he 
myght haue bene ayded and relieu-ed, and whiche nowe was to late and to farre ouerpassed : 
and this thing is worthy to be noted with a whitestone, of al princes rulers and men set in 
auctoritee and rule, that this Duke Henry of Lancastre shoulde be thus called to the 
kyngdome and haue the healpe and assistence all most of all the whole realme, whiche 
perchaunce neuer thereof once thoughte or yet dreamed : and that kyng Richard shuld thus 
be lefte desolate void and desperate of all hope and comforte, in whom if there were any 

^offence, it ought more to be imputed 'to the frailtee of his wanton youth then to the ma'lice 
of his heart or cankerdnesse of his stomacke, but suQhe is the frayle iudgement of mortall 

men 



KYNG HENRY THE FOURTHE. 9 

men whiche vilcpendyng and not regardyng thynges presente before their eies, do euer 
tliincke all thynges that are to come to haue a prosjper^nsjaccejsejuida jlelectablesec[uejen 
When the Duke of Lancastre knewe that king Riclia7def"was coime~to the~castel oTFlinte, 
whiche a man maye call the dolorous Castell, because there king Richarde declined from 
his dignitie and lost the tipe of his glorie and preheminence, he assembled together a great 
armie in small space lest he myght geue his .enemies time- to preuent his purpose and so to 
lose the good occasion of victory to him geuen, came to the towne of Bristowe where he ^ ' 
apprehended Willyam lord Scrope the kinges treasurer sir Iho Busshe and sir Henri Grene 
knyghtes, and caused their heddes to be striken of, and from thence toke his iourneie directly 
to Chester. When Thomas Percy Earle of Worceter and great Master or lord Stuard of 
the kynges houshold beyng brother to the Earle of Northumberland hard tell of the dukes 
approch, bering displeasure to the king because he had proclaimed his brother a trailer, 
brake before al the kinges houshold his white staffe, which is the ensigne and token of his 
office and without delay went to duke Henry. Whe the kinges familier seruitours per- 
ceiued this, they dispersed them selfes some into one countrey and some into another. 

If The Duke came toward the castell of Flinte wherof king Richard beyng aduertised by 
councell of Ihon Pallet and Richarde Seimer his assured seruauntes departed out of 'the 
castell and toke the sandes by the ryuer of Dee trusting to escape to Chester and there to 
haue refuge and succoure, but or he had farre passed he was forelayed and taken and 
brought to the Duke, which sent hym secretly to the Towre of "London. When the Duke 
had thus possessed his longe desyred praye, he came to London in solempne estate and there 
called a Parliament in the kynges name, to the whiche many of the kynges frendes, but more 
of his there appeared. There was declared howe vnprofitable kyng Richarde had bene to 
the realme duryng his reigne, howe he subuerted the lawes, polled the people and ministred 
Justice to no man but to suche as pleased hym. And to the entent that the commons should 
bee perswaded that he was an vniust and vnprofitable Prince and a tiraunte ouer his sub- 
iectes, and worthy to bee deposed. There were set forthe. xxxv. solempne articles very 
heynous to the eares of men, and to some almost vncredible : The very effecte of whiche 
articles I will truely reporte hereafter accordyng to my copie. 

^[ Fyrst that kyng Richard wastfully spent the treasure of the realme and had geuen the \\ 
possessions of the Croune to men unworthy, by reason wherof daily newe charges more and 
more were layd in the neckes of the poore comminaltie. And where diuerse lordes as well 
spiritual as temporall, were appointed by the highe court of Parliament to comonand treate 
of diuers matters concernyng the common wealth of the same, which beyng busie about the 
same commission, he with other of his affinitie went about to empeach of treson, and by 3. 
force and menace compelled the Justices of the realme at Shrewsburie to condiscend to his 
opinion, for the destruction of the said Lordes: in so muche that he began to reise war 3. 
against Ihon duke of Lancastre, Thomas Erie of Arundell, Richarde Erie of Wanricke, and 
other lordes contrary to his honour and promyse. 

If Item that he caused his vncle the Duke of Glocester to be arrested without lawe, and 4. 
sent him to Caleis, and there without iudgemente murdered hym. And although the Erie 
of Arundell vpon his arainement pleaded his charter of pardon, he could not be heard, but 
was in most vile and shamefull maner sodainly put to death. 

^[ Item he assembled certain Lancashire and Cheshire men to the entent to make warre 5. 
on the foresaid Lordes, and suffered them to robbe and pill without correction or reprefe. 

If Item although the king flateringly and with great dissimulacion made proclamacion 6. 
throughout the realme, that the lordes before named were not attached for any crime of 
treason, but onely for extorcions and oppressions done in this realme, yet he laied to theym 
in the parliament, rebellion and manifest treason. 

If Item he hath compelled diuers of the saied lordes seruauntes and frendes by menace & 7. 
extreme paimentes, to make great fines to theyr vtter vndoyng. And notwithstandyng his 
pardon to theim graunted yet he made them fine of newe. 

C Item 



10 AN INTRODUCCION INTO THE HISTORY OF 

8. If Item where diners were appointed to common of the estate of the realme, and the com- 
, mon welthe of the same. The same king caused al the rolles and recordes to be kept from 

them, contrary to his promise made in the parliament, to his open dishonour. 

9. 1f Item he vncharitably comaunded that no man vpon paine of losse of life and goodes 
should once entreate him for the retourne of Henry nowe duke of Lancastre. 

10. H Item where this realme is holden of God, and not of the Pope or other prince, the 
said kyng Richard after he had obteined diuers actes of parliament for his owne peculiar 
profile and pleasure, then he obteined Dulles and extreme censures from Rome, to compell 
al menne straightcly to kepe the same, contrary to the honour and auncient priuileges of 
this realme. 

11. If Item although the duke of Lancastre had done his deuoir against Thomas duke of Nor- 
ffolke in profe of his quarel, yet the saied kyng without reason or ground banished him the 
realme for ten yeres contrary to all equitee. 

12. If Item before the dukes departure, he vnder his brode scale licenced him to makeattour- 
neis to prosecute and defend his causes: The saied kyng after his departure wold suffre none 
attourney to apere for him but did with his at his pleasure. 

13. If Item the same kyng put oute diuers shriues lavvefully elected and put in their romes, 
diuers other of his owne minions subuertyng the lawe contrary to his othe and honour. 

14. f Item he borowed great somes of money, and bound him vnder his letters pattentes for 
the repaimet of the same, & yet not one peny paid. 

15. If Ite he taxed men at the wil of him & his vnhappy councel, & the same treasure spentin 
folie, not paiyng pore men for their vitail & viande. 

16. ^f Item he said that the lawes of the realme were in his head, and som time in his brest, by 
reason of whiche fantasticall opinion, he destroied noble men and empouerished the pore 
commons. 

17. *fj Item the parliament settyng and enacting diuers notable statutes for the profile and ad- 
uauncemenl of the common welth, he by his priuie frendes and soliciters caused to be enacted 
that no acte then enacted shuld be more pieiudiciall to him than it was to any of his pre- 
decessors, through whiche Prouiso he did often as he liste and not as the lawe ment. 

jg. If Ite for to serue his purpose he wold suffer the Shrefes of the shire to remaine aboue 

one yere or two. 
]<)_ ^ Item at the sommons of the parliament when knightes and burgesses should be electc 

that the election had bene full proceded, he put out diners persones elected, and put in 

other in their places to serue his wyll and appetite, 
go. If Item he had priuie espialles in every shire, to here who had of him any communica- 

cion, and if he commoned of his lasciuious liuyng or outragious doyng, he streighte waies 

was apprehended and made a greuous fine, 

21. ^[ Item the spiritualtie alledged againste hym that he at his goyng into Ireland exacted 
many notable somes of money, beside plate & iuels, without law or custome, contrary 
to his oth take at his coronacio. 

22. f I tem when diuers lordes and Justices were sworne to say the truthe of diuers 
thinges to them committed in charge both for the honor of the realme and profile of 
the kyng, the said kyng so menaced theym with sore thretenyngcs, that no man wold or 
dursle sale the ryght. 

23. f Item that with out the assent of the nobilitee, he caried the iewels and plate and 
treasure ouer the see into Irelande, to the great empouerishyng of the realme. And al 
the good recordes for the comon welthe and against hie extorcions, he caused priuely to be 
embesiled and conueied away. 

34.. H Item in all leages and letters to bee concluded or sent to the see of Rome or other 
regions : His writyng was so subtill and so darke, that no other prince durst once beleue 
him, nor yet his owne subiectes. 

K Item 



A 
KYNG HENRY THE FOURTHE. 

f Item he mooste tirannously and vnprinccly said that the Hues and goodes of al his 25. 
subiectes were in the princes bads & at his disposicio. 

>fl Item that he contrary to the great Charter of England caused dyucrs lustie men to 26. 
appele diuers olde men, vpon matters determinable at the common law, in the court -martial, 
because that in that court is no triall br.t onely by battaile : Whervpon the said aged per- 
sonnes fearyng the sequele of the matter submitted theym selfes to his mercy whom lie fined 
and raunsomed vnreasonably at his pleasure. 

5f Item he craftely deuised certain priuie othes contrary to the lawe, & caused diuers of 27. 
his subiectes first to be sworne to obserue the same and after bounde them in bondes for 
former keping of the same, to the great vndoyng of many honest men. 

f Item where the Chauncellour accordyng to the lawe woulde in no wise graunt a 28. 
prohibition to a certain person : the king graunted it vnto the same person vnder his priuie 
scale with greate thretnyngcs if it shuld be disobeied. 

f Item he banyshed the l>ishop of Canterbury without cause or iudgement and kept him 29.. 
in the parliament chamber with men of Armes. 

^f Item the bishops goodes he graunted to his successour vpon condition that he shuld 30. 
mainteine al his statutes made at Shrewsburie, Anno. xxi. and the statutes made. Anno, 
icxii. at Couentree. 

f Item vpon the accusation of the Archbishop, the king ceaftely perswaded the saied 31. 
byshop to make no answere, for he would be his warrant, and aduised him not to come to 
the parliament. And so withoute answere he was condemned and exiled, and his goodes 
seazed. 

These bee the articles of any effecte whiche were laied against him, sauyng fowre concern- 
~yng the bishoppe of Caunterbury, whiche onely touched hi, but his workyng vnwrought king 
Richard fro his croiie. 

AND for as much as these articles, and other heinous and detestable accusations were 
laied against him in the open parliamentjTn was thought by the most parte that kyng Richard 
was worthy to be deposed of al honor, rule and Pryncely gouernanceTj And instruments 
..autentike and solempne to depose, and other instrumentes were madeTo certain persons for 
them, and all homagers of the realme to resigne to hym all the homages and fealties dewe 
to him as kyng & soueraigne. 

But or this deposition was executed in tyme, he came to Westminster and called a great 
councell of all the nobilitie and commons to the entente to conclude and make expedition 
of all thynges whiche before were purposed and set forward. 

If In the meane season diuerse of king Richardes seruauntes which by licence had accesse 
to his person, comforted, animated and encouraged him beyng for sorowe withered, broken 
and in maner halfe deade, aduertisyng and exhortyng him to regard his welthe and to saue 
his lyfe. And firste they aduised him willyngly to suffer him self to be deposed bothe of 
his dignitie, & dcpriued of his riches: so that the duke of Lancastre might without murdre 
or battail obteine the scepter and Diademe, after the whiche they well percciued he gaped 
and thrubted by the mene wherof they thought he shuld be in perh't assurance of his life 
long to continue, & therfore might commit him selfe to good hope, which is the best felowe 
& companio that a man in aduersitie can associat or ioyne him self withal. FSurely this 
councel was both good and honeste in so great an extremitie, but yet the full effect folowed 
not as the sequele of the thyng sheweth and apparantely declarethT^f What profite, what 
honoure, what suretie had it bene to kyng Richarde, if he when he myght, whiche professed 
the name and title of a kyng, whiche is as much to saie, the ruler or keper of people, had 
excogitate or remebrcd to haue bene a keper of his owne hedde and lyfe, whiche nowe be- 
yng forsaken, reiect and abandoned of al such as he, being an euil sheperd or herdeman, 
before time did not plie, kepe and diligently ouerse was easily reduced and brought into the 
hades of his enemies. Nowe it was no mastery to perswade a man beyng desperate pensife 
and ful of dolour, to abdicate him selfe from his empire and imperiall preheminence : so that 

C 2 in 



12 AN INTRODUCCION INTO THE HISTORY OF 

in onlie hope of his life and sauegard, he agreed to al thynges that of hym were demanded, 
and desired his kepers to shewe and declare to the duke, that if he wold vouchsafe to accord 
and cotne to hym, he wolde declare secretely thynges to hyrn both profitable and pleasant. 
His kepers sent word of all his saiynges to the duke, whiche incontinent repaired to his cham- 
ber. There kyng Richard comoned with him of many thingcs, and amongest all other affirmed 
those accusacions to be to muche trewe whiche the cornminaltie of the realme allcdged 
against him : that is to say, that he had euel gonerned his dominion and kingdome, and 
therfore he desyred to be disburdened of so great a charge and so heauy a burdein, besech- 
yng the Duke to grant to him the safegarde of his lyfe, and to haue compassion of hym, 
nowe as he before that time had bene to him bountifull and magnificent. 

^f The duke biddyng him to be of good comfort and out of fear warranted him his lyfe, so 
that he wold resigne to him his scepter croune & dignitie : also nether to procure nor consent 
to any thyng or act whiche myght be hurtfuil or preiudiciall to his person or succession, to 
the whiche demaundes he graunted and frely condiscended and agreed. 

THE Duke of Lancastre the nexte daie declared al kyng Richardes hole mind to the 
coucel, but especially to his vncle Edmunde duke of Yorke (whose helpe he much vsed) 
whiche hearyng al thynges to be in a broyle, a fewe daies before was come to London. The 
nobles and commons were well pleased that kyng Richard shoulde frankely and frely of his 
owne mere mocion, whiche they much desired (lest it shuld he noysed and reported that 
he therevnto were inforced and by violence constrained) resigne his croune and depart from 
his regalitee. < 

Not long after he caused a great assemble to be apointed at the Towre of London, where 
kyng Richard appareled in vesture and robe royall the diademe on his head, & the scepter 
in his hand, came personally before the cogregacion and said these wordts in eftecte. I 
Richard king of England Duke of Fraunce, Aquitaine, and Lorde of Ireland, cont'essc and 
say before you my lordes and other our subiectes, that by the hole space of. xxii. yere in the 
whiche 1 haue obteined and possessed the rule and regiment of this famous realme of Eng- 
land, partely ruled and misauised by the euell & sinister councell of peruerse & flatteryng 
persons : and partely led by the frailtie of young waueryng and wanton youth, and with 
delectacion of worldly and volupteous appetite, haue omitted and not executed my royall 
office and bounden dutie accordyng as I oughte to haue dooen, in ministeryng iustice and 
prefermente of the comon wealthe, whiche negligence I more than any of you as I thynke 
my selfe, doo sore repente and bewayle, and specially because I am brought to this poyncte, 
that I knowledge and confesse my self, not worthy longer to reigne nor to haue any farther 
rile. So that now I can nother amende my misdedees, nor correcte my offences whiche suerly 
I entended to dooe, and especially in my olde age, in the whiche euill thynges be accustomed to 
be amended, and the fautes and offences of youth, to be corrected and reformed. For what 
young man comonly can be founde indued with so muche vertue and so good qualities, whiche 
agitate & pricked with the heate of youth, shall not turne and decline from the right pathe 
and direct waie, and yet when he cometh to the more ripenes of yeres and greate grauitie, 
doth not amend and change into better his olde errates and wanton actes, for experience 
teacheth, that of a rugged colte, commeth a good horse, and of a shreude boye, proueth a 
good man. But sithe Fortune doth not permit and suffre me so to do, to thentent that the 
publike welth of this realme maie bee holpen and auansed by my rneane, and after this not 
like again to declyne and decaye. And to the intent that it shall bee lefull to you, to elect 
and chose my cosyn germayne, Henry duke of Lancastre, a man mete for a realme, and a 
prince apt for a kyngdom, to your kyng and souereigne lorde. I of my owne mere mocion 
and frewill, do putte and depose my self out of all royall dignitie, preheminence and softerai- 
gnitee, and resign the possession, title and vse of this realme, with all rightes there vnto 
apperteigyng, into his handes and possession. And then with a lajnj;njteble_voyce and 
a sorowfull countenance, deliuered his sceptre and croune to the duke of Ltmcastre, 
requiryng euery persone seuerally by their names, to graunte and assente that he might 

Hue 



KYNG HENRY THE. IIIJ. 

Hue a priuate and a solitarie life, with the swetnesse whereof, he would be so well pleased, 
that it should be a paine and punishement to hyin to go abrode, and deliuered all the 

' goodes that he had, to the some of three hundred thousande pounde in coyne, beside plate 
and iuels, as a pledge and satisfaccion, for the iniuries and wronges by hyra committed and 
dooen. But what soeuer was promised, he was disceiued. For shortly after his resigna- 

-cion he was conueighed to the castell of Ledes in Kent, & from thence to Poumffret wher 
be departed out of this miserable life, as you shall heare herafter. 



f THE VNQUIETE TYME OF KYNG HENRY 

THE FOURTHS, 



WHEN the fame was dispersed abrode that Kyng Rycharde had putte hymselfc from The - 1 -y* re< 
his dignitee royall, and resigned his scepter and diademe imperiall, Henry Planta- 
genet borne at Bolyngbroke in the Countie of Lyncolne, duke of Lancastre and Hertford 
erle of Derby, Lecester and Lyncolne sonne to Ihon of Gaunt duke of Lancastre, with 
one voyce bothe of the nobles and comons, was published, proclaymed & declared kyng of 
England and of Fraunce, and lorde of Irelade, and on the daie of saincte Edward the con- 
fessor, was at Westminster with great solemnitee and royal pompe, sacred, enoynted and 
crouned king by the name of kyng Henry the fourth. ' But who so euer reioysed at this 
coronacion, or whosoeuer delighted at his high promocio, suer it is that Edmond Mortimer 
erle of Marche whiche was heire to Lionell duke of Clarence, the thirde begotten sonue of 
kyng Edwavde the third as you before haue heard, and Richard erle of Cabrige the sonne 
to Edmond duke of Yorke, whiche had maried Anne sister to the same Edmonde, wer 
with these doynges neither pleased nor contente. In so muche that nowe the diuisio once 
beyng begon, the one linage persecuted the other, and neuer ceased till the heircs males 
of bothe the lines wer by battaill murdered or by sedicion clerely extincte and destroyed. 

At the daie of the coronacion, to thentent that he should not seme to take vpon hym the 
croune and scepter royall without title or lawfull clayme but by extorte power and iniurious 
intrusion, he was aduised to make his title as heire to Edmonde, surnamed or vntruly fayncd 
Crouchcbacke, sonne to kyng Henry the third, and to saie that the said Edmon4was elder 
brother to kyng Edward the first, and for his dcformitee repudiat and put by from the 
croune royalf to whom by his mother Blanche doughter and sole heire to Henry duke of 
Lancastre, he was next of bloud and vndoubtfull heire. But because not onely his fredes 
but also his priuy enemies knewe, that was hut a title and that this title was by inuentors 
of mischief fayncd, imagened & published and wer surely enformed not only that the said 
Edmond was younger sonne to kyng Henry the third accordyng as it is declared in the act 
of Parliament before recited. Also hauyng true knowledge that Edinod was nether Croke- 
backed nor a deformed persone, but a goodly gentil man and a valiante capitain, and 
so muche fauored of his louyng father, that he to preferre hym to the manage of the Qliene 
dowager of Nauerne hauyng a greate liuelode, gaue to hym the countie paliityne of Lan- 
castre with many notable honours, high seigniories and large priuileges. Therefore thei 

2 aduised. 



14 THE FIRSTE YERE OF 

aduiscd hym to make some other clayme to the 'newe obteined regiment, and so caused it 
to be proclaimed and published that he chalenged the realme not onely by conquest, but also 
-because he was by kyng Richard adopted as heire, & declared successor & of hym by re- 
signacion had accepted the croune and scepter, & also that he was the next heire male of 
the bloud royall to kyng Richard. 

After that he was crouned, he created his eldest sonne lorde Henry, Prince of Wales, 
duke of Cornwale, and erle of Chester, then beeyng of the age of. xij. yeres. This solenite 
finished, he called his high court of parliament, in the whiche it was demaunded by the 
.kynges frendes what should be doen with kyng Richard. The bishop of Carleile whiche 
was a man both wel lerned & well stomacked rose vp and said. My lordes I require you 
take hede what answere you make to this question. For I thynke there is none of you 
worthy or rnete to geue iudgemente on so noble a Prince as kyng Richard is, whom we haue 
taken for our souereigne and leige lorde by the space of. xxij. yeres, and I assure you, there 
is not so ranke a tray tor, nor so arrante a thiefe, nor so cruell a murderer, \\hiche is appre- 
hended and deteigned in prisone for his offence, but he shall bee brought before the iustice to 
heare his iudgemente, and yet you will proceade to the iudgemente of an anoynted kyng, and 
here nother his answere nor excuse. And I saie that the duke of Lancastre whom you call 
kyng, hath more offended & more trespassed to kyng Richard and this realme, then the 
kyng hath other doen to hym or to vs. For it is manifestly knowen that the duke was 
banished the realme by kyng Richard and his counsaill, and by the iudgemente of his owne 
father, for the space of tenne yeres, for what cause all you knowe, and yet without license of 
Kyng Richarde he is returned again into the realme, ye and that is worse, hath taken vpon 
hym the name, title and prehemience of a kyng. And therefore I say and affirme that you 
do apparently wrong, and manifest iniury to precede in any thy ng against kyng Richard, 
without callyng him opely to his answer and defence. When the bishop had ended, he 
was incontinent by therle Marshall attached & committed to ward in the Abbey of. S. 
Al bones. 

5f And then it was concluded, that kyng Richard should continew in a large prisone, and 
should bee plentifully serued of all thynges necessarie bothe for viande and apparell, and 
that if any personcs would presume to rere warre or congregate a multitude to releue or 
tleliuer hym out of prisone, that then he should bee the first that should dye for that sedici- 
ous commocion. In this Parliamente the Lorde Fitzwater appeled the duke of Aumarle of 
high treason, and offered to fight with hym in listes royall. Likewise the lorde Morley 
uppeled therle of Salisbury, and there were more then. xx. appellantes which waged battaill 
in this parliamente. But the kyng pardoned all their offences sauyng the fautes of the lorde 
Morley and therle of Salisbury, whom he comitted to ward, and after at the request of their 
fredes, their offences wer remitted & thei deliuered. He punished also extremely all suche 
as were priuie and dooers of the homecide of Thomas his vncle late duke of Glocester, 
whiche was shamefully murdered before in y toune of Caleis. Besides this, he auansed his 
frendes, and called out of exile Richard erle of Warwike, and restored the exile of Arun- 
delles sonne to his owne possession and dignite, and many other. He toke into his speciall 
fauor Ihon Hollande duke of Exceter and erle of Huntyngdone halfe brother to king Rich- 
ard, whiche had espoused the lady Elizabeth his owne sister. And beeyng before capitain 
of Caleis, greatly moued and inwardly greued that Kyng Richarde his brother was amoued 
out of the seate royall, began to reyse and stirre vp newe mocions and sedicious faccions 
within the realme. Werfo^e to aduoyde suche pestiferus dangers, the newe kyng recociled 
hym to .his fauor, and made hym as he surely conjectured his perfite frende, where in 
deede he was inwardly his dedly enemie. In this parliament wer adnichilate al the actes 
passed in the parliament holden by kyng Richard in the. xxj. yere of his reigne, whiche 
was called the euill parliament for the nobilitee, the worse for the menaltie, but worste of all 
for the c5manaltee. JFor in that parliament, will ruled for reason, men aliue were con- 
demned without examinacion, men dedde and put to execucid by priuy murder wer 
adiudged openly to die, the hie prelate of the realme without answere was banished : 

6 An 



KYNG HENRY THE. IIIJ. 15 

An erle arraigned could not be suffered to plede hs pardon, and consequently one 
counsailer did al thyng, and all counsailers did nothyng, affirmyng the saiyng of Esope, 
whiche hearyng his feloe to saie that he could do all thynges, saied he could do nothyng. 
When he had thus reconciled his nobilite, and gat the fauor of the spiritualte and wonder- 
fully pleased the comonaltee, but not so muche pleasyng .them, as the possessyng of the 
croune pleased hymself and his frendes, he of them and by the fauor of them bothe, for 
the auoydance of al claimes, titles and ambiguitees to be made vnto the croune and diademe 
of the realme had his dignitee ligne and succession enacted, confirmed and entayled by the 
assent of the high courte of Parliamente as foloweth worde by worde. 

" At the request and peticion aswell of the nobilitie as of the comons in this parliamente 
assembled, it is ordaigned and established that the enheritance of the crounes and realmes 
of Englande and of Fraunce, and of all other lordshippes to the kyng. our souereigne lorde, 
aswel on this side the seas as beyond apperteignyng with their appurtenaces, shall bee vnited . 
and remain in the persone of our souereigne lorde the kyng, and in the heires of his body 
lawfully begotten. And especially at the request and assent aforsaid, it is ordeigned, estab- 
lished, pronounced, enacted, writen and declared, that my lorde Prince, Henry eldest sonne 
to our soueraigne lorde the kyng, shall bee heire apparante and successor to our saied 
souereigne lorde in the said croune, realmes seigniories, to haue enioy them with al 
their appurtenaunces after the discease of our saied soueraigne to hym and the heires of his 
body begotten. And if he die without heires of his body begotte, that then the saied 
crounes, realmes and seigniories with their appurtenances shal remain to the lorde Thomas, 
secod sonne to our said soueraigne lorde and to the heires of his body begotten, .and if he 
departe without issue of his body begotten, all the premisses to remaigne to lorde Ihon his 
third sonne and to the heires of his body begotten. And if he dye without issue, then the 
crounes, realmes, seigniories aforesaied with their appurtenances shal remain to the 
loi de Humfrey the. iiij. sonne to our said souereigne lorde, and to the heires of his body 
lawfully begotten." 

After whiche acte passed, he thought neuer to bee by any of his subiectes molested ori 
troubled. But O Lord, what is the mutabilitee of fortune ? O God what is the chaunge 
of worldely safetie ? O Christe what stablenes consisteth in mannes prouision ? Or what 
ferine suerty hath a prince in his throne and degree ? Considryng this kyng hauyng the 
possession of the croune and realme, and that in open parliament, agreed to by the princes, 
concliscended to by the Clerkes, ratified by the commons, and enacted by the three estates 
of the reaune, was when he thought hymself surely mortised in a ferme rocke immouable 
foundacion, sodainly with a trimbelyng quickesande vnstedfast grounde like to haue sonke 
or been ouerlhrowen. For diuerse lordes whiche wer kyng Richardes frendes, outwardly 
dissiivuled that whiche thei inwardly conspired and determined, to confounde this kyng 
Henry to whom thei had bothe sworne allegance and doen homage, and to erect again and 
set vp their old lorde and frend kyng Richard the second. 

In this case there lacked only an orgaine and conueighance bothe how secretly to serche 
and knowe the myndes of the nobilitee, as all so to bryng them to an assemble and counsail, 
where thei might consult and comen'together, how to bryng to efficacite and effect, their 
long desired purpose and secrete enterprise. fSeJioJK-thgjhe deuill is as ready to set furth 
mischief, as the good angell is to auance vertuej At this time was an Abbot in Westminster, 
a man of aparant vertues. professyng openly Christ, Christian Charitee, and due subieccion 
and obeisance to his prince : whiche Abbot hearyng kyng Henry once saie when he was but 
erle of Darby and of no mature age or growen grauitee, that princes hud to litle, and 
religeons had to muche, imagined in hymself that he now obteinyng the cronne of the 
realme, if he wer therin a long continuer, would remoue the greate beame.that then greued 
his iyes and pricked his conscience. For you muste vnderstande that these monasticall per- 
sones, lerned and vnliterate, better fed then taught, toke on the to write regester in the 
boke of fame, the noble actes, the wise dooynges, and politike gouernances of kynges and { 

princes 



f 



THE FIRSTE YERE OF 

princes, in whiche cronographie, if a kyng gaue to them possessions or grauntcd them 
liberties or exalted them to honor & worldly dignitee, he was called a sainct he was praised 
without any deserte aboue the Moone, his geanelogie was written, and not one iote that 
might exalt his fame, was ether forgotten or omitted. But if a Christian prince had touched 
their liberties or claimed any part Justly of their possessions, or would babe intermitted in 
their holy francheses, or desired aide of the against his and their comon enemies. Then 
tonges talked and pennes wrote, that he was a tirant, a depresser of holy religion, an enemie 
to Christes Churche and his holy flocke, and a damned and accursed persone with Dathan 
and Abiron to the dope, pitte of helle. Wherof the prouerbe bega, geue and be blessed, 
take awaie and bee accursed. Thus the feare of lesyng their possessions, made them pay 
ycrely annates to the Romish bishop: thus the feare of correccion and honest restraint of 
libertee, made them from their ordinaries, yea almoste from obedience of their princes to sue 
dispensacions, exempcions and immunitees. 

THIS Abbot that I spake of whiche could not well forgette the saiyng of kyng Henry, 
and beyng before in greate fauor and high estimacion with kyng Richard called to his hous 
n a daie in the terme season al suche lordes & other persones whiche he ether knewe or 
thought to be as affeccionate to kyng Richarde, and enuious to the estate and auancement 
of kyng Henry, whose names wer, Ihon Hollande duke of Exceter and erle of Huntyngdon, 
Thomas Hollande duke of Surrey and erle of Kent, Edward duke of Aumarle and erle of 
Rutland sonne to the duke of Yorke, Iho Montagew erle of Salisbury, Hugh Speser erle of 
Glocester, Ihon the bishop of Carleill, sir Thomas Blount and Magdalen one of kyng 
Hicfeardes chapell, a man as like to hym in stature and proporcion in all liniamentes of his 
body, as vnlike in birthe dignitee or condicions. This Abbot highly fested these greate 
lordes and his speciall frendes, and when thei had well dined, thei all withdrew thernselfes 
into a secrete chamber and sat doune to counsail, when thei wer set, Ihon Hollande duke of 
Exceter whose rage of reuengyng y iniury doen to kyng Richard was nothyng mitigate nor 
mollified, but rather encreased and blossomed, declared to theim their allegeance promised, 
and by othe confirmed to kyng Richard his brother, forgettyng not the high promocions and 
notable dignities whiche he and all other there present had obteigned by the high fauor and 
munificent liberalitee of his saied brother, by the whiche thei wer not onely by othe and 
allegeance bounde, and also by kindnes and vrbanitee insensed & moued to take part with 
hym and his frendes, but also bound to be reuenged for hym and his cause, on his mortall 
enemies and dedly foes, in whiche doyng he thought policie more meter to be vsed then 
force, and some wittie practise rather to be experimented then manifest hostilitee or open 
warre. And for the expedicion of this enterprise he deuised a solempne iustes to be enter- 
prised betwene hym and. xx. on his parte, and the erle of Salisbury and. xx. on his part 
at Oxtbrde : to the whiche triumphe, Kyng Henry should be inuited and desired, and when 
he were moste busely regardyng the marciall playe and warly disporte, he sodainly should 
bee slain and destroyed. And by this meanes kyng Richard whiche was yet a liue, should 
be restored to his libertie and repossessed of his croune and kyngdome, and appoincted 
farther who should assemble the people, the numbre and persones, whiche should accom- 
plishe and performe this inuented assaie and policie. 

THIS deuiseso much pleased the sediciouscongregacion, that thei not onely made an in- 
denture sextipartite sealed with their scales and signed with their handesin the whiche eche 
bounde hym-eelfe toother toendeuoure theim selfes both for the destruction of Kyng Henry 
and the creacion of King Richard, but also sware on the holy Euangelistes the one to be trewe 
and secrete to the other, euen to the houre and point of death. When all thynges were thus 
apointed and eoscluded the Duke of Exceter came to the kyng to Windsore, requiryng hym 
~{or tbe loue that he bare to the noble actes of chiualrie, that he woulde vouchesate not onely 
to repaire to Oxford to see and behold their manlie feates, and warlike pastime : but also to be 
the discouerer and indifierente iudge (if any ambiguitee should arise) of their couragions 
actes and royall triumphe. The kyng seeyng hymself so effectuously desired, and that of his 

: '.' : brother 



KYNG HENRY THE. IIIJ. 17 

brother in lavve, and nothing lesse imagenyng the that which was pretended, gentelly 
graunted and frendly condiscended to his request. Which thing obtained, Jail the lordes 
of this cospiracie departed to their houses (as thei noised) to set armorer? on work for 
trimmyng of their harneis against the solemne iustes. Some had the helme the visere the 
two bauiers & the two plackardes of the same curiously graue and conningly costed: Some 
had their collers fretted and other had them set with gilte bullions, one company had the 
plackard, the rest, the port the burley, the tasses, the lamboys, the backpece the tapull, 
and the border of the curace all gylte : And another bande had them all enameled Azure. 
One sorte had the vambrases the pacegardes the grandgardcs the poldren, the pollettes, 
parted with goldc and azure : And another flocke had theym siluer and sable : Some had 
the mainferres, the close gantlettes, the guissettes the tkncardes droped & gutted \viih red, 
and other had the spekeled with grene : one sorte had the quishes, the greues,. the surlettes, 
5" sockettes on the right side and on the left side siluer. Some had the spere, the burre, the 
cronet al yelowe, and other had them of diuers colours. One band had the scafteron the 
cranct, the bard of the horse all white, and other had them all gilte. Some had their 
armyng sweardes freshly burnyshed and some had the conningly vernished. Some spurres 
wer white, some gilt, and some cole blacke. One parte had their Plumes all white, another 
had them all redde, and the third had them ofseuerall colours.- One ware on his beadpece 
his Ladies sleue, and another bare on his helme the gloue of his dearlyng : But to declare 
the costly Bases, the riche bardes, the pleasant trappers bothe of goldesrnithes worke and 
embrawdery, no lesse sumptuously then curiously wrought, it would aske a long time to 
declare, for euerye man after his appetite [3euised his fantasy verifiyng, the_oldfi^rouerbe, 
so manyheades, so majijjvittesj' 

"TEelluke of Exceter came to his house & raised men on euery side and prepared horse 
and harneis, mete and apte for his compassed purpose. When the Duches his wife which 
was sister to kyng Henry perceiued this, she no lesse trouble conjectured to be prepared 
against her brother the was in dede eminent & ai hand, wherfore she wept & made great 
lamentacion. When the duke perceued her dolour, he said, what Besse, how chaunseth this, 
when my brother king Richard was deposed of his dignitie, and committed to harcle and 
sharpe prison whiche had bene kyng and ruled this realme noblie by the space of. xxii. yeres 
and your brother was exalted to the throne and dignitie imperial! of the same, then my 
hearte was heauie, my life stoode in ieopardie and my combe was clerehy cut, but you then 
reioysed laughed and triumphed, wherfore I pray yon be contente that I may aswell reioyce 
and haue pleasure at the deliueryng and restoryng of ray brother iustly to his dignite, as 
you were iocond and pleasaunt when your brother vniustly and vntrulie depriued and dis- 
seazed my brother of the same. For of this I am sure, that yf my brother prosper, you and 
I shal not fall nor decline : but if your brother continue in his estate and magnificece I 
double not your decay nor ruine, but I suspecte the losse of my life, beside the fbrfeyture 
of my landes and goodes. When he had sayd, he kissed his Lady whiche was sorowful and 
pensife, and he departed toward Oxforde with a grcate company bothe of Archers and 
horsemen, and when he came there, he founde ready al his mutes and confederates wel 
apoinled for their purpose, except the Duke of Aumerle Erie of Rutland, for whom they 
sent messengers in great haste. This duke of Aumerle went before from Westminster to 
se his father the duke of Yorke, and sittyng at diner had his counterpaine of the endenture 
of the confederacie wherof 1 spake before in his bosotne. 

The father espied it and demaunded what it was, his sonne lowely and beningly answered 
that it myght not bee sene, and that it touched not him. By saint'George quod the father 
3 will see it, and so by force toke it out of his bosome, when he perceaued the content and 
the sixe signes and scales sette and fixed to the same, whereof the scale of his sonne was one, 
he sodainlie rose from the table, comaundyng his horses to be sadeled, and in a greate furie 
saied to his sonne, thou trayter thefe, thou hast bene a traitour to kyng Richard, and wilt 
thou nowe be falce to thy cosen kyng Henry? thou knovvest wel inough that I am thy 

D pledge 



18 THE FIRSTE YERE OF 

pledge borowe and mayncperner, body for body, and land for goodes in open parliament, 
and goestthou about to seke my death and destruction? by the holy rode 1 had leauer see 
the strangeled on a gibbet. And so the duke of Yorke moated on horsbacke to ride toward 
Windsor to the kyng and to declare the hole eftecte of his sone and his ad he rentes & par- 
takers. The duke of Aumerle seyng in what case he stode toke his horse and rode another 
way to Windsor, riding in post thither (whiche his father being an olde man could not do.) 
And when he was alighted at the castel gate, he caused the gates to be shut, saying that he 
must nedes deliuer the keies to the kyng. When he came before the kynges presence he 
kneled dovvne on his knees, besechyng him of mercy and forgeuenes: The kyng demanded 
the cause : then he declared to him plainely the hole confederacie and entier coniuracion 
in manner and forme as you haue harder Well saied the kyng, if this be trewe we pardon 
you, if it bee fained at your extreme perill bee it. While the kyng and the duke talked 
together, the duke of Yorke knocked at the castel gate, whom the kyng caused to be let in, 
and there he delyuered the endenture whiche before was taken from his sonne, into the 
kynges handes. Which vvrityng when he had redde, and sene, perceiuyng the signes and 
scales of the confederates, he chaunged his former purpose. For the daie before he heryng 
say that the chalengers were al ready and that the defenders were come to do their deuoir, 
purposed to haue departed towarde the triumphe the^ next day, but by his prudent and 
forecastyng councel, somwhat staied till he myght se the ayre clere and no darcke cloude 
nere to the place where the listes were. And nowe beyng aduertised of the truthe and 
veritie, howe his destruction and deathe was compassed, was not a littell vexed, but with a 
great and meruelous agonie perturbed and vnquieted, and therefore determined there to 
make his abode not hauyng time to loke and gase on lustes and tourneis, but to take hede 
howe to kepe and conserue his lyfe and dignitie, and in that place taried tyll he knewe what 
way his enemies would set forward. And shortly wrote to the Earle of Northumberland his 
high Costable, and to the erle of Westmerland his high Marshal, and to other his assured 
frendes of al the douteful daunger and perelousieopardie. The coniuratoures perceiuyng 
by the lacke of the duke of Aumerles coming, and also seyng no preparacion made there 
for the kynges commyng, imagined with them selfes that their enterpryse was intimate and 
published to the kyng : Wherfore that thyng whiche they attempted priuilie to do, nowe 
openly with speare & shilde they determined with all diligent celeritie to set forth and 
aduaunce. And so they adorned Magdalene, a man resemblyng muche kyng Richard in 
roiall and princely vesture, callyng him kyng Richard, affirming that he by fauour of his 
kepers was deliuered out of prison and set at libertie, and they followed in a quadrat array 
to the entent to destroy king Henry as the most pernicious & venemus enemy to the and his 
owne naturall countrey. While the confederates with this newe publyshed Idole accom- 
panied with a puissant armie of men, toke the directe way and passage toward Windsor : 
Kyng Henry beyng admonished of their approchyng, with a fewe horse in the night, came 
to the Tower of London about, xii. of the clocke, where he in the mornynge caused the 
Maire of the citie to apparell in armure the beste and moste couragious persons of the 
citie : which brought to him. iii. M. archers and. iii. M. bill men, beside them that were' 
deputed to defend the citie. 

The Lordes of the confederacie entered the castel of Windsor,where they findyng not their 
praie, determined with all spede to passe forthe to London : But in the waie, changyng 
their purpose they returned to the towne of Colbroke and there taried. These Lordes had 
much people folowyng them, what for feareand what for entreatie surely beleuyng that kyng 
Richard was there present and in company. King Hery issued out of London with 
twentye M. men and came to Hounsloe Heath, where he pitched his campe, abidyng the 
commyng of his enemies: but when they were aduertised of the kynges puissaunce, or els 
amased with feare, or forthinkyng and repentyng their begonne busines, or mistrustyng their 
owne company and felowes, departed from thence to Barkamstede and so to Aucester, and 
there the Lordes toke their lodgyng: The duke of 'Surrey erle of Kent and the erle of 

2 Salisbury 



KYNG HENRY THE. IIIJ. "19' 

Salisbury in one ynne, and the duke of Exceter and the carle of Glocesler in another, and 
al the hoste laie in the feldes. The Baily of the towne with fowre score archers set on the 
house wher the duke of Surrey and other laie: the house was uiannely assaulted and 
strongely defended a great space : The Duke of Exceter beyng in another inne with the 
erle of Glocester set fier on diners bowses in the towne, thin kyng that the assailantes would 
leuc their assault and rescue their goodes, which thing they nothyng regarded. The host 
liyng without hearyng noise and seyng fire in the towne, beleuyng that the kyng was come 
thyther with his puissaunce, fledde without measure to saue them selfes. The duke of 
Exceter and his company seyng the force of the townes men more & more encreace, fled 
out of the backeside entendyng to repaire to the armie, whiche they found dispersed and 
retired. Then the duke seing no hope of cofort, tied into Essex, and the erle of Glocester 
goyng toward Wales was taken and beheaded at Brisiowe. Magdalene fliyng into Scot- 
land was appreheded and brought to the Tower. The lordes whiche fought still in the 
towne of Chichester wer wouded to deth and taken and their heades striken of and sent to 
London : and there were taken sir Bennet Shelley or Cell, and sir barnard Brokas and. xxix. 
other Lordes Knyghtes and Esqniers & sent to Oxford, where the kyng then soiourned, 
where sir Thomas Blonte and all the other prysoners were executed. Whe the Duke of 
Exceter heard that his complices wer taken, and his councellers apprehended, and his 
frendes and alies put in execucion, he lamented his owne chaunce, and bewepte the mis- 
fortune of his frendes, but most of all bewailed the fatall end of his brother kyng Richard, 
whose death he saw as in a mirrour by his vnhappy sedition and malicious attempte to 
approche, and so wanderynge lurkyng and hidyng him selfe in priuy places, was attached 
in Essex, and in the lordshippe of Plasshey a towne of the Duches of Glocester and there 
made shorter by the bed, and in that place especially because that he in the same Lordship 
seduced falsely betrayed Thomas duke of Glocester, and was the very inward auctour 
and open dissimuler of his death and destruction. F|p .the_comon_Prpuerbe was verified, as /. 
yfln ^"e L _.4QDj-j^-AbjJJLyg!?^M^J Qh Lord J[ would jviah$ foaT ttip example, of many 
highlye promoted to rule, might w. had in meradne, the which mete and ineasu re their 
owne iniquitie and il doinges, with force auctoritie and power, to the entent that they by 
these examples shoulde auerte their myndes from ill doynges, and such vngodly and 
execrable offences./ After this Magdalein that represented the person of kyng Richard 
amogest the rebels, and diuerse other were put in execucion, and all the heades of the 
chefe conspiratoures sette on polles on London bridge, to the feare of other whiche were 
disposed to commit like offence. The Abbot of Westminster in whose house this traiterous 
confederacy was conspired, hearyng that the chefetains of his felowshippe, were espied, 
taken and executed, going betwene his monastery and mancion, for thoughte fell in a 
sodaine palsey, and shortely after without any speche ended his life : after whome the By- 
shop of Carlile more for feare then sickenes, rendred his spirite to God, as one rather desir- 
yng to die by deathes darte, then temporall swearde. But nowe was come the time when 
all the confederates and compaignions of this vnhappye sedicion, had tasted accordyng to 
their desertes, the painfull penaunce of their pleasante pastime, or rather pestiferus obstin- 
acy, that an innocent with a nocet, a man vngilty with a gilty, was pondered in an egall 
balaunce. For pore king Richard ignorant of all this coniuracion kept in miserable cap- 
tiuitie, knowyng nothyng but that he sawe in his chamber, was by king Henry adiudged to"! 
die, because that he beyng singed and tickeled with the laste craftie policie of bis enemies, i 
would deliuer himself out of all inward feare and discorde, and cleane put away the very \ 
ground wherof suche frutes of displeasure mighte by any waie be attempted againste him, ) 
so that no man hereafter shoulde ether faine or resemble to represente the persone of king 
Richarde : jwherfore some saye he commaunded, other talke that he condiscended, many 
write that he knewe not tyll it was done and then it confirmed. But howe so euer it was, 
fcvng Richarde dyed of a violent death, without any infection or naturall disease of the body. 

D 2 The 



20 THE FIRSTE YERE OF 

The common fame is that he was euery daye serued at the table with costely meate like a 
kyng, to the entent that no creature shuld suspecte any thing done contrary to the order 
taken in the parliament, and when the meate was set before him, he was forbidden 
that he shuld not once touch it, ye not to smel to it, and so died of famin : which 
kynd of death is the most miserable, most vnnatural, ye and most detestable that can 
be, for it is ten times more painefull then death (whiche of all extremities is the 
most terrible) to die for thirst standyng in the riuer, or starue for hunger, besette with 
^twentie deintie disshes. .Qjie^wnjej: whiche semed to haue muche knowledge of kyng 
Rychardes affaires, saieth that kyng Henry sittyng at his table sore sighyng said, haue 
1 no faithefull frende whiche will deliuer me of him whose life will be my dcth, and 
whose death will be the preseruacion of my life. This saiyng was muche noted of them 
whiche were present and especially of one called sir Piers of Exton. This knight incon- 
tinently departed fro the court with eight strong persons and came to Pomfret, commaun- 
dyng that the esquier whiche was accustomed to sewe and take the assaye before kyng 
Richard, shuld no more vse that maner of seruice, saiyng, let him eate we! nowe, for he 
shall not long eatc. Kyng Richard sate downe to dyner and was serued without cnrtesie 
or assay, he muche meruailyng at the sodaine mutacion of the thyng, demaunded of the 
Esquier why he did not his duety? sir, said he, I am otherwise comaunded by sir Pyers of 
Exton, which is newely come from king Henry. When he heard that worde, he toke the 
caruyng knife in his hand and strake the esquier on the head saiyng, the deuell take Henry 
Pbf Lancastre and the together : and with that worde sir Piers entered into the chamber wel 
/ armed with. viii. tall men inharneis, euery man hauing a bill in his had. Kyng Richarde 
perceuyng them armed, knewe well that they came to his confusion, and puttyng the table 
from him, valiantly toke the bill out of the first mannes hand, and manly defended himselfc, 
and slewe fowre of them in a short space. Sir Piers being sowhat dismaied with his resist- 
yng, lepte into the chaire where kyng Richard was wonte to sitte, while the other fowre 
persons assailed and chased him aboute the chamber, whiche beyng vnarmed defended him 
against his enemies beyng armed, (whiche was a valiaunt acte) but in conclusion chasyng 
and trauersing fro the one side to the other, he came by the chaire wher sir Piers slode, 
whiche with a stroke of his Pollax felled hym to the ground, and then shortely he was rid 
out of the worlde, without ether confession or receit of sacrament. ^When this knight per- 
ceiued that he was deade, he sobbed, wept, and rent his heare criyng, Oh Lord, what haue 
we done, we haue murthered hym whom by the space of. xxii. yeres we haue obeied as 
king, and honored as our soueraigne lord, now all noble men will abhorre vs, all honest 
persons will disdaine vs, and all pore people will rayle and crie out vpon vs, so that duryng 
our naturall Hues, we shal be poincted with the finger, and our posterite shal be reproued 
as children of Homecides, ye of Regicides & prince quellersT]. Thus haue I declared to you 
the diuersities of opinions concernyng the deathe of this mfortunate prince, remittyng to 
your iudgement whiche you thinke most trewe, but the very trouthe isthat he died of a 
violent death, and not by the darte of naturall infirrnitie. 

When Atropos had cut the line of his lyfe, his body was embaulmed and seared and couered 
with lead al saue his face (to the entent that all men might perceiue that he was departed 
out of this mortal lyfe) and was conueighed to London, where in the cathedrall churche of 
saincte Paule he had a solempne obsequie, and from thence conueighed to Lagley in Buck- 
yngham shire, where he was enterred, and after by kyng Henry the. v. remoued to West- 
minster, and there intombed honorably with quene Anne his wife, although the Scottes vn- 
treuly write that he escaped out of prisone, and led a verteous and solitary life in Scotlande, 
and there died and is buried intheblacke Friers at Sterlyng. What trust is in this worlde, what 
suretie man hath of his life, & what constancie is in the mutable comonaltie, all men maie 
apparently perceiue by the ruyne of this noble prince, whiche beeyng an vndubitate kyng, 
"crooned and anoymed by the spiritualtie, honored and exalted by the nobilitee, obeyed uod 

worshipped 



KYNG HENRY THE. II IJ. 21 

worshipped of the comon people, was sodainly discerned by theim whiche he moste trusted, 
betraied by ttieim whom he had preferred, & slain by theim whom he had brought vp and 
norished : so that all menne maie perceiue and see, that fortune wayeth princes and pore 
men all in one balance. 

WHEN ne.wes of kyng Richardes deposyng were reported into Frauce, kyng Charles 
and all his court wondered, detested & abhorred suche an iniurie to bee doen to an anoynt- 
ed kyng, to a crouned prince, & to the hed of a realme : but in especial Walt-ram erle of 
sent Panic whiche had maried kyng Richardes halfe sister, moued with high disdain against 
kyng Henry, ceased not to stirre and prouoke y Frenche kyng and his counsaill to make 
sharpe warre inEnglande, to reuenge the iniurie and dishonor comitted and doen to hissonne 
in lawe kyng Richard, & he hymself sent letters of defiance to England. Whiche thyng 
was sone agreed to, and an armie royall appoyncted with all spede, to innade England. 
But the Frenche kyng so stomacked this high displesure, & so inwardly coceiued this infor- 
tunate chance in his minde, that he fell into his old disease of the frensy, hat he had nede 
accordyng to the old prouerbe, to saile into the Isle of * Anticyra, to purge his melacholie *Anticyra 
humor, but by the meanes of his phisicions, he was somwhat releued & brought to know- Ast^where" 
ledge of hymself. This armie was come doune into Picardy, redy to be trasported into ^ n ^^ th , 
Englad, but whe it was certainly certified that kyng Richard was ded, & that their enterprise purgeth S 
of his deliuerace was frustrate & voyd. tharmie scattred & departed a sonder. t^rof* 

BUT when the certaintie of kyng Richardes death was declared to the Aquitaynes and <-s the pro- 
Gascons, the moste parte of the wisest men of the countree, fell into a greate bodely feare, ""1*10* 
and into a dedly dreade. For some lamentyng the instabilitee of the Englishe people, Anticira, as 
iudged theim to be spotted with perpetuall infamie, and brought to dishonor & losse of their ^^f' 
auncientfaine and glory, for comittyng so heynous a cryme and detestable an offence against youreM*. 
their king & soueraigne lorde. The memorie wherof, thei thought would neuer be buried 
or extincted. Other fered the losse of their goodes and liberties, because they imagined 
that by this ciuill discencion and intestine deuision, the realme of England should so bee 
vexed and troubled, that their countree (if the Frenchemenne should inuade it) should bee 
destitute and lefte voide of all aide and succor of the Englishe nacion. But the citezens of 
Burdeaux toke this matter very sore at y stomacke, because kyng Richard was borne and; 
brought vp in their citee, lamentyng and criyng out, that sithe the beginnyng of the worlde, 
there was neuer a more detestable, a more vilanous nor a more heynous acte committed : 
whiche beyng sad with sorowe and enilamed with malencolie, saied that vntrue, vnnaturall 
and vnmercilull people had betrayed and slain, contrary to all law and iustice and honestie, 
a good man, a iuste prince and politike gouernor. Besechyng God deuoutly on their 
knees, to be the reuenger and punisher of that detestable offence and notorius crime. 

WHEN the Frenchmen, whiche haue iyes of the wakyng serpent, perceiued the dolor 
and agony that the Aquitaynes and Gascons wer in for the death of 'heir prince, duke and 
countrymanne, they reioysed and aplauded in maruelous maners, thynkyng with theimselfes 
that (the Gascons nowe abhorryrtg and detestyng the Englishe men more than a Dogge or an 
Adder) they verie easely mighte obtain the whole countree and douchie of Aquitaine,with the 
members and territories there to apperteignyng, if they would ether by entreatie or by inua- 
sion moue the people beyng now amased and comfortles, as shepe without a shepeherd, or 
beastes without an herdman. Whin-fore in greate haste and slowe spede, Lewes clnke of 
Burbon was sent to Angit-rs, & wrote to diuerse citees and tounes on the confynes of Aqui- 
tain and Gascon, exhortyng them with large promises and flateryng wordes, to reuolte and 
turne from the Englishe subieccion, and become vassals to the croune of Fraunce. But all 
his glosyng wordes seruedlitle, and all his faire promises profited muche lesse. For the people 
knewe that the Englishe yoke was but a tether, & the yoke of Fraunce was more ponderus 
then lede, seyng daily how the I rench men vexed and molested ther miserable people with 
extreme exaccios and intollerable tallages, rasyng .their skinne to the very bone, and their 

purses 



22 THE FIRST YERE OF 

purses to the veryfootome wherfore they determined rather to abide in their bid subicccion 
and obedience, then for a displeasure irrecurable to auenture themselfes on a newe chance 
and a deubtfuil parell. 

KING Henry beeyng aduertised of all the Frenche alternptes and couert conueighances, 
sent the lorde Thomas Percy -erle of Worceter with a goodly trewe of souldiours into Aqui- 
tain, to aide and assist sir Robert Knolles his leuetenante there, and to perswade and 
exorte the people to continewe in their ancient libertie and dewc obeysance. The erle 
arriued there, and so wisely entreated the noble men, so grauously persuaded the mage- 
strates of the citees and tounes, and so gently and familiarly vscd and traded the vulgare 
people, that he not onely appeased their furie and malice, but brought theim to a louyng and 
"vniforme obeysance, receiuyng of them othes of obedience and loyall fealtie, whiclie done 
he retourned againe into England with great thankes. When kyng Charles of Fran nee per- 
ceiued that his purpose and attempte was frustrate and came to no good conclusion in 
Aquitayne and that kyng Richard being deade, his enterprise into England was of no value 
and of small purpose, he determined with him selfe to inuent some way howe to haue the 
Lady Isabell his doughter, sometime espoused to kyng Richard restored to him again : and 
for that purpose sent a solemne ambassade into England to kyng Henry, whiche gentely 
receiued them, and gaue in answere that he would send his commissioners shortely to Caleis, 
whiche shoulde farther common and coclude with them, not onely that request, but diners 
other matters of gret effecte and efficacie. And shortley after their departyng he sent 
Edward duke of Yorke, before called duke of Aumerle, whiche succeded in the said duchie 
his father Edmond duke of Yorke, a littell before disseased and Henry erle of Northumber- 
land into the countrei of Guisnes. The commissioners assembled at diuers places at sondry 
times. The duke of Borbon aboue al thynges required in the name of the French king his 
master, to haue quene Isabell to him deliuered. The Englishmen that to do continually did 
deny, requiryng to haue her maried to Henry Prince of Wales, a man bothe in blud and 
age to her in all thinges equal!. But the Frenche kyng that mariage vtterly refused, saiyng 
he wolde neuer ioyne affinitie after with the Englishe nacion, because that the aliance had so 
vnfortunate successc. 

Then they began to entreate a continual! peace, whiche request the Frenchemen refused, 
and in conclusion they agreed that the truce whiche was taken betwene them and kyng Rich- 
arde, for the terme of. xxx. yeres, was renouate and confirmed. Some authors affirm that 
there was a newe leage concluded and confirmed betwene both the realmes duryng the Hues 
of bothe the princes, whiche semeth to haue a certein colour of veritie. For the kyng sent 
shortly after the foresaid Lady Isabell vnder the conducte of the Lord Thomas Percy erle 
of Worceter, associate with many noble and honourable personages, as well of women as 
men, hauyng with her al the lewells ornamentes & plate (with a great surplusage geuen to 
hir by the kyng whiche she brought into England) was sente in solemne estate to Caleis, and 
there deliuered to Waleran erle of saincte Paule Lieuetenant for the French king in Picar- 
die, and so conueighed to her father, whiche gaue her in mariage to Charles sone to Lewes 
duke of Orleaunce. The Frenchmen often times required king Henry to assigne to her a 
dower, but al was in vaine, for the Englishemen answered that the matrimony was neuer 
consummate, by reason wherof she was not dowable, by the very treatie of the mariage con- 
eluded, and so this matter seased, and was no more moued. V As the olc( prouerhe^saifhj 
after winde commeth jajn, &' after one ejyiil .comply easu.eth. another t 39. duryng the time that 
kyng Henry was vexed and vnquieted, bothe within the realme & without.. 

OWEN Gtenebfr^eqtitt'e-tTf Wattes," Bslceiuyng the reaime to be. vnquieted. and the 

kyng not yet to be placed in a sure and vnmouableseate, entedyng to vsurpe and take vpon 

hym the principalitie of Wales, and the name and preheminence of the same, what with 

faire flatteryng wordes and with large promises, soenuegled entised and .allured the wilde and 

-vndiscrite Welshmen, that they toke hym as their prince and made to hym an othe of allegeance 

s v , cd subieccion. By whose supportacion, he beyng elated and set vp in aucthorite, to the 

'& intent 



KYNG HENRY THE. HIJ. f3 

intent to bee out of all double of his neighbors, made sharpe warre oft Reignolde lorde 
Grey of llithen and toke hym prisoner, promisyng hym libertee and dischargyng his raun- 
some, if he would espouse and marie his dough ter, thynkyng by that affinitie, to haue greate 
aide and muche power in Wales. The lorde Grey beeyng not very riche nether of substance 
nor of frendes, consideryng this offer to be the onely waie of his releffe and deliuerance, 

1 assented to his pleasure and rnaried the damosell. But this false father in laxve, this vntre\v, 
vnhonest and periured persone, kept hym with his wife still in captiuitee till he died. And 
not content with this heynous offence, made warre on lorde Edmond Mortimer erle of 
Marche, and in his owne lordship of Wigmore, where in a conflict he slewe many of therles 
men and loke hym prisoner, and feteryng hym in chaynes, cast hym in a depe and miserable 
dongeon. The kvng was required to purchase his deliuerance by diuerse of the nobilitie,, 
but he could not heare on that side, rather he would and wished al his linage in heuen.. 
For then his title had been out of all doubt & question, and so vpon this cause as you heare, 
after ensued great sedicion. 

o^THUS Owen G lender glorifiyng hymself in these twoo victories, inuaded'the Marches- 
of Wales on the West side of Seuerne, robbed vilages, brent tounes and slewe the people, 
and laden with praies and bloudy handes returned again into Wales, neuer desistyng to do 
euil till the next yere, that the kyng reised a greate annie and puissance to resist and defende. 
his malicious atfemptes and sedicious inuasions, as after shall be declared. It was not suffi- 
ciet in this first yere of kyng Henry, this realme to be troubled with domestical sedicion, 
vexed with the craftie practices and inuencions of the Frenche men, and inuaded and in- 
fested with thefrantike waueryngWelshemen, but also fortune hauyngenuy at the glory and 
fortunate procedyng of this man, muste in his saied firste yere also, arme the Scottes with 
spcre and shelde against hym and his realme, wherof the occasion shall bee to you declared 
accordyng to the Scotticall histories. A Ikle before this tyme, George of Dunbar erle of 
the Marches of the realme, made meanes to kyng Robert of Scotlande, that Dauid his eldest 
sonne might rnarie and espouse the erles doughter called Elizabeth, and deliuered for the 
performance of the same mariage, into the kynges handes a greate some of money. When 
Archebaulde erle Douglas heard of this conclucion, disdainyng therle of the Marches blud 
to be auaunced before his stocke, wherfore ether by faire wordes, or els by disbursyng a 
greter some of money, he so enuegeled Kyng Roberte of Scotlande, that Dauid his heire 
refusyng the first damosell,. espoused Mariell the erle Douglas doughter. Therle of Marche 
desired restitucion of his money, to whom the kyng gaue many friuolus and trifelyng 
aunsweres, wherfore he disdainyng so to bee mocked & deluded of his money, with his wife 
and family, fled into England, to Henry erle of Northumberlande, entendyng with dent of 
?werd to reuenge the injury & displesure to hym by the kyng comitted doen, so with 
the help of the borderers brent diuerse tounes, slew many persons in the realme of Scot- 
land. 

-^KING Robert beeyng thereof aduertised, firste deprived the Erie George of all his 
dignitees and possessions, and caused his goodes to bee confiscate, -and after wrote to the 
Kyng of Englande, instantly requiryng hym, if he would the truce any longer to continevv 
ether to deliuer into his possession the Erie of Marche, and other traitors and rebelles to 
his persone and realme, or els to banishe and exile theim out of his realme, territories and 
dominions. Kyng Henry discretly answered the heiault of Scotland, that the worde of a 
prince ought to bee kepte, and his writyng and seale ought to bee inuiolate, and consider- 
yng that he had graunted a saue conduite to the erle and his compaigny, he would nether 
without cause resonable breake his promise, nor yet deface his honor. Whiche answer 
declared to the kyng of Scottes, he incontinente did proclaime and intimate open warre, 
against the kyng of England, with bloud fire and swe'ard. Kyng Henry perceiuyng, that 

--policie preuenteth chance, gathred and assembled together a greate annie, and entered into 
Scotlande, burnyng townes villages and castles, sparyng nothyng but religious houses and 
churches, and brent a greate parte of the tounes of Edenbrough and Lithe and beseged the 

castle 



24 THE FIRSTE YERE OF 

castle of Maidens inEdenbrough, in thende of September, whereof was capitain, Dauicl duke 
of Rothsay and prince of the realme, and Archibalde erle Douglas, with many hardy men. 
Roberte duke of Albania, beyng appoyncted gouernor of the realme, because the kyng was 
sicke and vnapt to rule, sent vnto kyng Henry an harrold, assuryng hym on his honour that 
if he woulde abide and tary his coming and repaire, wlu'che should be within sixe daies at 
the most he would geue hym battaill, and remoue the siege, or els die for it. 

The kyng beeyng glad of these ioyous good newes, rewarded the herault with a goune of 
silke and a chayne of gold, promisyng hym in the worde of a prince, not to depart thence 
but abide there, thecomyng of. the gouernor. The sixe daies passed, ye sixe and sixtene to, 
the gouernor nether apered nor sent worde, the winter waxed cold, vitaile failed, men died 
of the flixe, it rained euery daie so habundantly, that hunger and colde caused the kyng to 
breke vp his siege, and to departe out of Scotland, without battaill or skirmish offered. 
Duryng whiche tyme bothe the Wardens of the Marches beyng with the kyng, the Scottea 
made a rode into Northumberlande, and burned diuerse tounes in Bamborough shere, and 
shortly returned again, or els thei had been trapped & come to late home. When the kyng 
of England had dismissed his souldiers, and discharged his army, the Scottes entendyng to 
bee reuenged of their greate domages to theim by the Englishe uacio doen and committed 
by therle Douglas, appoyncted twoo armyes to inuade Englande. Of the first was chieftain, 
sir Thomas Halibarton of Dirlton, and Patrike Hebburne of Hales, whiche made a rode 
into Englande, and returned with litle losse and no greate gain. After this the forsaid sir 
Patrike Hebburne, encoraged & boldened with the prosperous succcsse of this first iorney, 
with a greate armie of the people of Lowdian inuaded Northumberlande, robbyng and 
spoylyng the coutree and departed homeward, not without greate gain of beastes and cap- 
tiues. But in the returne he was encoutered with therle of Northumberlandes vicewarden, 
& other gentilmen of the borders at a toune in Northumberlande called Nesbit, and there 
the Englishemen sore assailed, and the Scottes valiantly resisted, but after a long fight, the 
victory fell on the Englishe partc, and as Ihon Mayer the Scot wrireth, there wer slain the 
flower of all Loughdean, and especially sir Patricke Hebburne with many of his linage. 
There wer apprehended sir Ihon and Willyam Cockeburne, sir Robert of Bas, Ihon and 
Thomas Hablincton esquicrs, and a greate nomber of the comon people. The erle Douglas 
sore beyng greued with the losse of his nacion and frendes, entendyng a requitement if it 
were possible of the same, by the consente of the gouernour of Scotlande, did gather a houge 
armie of twentie thousande talle menne and more. 

In the whiche armie was Lord Mordake earle of Fife sonne to the gouernour of Scotland, 
the erle of Angus, and many other erles and barons of the nobilitie of Scotland. These 
valiaunte capitayns and couragious souldioures entered into Northumberlande with ban- 
ners displayed like menne either apte or thynkyng theim selfes able to destroy the townes 
and spoyle the countrey and Marches of Northumberlande. When they were entered into; 
England thinkyng no puissaunce able to encounter with their force, out of a valey beside a 
toune called Homeldon issued sodainly the Lorde Henry Percie, whom the Scottes for his 
haut and valiant corage called sir Henry hotspur, and in his company the Lorde George of 
Dunbar erle of Marche before banished Scotlande, as you haue heard, with all the genii!! 
menne of Northumberland, and eight thousande men on horsebacke and on fote. The 
encounter was sharpe, the fight was daungerous, the long continuaunce was doubtfull, for 
some were felled and rescued, some in rescuyng other were slaine, other gredy of prave more 
then of strokes fled to se what baggages were kept emongest the Pages. Thus with pure 
fightyng of the Englishemen and fainte hertes of the bragging Scottes, the brighte beame of 
victory shone on sainct Georges crosse, and there were slaine of men of great renoune and 
estimacion sir Iho Swinton, sir Adam Gordon, sir Ihon Leuiston, sir Alexander Ransey of 
Dalehowse, and. xxiii. knightes moo, whose names ether for ignorance or for feare of re- 
proche, Hector Boece the Scottish archecbronocler kepeth in silence and dothe omitte, 
beside, x. M. comons. But there wer taken prisoners, Mordaeke erle of Fife, Archebald 

1 erle 



KYNG HENRY THE. IIU. 

erle Douglas, whiche in the combat loste one of his eyes, Thomas erle of Murrey, Robert 
erle of Angus, and as other writers affirme, the erls of Athell und Mentethe with v. C. 
other. 

When the Lord Percy had thus obtained this glorious victory, he sent his prisoners into 
diuerse fortresses, and determined to subdue or destroy all the countrcis of Lowdene and 
Marche, whose heades and Gouernours ether he had slain or by force taken captiues. And 
so with a gret power entered into Tiuedale wastyng any destroiyng the hole countrey, and 
they beseged the castell of Cokelaues, whereof was capitain sir Ihon Grenlowe, which 
seyng that his castel was not long able to be defended copouhded with the Englishmen that 
yf the castel wern ot suckered within, iii. monthes, that then he would deliuer it into the Eng- 
lishe mennes handes. The capitaine thereof wrote vnto the Gouernour, whiche callyng a 
great councell, the moste parte aduised hym rather frankely and frely to yeld the castel, 
than to put in ieopardie and caste in hasard the remnaunt of the florishyng nobihue of the 
realme. So muche was their courages abated and their fumishe crakes refrigerat with the 
remembraunce of the last conflicte and batail. But the gouernour rebukyng their tiinerous 
lieartes, and Feminine audacitie (whether he thought so or no was a questio) sware that if 
no man wold folowe of the nobilitie he woulde do his deuoire to reskewe the castell at the 
day. But his othe was nether kept nor broken, for he litell preparyng and lesse entendyng 
the oth whiche he solemply made neuer set fote forward duryng the first, ii. monethes, for 
the reising of the seige or reskewe of the castel. But the Englisbe men beyng sent for to 
go with the kyng into Wales, raised their siege and departed leauyng the noble men prison- 
ers styll with the earle of Northumberland and the Lord Percie his sonne, which by the 
kyng were commaunded to kepe them to his vse, and not to deliuer them without his as- 
sent. 

KYNG Henry jkw^atnot,his enterprise into Wales, but made provision for menne, mu- The 
nicions and artillary me!e~and conuenient for so great a businessc, whereof the Frenche kyng 
beyng aduertised, sente priuilie Lorde lames of Burbone earle of Marche and his two bre- 
thren Ihon and Lewes, with xii. C. knightes and esquiers to aide Owen Glendor against 
the inuasions of kyng Henry, he toke shippyng with. xxx. saile at the mouthe of Seine, and 
the wynd was not fauourable to his purpose for he coulde neuer approche the coaste of 
Wales but came before the towne of Plimmouthe in Deuonshire, and there leauyng his great 
shippes liyng at ancre, in the nyghte toke land and brent, spoiled and destroied diuers small 
villages, and poore cotages, arid robbed, v. or vi. littel Craiers and fisher botes laden with 
fysshe and come. But while he and his companie like gredy wolfes were sekyng after their 
praie, the winde rose highe and a great tempesteous rage and furious storme sodainely 
flushed and drowned, xii. of his great shippes whiche laie in the mouth of the hauen for his 
safegard and defence. Whereof when the erle was aduertised, and pcrceuyng by the fi- 
ryng of the beacons that the people began to assemble in plumpes to encounter with him, 
and also seyng his power sore diminished as well by the slaughter of suche as ranged abrode 
in hope of spoyle and praye, as by the furious rage of the vnmercifull see and hydeous tem- 
pest, with muche paine and great labour toke his shippes againe, and was notwithout ieo- 
pardie ef his lyfe driuen on the coast of Britaine and landed atsainct Malos. L The French 
kyng perceiuyng that this chiice had il successe ; appointed one of his Marshals called Me- 
morancie, and the master of his Crosbowes with. xii. M. men, to saile into Wales, which 
toke shippyng at Brest and had the winde to them so prosperous that they landed at Milfoid 
hauen, and leauing the castel of Penbroke vnassaulted, because it was well fortified, man- 
red, and vitailed, besieged the towne of Harforde West whiche was so well defended by the 
erle of Arundell and his power that they much more lost then gained."\ And from thence 
they departed towarde Owen Glendor whome they nominated prince of "Wales, and founde 
him at the towne of Denbigh abidyng their comyng with ten thousand men. They wer of 
him louingly receiued, andjgentelly enterteined, and when all thynges were prepared, they 
passed by Glamorgan shire toward Worcester and there brent the suburbes, but hearyng of 

E the 



5<S THE SECOND YERE OF 

Ihekynges approchyng sodainly returned into Wales. The king with a great puissau nee fo- 
lowed and founde them embattailed on a highe mountaine, and a gret yaley betwene bothe 
,.; ' the armies, so that eche armie plainely perceiued other, and euery hoste loked to be assau- 

ed of liis aduersary, and of the groud to take the most aduautage : thus they cotinued eight 
daies fro mornyng to nyght ready to abide but not to geue battaile. There wer many fcarce 
skirmishes and many propre feates of armes daily done, whiche the French Croniclers more 
then the Englishe writers can reporte. For there were slaine the Lorde Patrioles of Tries, 
brother to the Marshall of France, the Lord Mattelone and the Lord Vale and the bastarde 
of Burbon, with, v. hundred gentelmen. 

The Frenche men and Welshe men were sore trobeled and afflicted with famine, that their 
hertes were appalled and their corages sore abated, for the kyng had so stopped the passages 
that nether vitayl nor succour could by any way be conueighed to the. Wherfore of very 
necessitie they were compelled eyther to fyghte or flee : And so by the aduisement and coun- 
cell of the Marshall of Fraunce, whiche put not to muche confidence in the waueryng 
Welshemen, the hole hoste departed theight day at midnight in the most secretes maner that 
they could deuise. The Frenche men with littel rewardes and no gaine returned into Bri- 
tayne makyng small boast of their painfull iourney. 

THE kyng seyng them departed, folowed the into Wales, and chasing them from hilles 
to dales, from dales to woddes, from woddes to marishes, and yet could neuer haue them at 
any aduauntage. A world it was to see his quctidiane remouyng, his painfull and busy wan- 
deryng, his troblesome and vncertaine abidyng, his continual mocion, his daily peregrina- 
cion in the desert, felles and craggy mountains of that bareine vnfertile and depopulate 
countrey. And thus beyng tossed from countrey to countrey, from hill to vale, from nia- 
rishe to wod, from noughte to worsse, without gaine or profile, withoute vitayle or succour, 
he was of necessitie copelled to retire his armie and retourne againe to Worcester, in whiche 
retournyng the Welshemen knowing the passages of the countrey, toke certaine cariagesof his 
laden with vitayle to his great displeasure, and their great comforte. When he came to Wor- 
cester perceiuyng winter to approche which season of the yere is not conuenient and proper 
for men of warre to lie in the feldes, and specially in suche a barraine and hilly countrey as 
Wales is, dispersed his armie for that time and returned to London. In the meane time 
while the kyng was thus occupied in Wales, certain malicious and cruel persons enuiyng 
and malignyng in their heartes that king Henry contrary to the opinion of many, but against 
the will of rno had so shortely obteigned and possessed the realme and regalitie, biased 
abrode & noised daily amongest the vulgare people that kyng Richard (whiche was openly 
senc dead) was yet liuyng and desired aide of the common people to repossesse his realme 
and roiall dignitie. And to the furtheraunce of this fantasticall inuencion partly inoued with 
indignacion, partely incensed with furious malencolie, set vpon postes and caste aboute the 
stretes railyng rimes, malicious meters and tauntyng verses against kyng Henry and his pro- 
cedynges. lie beyng netteled with these vncurteous ye vnucrtuous prickes & thornes, 
serched out the authours, and amongest other were found culpable of this offence and 
crime, sir Roger Claryngdoh, knight, and eight gray Friers whiche according to their me- 
rites and desertes were strangeled at Tiborne and there put in execution. I may not here 
t forget to shewe you howe that kyng Henry sekyng nowe aranitie and frendshippe in G.er* 
manie sent this yere his eldest doughter Blaunche accompanied with the Erie of Sommerset,. 
the Bishop of Worcester, and the Lord Clifforde, and other noble personages into AL- 
niaine, whiche brought her to Coleyne, and there with great triumphe she was maried to 
Willyam Duke of Bauier, sonne and heire to Lewes of Bauier the Emperour, in whiche 
yere also died Lady Katherine Swinsforct the thyrde wife of Ihon of Gaunt duke of Lan- 
castre father to this kyng Henry, & was buried at Ltncolne. In the saiue yere kyng Henry 
maried lane Daches of Britaine late wife to Ihon duke of Britaine at the citie of Win- 
chester and with triumphal pompe conueighed her thorow the citie of London, to West* 
miuster, and there she was crowned Quene. 

While 



KYNG HENRY THE. IIIJ. 

While these thynges were thus doyng in England Waleran Eric of sainct Paulo whiche 
had inaricd t!ie iialle sinter of Richard, hauyng a malicious lieart and a deadly hatred to 
kyng Henry, a'ssebled a great number of men of warre to the number of. xvi.. or. xviii. C. 
whert-of the greatest pane were noble men, and made great prouisio of all thingrs neces- 
sary for his feate and enterprise. And on sainct Nicholas day entered into his bhippes at 
Harrlete and landed in .the Isle of Wight, and when he sawe no apperaunce of defence, he 
burned two poore villages and. iiii. simple cottages, and for great triumphe of this noble 
acte he made iiii. knightes: but sodainly when he was aduertysed by his espials that th 
people of the Isle vver assembled and approched to fight with hym. He with aUmste pos- 
sible toke his shippes and retourned home againe, wherwith the noble men of his company 
were much discontente and displeased, consideryng that his prouision was great and, his 
gaine small or none. And in the same very season Ihon Erie of Cleremount sonne to the 
Duke of Burbone, wonne in Gascoigne the castelles of sainct Peter, saincte Marie and the 
newe castell, and the Lord Delabrethe wonnc the castell of Carlaffin, whiche was no small 
losse to the Englishc naciori : Duryng which time died Philippe duke of Burgoin, and duke 
Albert of Bauier Erie of Henault. 

H THE THIRDE YERE. ' 

IN this yere appered a comete or btasyng Starre of a houge quantitie by a long season The.Hi 
which as the Astronomers affirmed, signified great effusion of mannes blud, which iudge- ycr ' 
ment was not frustrate as you shall perceiueTj Eor Henry erle of Northumberland and 
Thomas erle of Worcester his brother, arirtms sonne Lord Henry Percy called hotspur, 
which were to king Henry in the beginnyng of his reigne bothe fautours frendes and aiders, 
perceiuing nowe that he had pacified all domesticall sedicion and repressed his enemies, 
and reduced his realm to a conuenient quietnes, began somwhat to enuie the glory of hyrn, 
and grudged againste his welthe and felicitie. And specially greued, because the kyng de- 
inaunded of the Earle and his sonne suche Scottishe prisoners as they had taken at the con- 
flictes fought at Homeldon and Nesbit as you before haue heard. For of all the captiues 
whiche were there taken, ther was deliuered to the kynges possession onely Mordake earle 
of Fife sonne to the duke of Albanie Gouernour of Scotland, for the king them diuerse 
aad sondry times of therle and his sonne required. But the Percies affirmyng them to be 
their owne propre prisoners and their peculiar praies, and to deliuer theym vtterly denaied, 
in so muche that the kyng openly saied that if they wolde not deliuer them, he woulde take 
them without deliuerance. Wherwith they bcyng sore discotent, by the councell of Lord 
Thomas Percy erle of Worcester, whose study was euer to procure malice, and to set al 
thynges in broile and vncerteintie, fainyng a cause to proue and temple the kyng, came to 
him to Wyndsor, requiryng him by raunsome or otherwise to cause to bee deliuered out of 
prison Edmond Mortimer erle of Marche their cosyn gcrmain whome (as they reported) 
,Owen Glendor kept in filthy prison shakeled with yrons, onely for that cause that he toke 
his parte, and was to hym faithful and trcwe. ^The kyng began not a litell to muse on this 
request, and not without a cause, for in dode it touched him as nere as his shcrte, as you 
well may perceiue by the Genealogy rehersed in the beginnyng of this story. For this fed-/ 
inond was sonne to Earle Roger whiche was sonne to Lady Philip doughter to Lionel! Duke 
of Clarence, the third sonne to kyng Edward the third, whiche Edmonde at kyng Richardes 
-going into Ireland, was proclaimed heire apparant to the crounc and realme, whose Aunt 
called Elinor this Lord Henry Percie had Maried. i And therfore the kyng litell forced al- 
though that that lignage were clerely subuerted and vtterly extincte.j < 
J^WHEN the Jymgiiad long digested anijstudiedon this matter, he made aunswere and 
sayd that the EarleoT Marche was not taken prisoner nt'itllUi 1 ' for his cause nor in his ser- 
uice, but willyngly suffered him selfe to be taken, because he woulde take no partc against* 
Owen Glendor and his complices, and therfore he woulde nether raunsome nor releue hym, 

E 2 which* 



58 THE THIRD YERE OF 

whiche fraude the kyng caused openly to be published and diuulged, with whiche aunswere 
if the parties were angry doubt you not. But with the publyshyng of the cautell, that the 
Earle of Marche was willyngly taken, they ten times more fumed and raged in so imiche 
that sir Henry hotspur said openly: Behold the heire of the realme is robbed of his righte, 
and yet the robber, with his owne, vvyl not redeme hym. So in this fury the Percies depart- 
ed, nothyng more mindyng then to depose kyng Henry from the high tipe of his regalitie, 
and to deliuer and set in his trone their cosyn frende & confederate Edmonde Earle of 
Marche, whome they not onely deliuered oute of the captiuitie of Owen Glendor, but also 
entered into a leage and amitie with the said Owen against king Henry and all his frendes 
and fautours, to the great displeasure and long vnquieting of kyng Henry and his partakers. 
Here I passe ouer to declare howe a certayne writer writeth that this earle of Marche, the 
Lorde Percy and Owen Glendor wer vnwisely made belieue by a Welch Prophecier, that 
king Henry was the Moldwarpe, cursed of Goddes owne mouth, and that they thre were the 
Dragon, the Lion and the WolfFe, whiche shoulde deuide this realme bebvene them, by 
/ the deuiacion and not deuinatio of that mawmet Merlin. ^ I wyll not reberse bowe they by 
their deputies injhehowse of the Archdeacon of Bangor, seduced witii that falce.faiucd 
Prophaie-.xkjLikled the realme amongest thef nojQ^~wTtte r iioWB by U. ffipartie encteoture 
sealed with their scales., all En.gl.an.tle from Seuerne and Trent South and Eastward, was 
^assigne'd to the^ejJe^pJt^J^rj^^JliuEjiow all WaleV^i^QKeTanc[e|bey^Kr^Tie*rne "West- 
ward, were appoincted to Owen Glendor, ancTairthe remnaunt from Trente'Nortlnvardo 
to"tl!iJUl!tltLi l <j|f6itr.' /But j wilr JecTare" to you that^whTcne' waS*B8n5?8pBe3led, that is the 
confusion destruccion and perdicion of these persones, not onely geuyng credite to suche a 
vain fable, but also settyng it forwarde and hopyng to attaine to the effecte of the same 
whiche was especiall of the lorde Percie and Owen Glendor. For the erle of Marche was 
euver kepte in the courte vnder suche a keper that he could nether doo or attempte any 
thyng againste the kyng without his knowledge, and died without issue, leuyng his righte 
title and interest to Anne his sister and heire, maried to Rycharde erle of Cambrige 
father to the duke of Yorke, whose ofspryng in continuaunce of tyme, obteigned the 
game and gat the garland. O ye waueryng Welshmen, call you these prophesies? nay call 
theim vnprofitable practises. Name you them diuinacions? nay name them diabolicall 
deuises, say you they be prognosticacions? nay they be pestiferous publishinges. For by 
declaryng & credite geuing to their subtil & obscure meanynges, princes haue been deceiued, 
many a noble nianne hath suffred, and many an honest man hath been begyled & des- 
troyed. 

KYNG Henry knowyng of this newe confederacy, and nothyng lesse myndyng then that 
happened after, gathered agreatearmye too goo agayne into Wales: whereof the Erie 
of Northumberlande and his sonne wer aduertised, by lorde Thomas erle of Wocester, and 
with all diligence raysed all the power that they could make and sent to the Scottes whiche 
before wer taken prisoners at Hamaldon for aide" and men, promisyng the erle Douglas the 
tonne of Barwicke and a parte of Northumberlande: and to other Scotishe lordes greate 
lordshippes and segniories, if they obteigned the vpper hande and superioritee. The Scot- 
tes allured with desire of gain, and for no malice that they bare to kyng Henry, but some-- 
what desirous to be reuenged of their olde greues, came to the erle with greate compaignie, 
and to make their cause seme good and iuste, they deuised certain articles by the aduise of 
Richard Scrope Archebishop of Yorke, brother to the lorde Scrope, whom kyng Henrv 
caused to bee beheded at Bristow as you haue heard before. Whiche articles thei shewed 
to diuerse noble men and prelates of the realme, whiche fauouryng and concentyng to their 
purpose, not onely promised them aide and succor by wordes, but by their writyng and 
scales confirmed the same. Howbeit, whether it wer for feare, ether for that thei would be 
lokers on and no dede doers, nether promise by worde or by writyng was performed; For all 
y confederates them, abadoned, & at the daie of the conflict left alone the erle of Stafford 

only 
1 



KYNG HENRY THE. IIIJ. 29 

only excepte, which beyng of a haute corage and hye storaacke, kept his promise & Joined 
with the Fercies to his destructi5. 

THE lorde Percy with therle Douglas and other erles of Scotlad with a greate armie, de- 
parted out of the Northparties, leuyng his father sicke (whiche promised vpon his amend- 
ment & recouery without delay to folowe) and catue to Stafford where his vncle therle of 
Worcester and he met, and there began to consult vpon their great affaires and high at- 
tempted enterprice, there they exhorted their souldiers and compaignions to refuse no pain 
for the auauncemente of the common wealth, nor to spare no trauell for the libertie of their 
countree : protestyng openly that they made warre onely (to restore the noble realme of 
^England to his accustomed glory and fredo, which was gouerned by a tirant and not by his / 
law-full and right kyng. The capitaines s\vare and the souldiers promised to fight, ye & to* 
dye for the libertie of their countree. When all thynges was prepared, they set forwarde to- 
warde Wales, lokyng euery houre for new aide and succors, noysyng abrode that they came 
to aide the kyng against Owen Glendor. The kyng heryng of the erles approachyng, 
thought it policie to encounter with the before that the Welshme should ioyne with their 
armie, and so include hym on both partes, and therefore returned sodainly to the toune of 
Shrewesbury. He was skantely entered into the toune, but he was by his postes aduertised 
that the erles with baners displaied and battailes ranged, wer comyng towarde hym, and 
were so hole and so coragious, that they with light horses began to skirmishe with his hoste. 
The kyng'perceiuyng their dooynges, issued out and encamped hymself without the Estgate 
of the toune. Therles nothing abashed although their succors theim deceiued, embattailed 
themselfes not farr from the kynges armie. And the same night thei set the articles whereof 
I spake before, by Thomas Kaiton and Thomas Saluaine esquiers to kyng Henry, signed 
with their handes and sealed with their scales, whiche articles (because no Chronicler saue 
one, maketh rnecion what was the very cause and occasion of this great bloudy battaile, 
in the whiche on bothe partes wer aboue fourty thousande men assembled) I \vorde for 
wordeaccorolinff to my copie do here rchcrce. 

WE Henry! Percy erle of Northumberland, high Constable of England, and Warden of 
the West Marches of England toward Scotlande, Henry Percy our eldest sonne Wardein of 
the Easte Marches of Englandc toward Scotlande, and Thomas Percy erle of* Worcester 
beyng proctours and protectours of the comon wealth, before our Lorde Jesu Christe our 
supreme iudge doo allege, saie and entende to prone with our handes personally this 
instante daie, against the Henry duke of Lancastre, thy complices and fauorers, vniustly 
presuming and named kyng of Englande without title of right, but onely ofthy guyle and 
by force of thy fautors : that when thoufjifter thyne exile diddest entre Engfaude, thou< 
madest an_olhe_to_ vs vpon the holy Gospelles bodely touched and kissed by thee at Dan- 
castre that thou wouldest neuer claime the croune, kyngdom or state royall but onlv thyne 
owne propre inheritance, and the inheritance of thy wife in EnglandeJ and that Richard our 
soueraigne lord the kyng and thyne, should raigne during the terme of his life, gouerned by 
the good counsail of the lordes spirituall and temporal!. Thou hast imprisoned the same thy 
soueraigne lorde and our kyng within the toure of London, vntil he had for feare of death, 
resigned his kyngdomes of Englande and France, and had renounced all his right in the 
forsaid kyngdomes, and others his dominions and landes of beyonde the sea. Vnder coulor 
of whiche resignacion and renunciacion by the counsaile ofthy frendes and complices, and 
by the open noysyng of the rascall people by thee and thy adherentes assembled at West- 
minster, thou hast crouned thy self kyng of the realmes aforsaid, and hast seazed and enter- 
ed into all the castles and lordshippes perteignyng to the kynges croune, contrary to thyne 
othe. Wherfore thou art forsworne and false. 

ALSO we do alledge, saie and entend to proue, that wher thou sworest vpo the same 
Gospelles in the same place and tyme to vs, that thou wouldest not suffre any dismes to be 
leuied of the Clergie, nor fiftenes on the people, nor any other tallagies and taxes to be 
leuied in the realme of Englande to the behoffe of the realme duryng thy life, but by the 

consideracion 



SO THE THIRD YERE OF 

consideration of^the thre estates of (.119 realme, except for great nede in causes of impor- 
tance or for the resistance o c our enemies, onely and none otherwise. Thou contrary to 
thyne othe so made, hast done to bee leuied right many dismes and fif'tenes. and other im- 
posicios and tallagies, aswel of the Clergie as of the comonaltee of the real ne of Engiande, 
& of the Marchauntes, for feare of thy magestie royall. Wherfore thou art periured and 
false. 

"^ALSO we do allege, saie & entede to proue, that were thou sworest to vs vpon the same 
Gospelles in theforsaied place and tyme, that our soueraignelorde and thyne, kyng Richarde, 
should reigne duryng the terme of his life in his royall prerogatiue and dignitee : thou hast 
caused the same our soueraigne lorde and thine, traitorously within the castell of Poumfret, 
without the cosent or lodgement of the lordes of the realme, by the space of fiftene daies and- 
so many r.ightes (whiche is horible etnong Christian people to be heard) with honger, thirst 
and colde to perishe, to be murdered. Wherefore thou art periured and false. 

ALSO we do alledge, saie & entend to proue, that thou at that tyme when our soue- 
raigne lorde and thyne, kyng Richarde, was so by that horrible murder ded as aboue saied, 
thou by extorte power, diddest vsurpe and take the kyngdome of Engiande, and the name 
and the honor of the kyngdome of Fraunce, 'vniustly and wrongfully, contrary to thyne 
othe, from Edmonde Mortimer Earle of Marche and of Ulster, then next and direct heire 
of England and of Fraunce iniediatly by due course of inheritaunce after the deceasse of 
of theforsaied Richard. Wherfore thou art periured and false. 

ALSO we do alledge, saie & entend to proue as aforsaid, that where thou madest an othe 
in the same place and tyme, to supporte and maintein the lawes and good customes of the 
vealme of Engiande, and also afterward at the tyme of thy coronacion thou madest an othe, 
thesaied lawes and good customes to kepe and conserue inuiolate. Thou fraudulently and 
contrary to the lawe of Engiande and thy fautors, haue written almoste through euery shire 
in England to chose such knightes for to hold a parliament as shalbe for thy pleasure and 
purpese, so that in thy parliamentes no Justice should be ministered against thy mynde ir 
these our complaintes now moued and shewed by vs, vvherby at any tyme we might haue 
any perfight redresse, notwithstanding that wee according to our conscience (as we truste 
ruled by God) haue often tymes therof complained, as well can testifie and bere witnes the 
right reuerend fathers in God Thomas Arundell archbishop of Canterbury, and Richarde 
Scrope, archebishop of Yorke. Wherfore nowe by force and strength of hande before our 
Lorde Jesu Christ we must aske our remedy and helpe. 

-A ALSO we do alledge, saie and intende to proue, that where Edmod Mortimer erle of 
Marche and Ulster, was taken prisoner by Owen Glendor in a pitched and foughten feld, 
and cast into prisone and lade with yron fetters, for thy matter and cause, whom falsely thou 
hast proclaymed willyngly to yelde hymself prisoner to thesaied Owen Glendor, and nether 
wouldest dcliuer hym thy self, nor yet suffre vs his kinsmen to raunsome and deliuer hym: 
Yet notwithstanding, we haue not onely concluded and agreed with thesame Owen for his 
raunsome atourpropre charges and expences, but also for a peace betwene thee and the 
said Owen. iWhy hast thou then not onely published and declared vs as traytors, but also 
craftely and deceitfully imagened, purposed and conspired the vtter destruction and confu- 
sion of our persones. For the whiche cause we defy thee, thyj^iutoures and complices as co- 
men traytoures and destroyers of the realme, and the inuadours, oppressoures and confound- 
crs of theverie true and righte heires to the croune of Engiande, whiche thyng we entend 
with our hades to proue this daie, almightie God helpyng vs. 

WHEN kyng Henry had ouerseen jheir_aEtide*4uid defiance*, he answered the esquiers 
that he was redy with dent of swerde and fierce battaill to proue their quarell false'Jmd 
fayned, and not with writyng nor slanderous wordes, and so in his righteous cause anertust 
quarell he doubted not but God would bothe aide and assiste hym, against vntrue persones 
and false forsworne traytours: with whiche answere the messengers departed. The next 
daie ,in ihe mornyng early, whiche was the vigile of Mary Magdalene, the kyng perceiuyng 

that 



KYNG HENRY THE. IIIJ. 51 

magfle battaill was nerer than he ether thoughte or loked for, leste that long tariyng might 
imagninishyng of his strength, set his battailles in good ordre : likewise did his enemies, 
conne bothe in puissance and courage were nothyng to hym inferiour. Then sodainly the 
-_ hisjpettes blew, the kynges parte cried sainct George vpon them: The aduersaries cried 
-llsperaunce Percie, and so furiously the armies ioyned. The Scottes whiche had the for- 
ward on the lordes side, entendyng to bee reuenged of their old displeasures done to them 
by the Englishe nacion, set so h'ersely on the kynges forward, that they made them drawe 
backe, and had almost broken their arraie. The Welshemen also vvhiche sithe the kynges 
departure out of Wales, had lurked and lien in woodes mountaignes and marishes, heryng 
of this battaill towarde, came to the aide of the erles, and refreshed the wery people with 
new succurs. When a fearful messenger had declared to the kyng, that his people were 
beaten doune on euery side, it was no nede to bid hym stirre, for sodainly he approched 
with his freshe battaill, and comforted, hertened and encouraged his part so, that they 
toke their hertes to theini, and manly fought with their enemies. The prince Henry that 
daie holpe muche his father, for although he wer sore wouded in the face with an arow, 
yet he neuer ceased ether to fight where the battail was moste strongest, or to courage bis' , 
men where their hertes was moste danted. This greate battail cotinued thre Ipg4ioures 
with indifferet fortune on bothe partes. That at the last the kyng criyng sainct George, 
victory,~brake the arraie and entered into the battaill of his enemies and fought fiersely, and 
auentered so far into the battaill, that the erle Douglas strake hym doune and slewe si? 
Water Blonte, and three other appareled in the kynges suite and clathyng saiyng: I mar- 
uaill to see so many kynges so sodainly arise again, the kyng wa& reised and did that daie 
many a noble feate of armes. For as the Scottes write and Frenche men affirme, all 
though that Englishemen kepe silence, that he hymself slewe with his handes that daie 
xxxvj. persones of his enemies, the qther of his parte encoraged by his doynges, fought 
valiantly and slew the lorde Percie called sir Henry hotspurre, the best capitain on the- 
parte aduerse. When his death was knowen, the Scottes fled, the Welshemen ran, the 
traitors wer ouercome, then nether wooddes letted, nor hilles stopped the fearfull hertes of 
theim that were vanquished to flie, and in that flighte therle Douglas, whiche for hast fall- 
yng from the cragge of amountagnie brake one of his genitals and was taken, and for his 
valiantnes of the kyng frely & frankely delhier-ed. There was taken also sir Thomas Percie 
erle of Worcester & diuerse other, oa the kyages parte wer slain sir Walter Blount and. xvi. 
C. other persones, but on the parte of the rebelles were slain the erle of Stafford, Che lorde 
Percie and aboue fi.ue thousand other, and as for the Scottes few or none escaped aline. 
AIlTJlltabi^glariou3.yie^^^ kyng_ obte.igoed,-.b.fi ... Knde.rjjdJta.almigluje^ God his* 

and hertie^-tliaftkesr-wuicaused tfieiie-flf .Worcester the innrg wa g\ffer_Mfl r y 



ieine. at Shreweflbory-to-be-draweifttaBgeil aj^t^uartgred, anijjiisjied to be se n t_to_ Lo ndon, 
at whicbe.,place oiany joao cajjitaines fiSL-fiiiSiSdD After this greate battaill, he like a 
triumphante conqueror returned with greate pompe to London, where he was by the se- 
nate and magestrates solemply receiued, not a little reioysyng of his good fortune and for- 
tunate victorye. But before his departure from Shrewesbury, he not forgettyng his enter- 
prise against Owen Glendor, sent into Wales with a great army prince Henry his eldest 
sonne against thesaid Owen and his seclicious fautors, whiche beyng dismaied and in maner 
desperate of all comfort by the reason of the kynges late victory, fled in desert places and so- 
litary caues, where he receiued afinall reward mete and prepared by Goddes prouidence for- 
suche a rebell and sedicious seducer. 'For beyng destitute of all cornforte, clreadyng to 
shewe his face to any creature, lackyng meate to sustain nature, for pure hunger and lacke 
of fode miserably ended his wretched life.' This ende was prouided for suche as gaue cre- 
dence to false prophesies. This ende had they that by diabolical deuinacions were promised' 
great possessions and seigniories. This ende bappeneth to suche as beleuyng such fantasticall 
iblies, aspire and gape for honor and high promocions. W T hen the prince with litle labor 
and lesse losse, bad tamed & bridtled the furious rage of the wild and sauage Welshemen,, 

and! 




32 THE. IIIJ. YERE OF 

atid lefte gouernors to rule and gouerne the countree, he returned to 

honor & no small praise. The erle of Northumberland heryng of the 

brothf-r andsonne, came of his owne free will to the kyng, excusyng hym.. 

party nor knowyng of their doyng nor enterprice : the kyng nether accused h 

excused, butdissimuled the matter for. ii. causes, one was he had Berwicke in his possession, 

which the kyng rather desired to haue by polici then by force: the other was that therle 

had his castellesof Alnewicke, Warkeworth and other fortified with Scottes, so that if therle 

wer appreheded, all Northumberland wer in ieopardy to become Scottish. For jjiese causes 

t kyng gaue hymjaire worries & let hym fflenart homq. whe^ he yontinaed inpeace a .while. 

T>ut after he r^be}ied-aaja*i^iiMU^<NMip^4bajeflael^f Lthis story. \' 

f THE FOURTH YERE. 

The. iiii. This yere \Valeram erle of sent Pole, considryng that he had defied kyng Henry, and 
y ere - also that he had made diuerse voyages, and done litle damage to the English nacion, and 
susteigned rnuche losse, continuyng in his olde malice against the kyng of England, by the 
assent of the Frenche kyng assembled a great numbre of men of warre, as. v. C. men of 
armes. v. C. Genewaies with Crosebowes, and a. M. Flemynges on fote, and laied siege to 
the Castell of Marke thre leages fro Caleis, within the territory of the kyng of Englande, 
the. xvi. daie of July, wherof was capitain Philip Halle esquier, with. Ixxx. archers and. 
xxiiii. other souldiers. Therle raised against the Castle diuerse engines but they preuailed 
not, for they within shot so fersly, and cast out stones so incessantly, and toke suche pain'e 
that to the hearers it is almoste incredible. The erle perceiuing that his feate had suche 
successe as he loked for, retired with his men lodged in the toune, fortifiyng thesame for 
fere of rescous that might issue from Caleis, the next day he gaue a sore assaute again, and 
with great force entered the vtter court of the castle, and toke therein a great number of 
hsrse kyen and catell, at the whiche assaut sir Roberte Barenguile cosin to therle was 
slain. The same daie a. C. Archers on horseback comyng out of Caleis, sawe and percci- 
ued the dooynges & demeanure of therle and his compaignie, and toward night theysentan 
Heraulte certefiyng him that they would dine with him the next daie : to whom he proudly 
answered, that he would gladly receiue them, and their dinnar should at their comyng be 
ready prepared. The nexte daie ensuyng issued out of Caleis. CC. rnen of armes. CC. ar- 
chers. CCC. me on fote with. x. or. xii. CharioUes laden with vitail and artillery, conducted 
by sir Richard Astone knight, leuetenant of the Englishe pale for the erle of Somerset ca- 
pitain generall of those marches: whiche in good ordre of battaill marched toward their 
enemies, which before by their espials wer aduertised of their comyng, but that notwith- 
standyng they issued not out of their lodginges to encounter with them, but kept them self 
within their closure. f^The Englishmen shot so sharply and so closly together, that the Fle- 
mynges and fotemen oegan to flie, the men of arrnes feryng the slaughter of their horses 
ran awaie with a light gallop the Genowais whiche had spent the most part of their shot at 
thassaut made litle defence and small resistence and so all were slain and put to flight. The 
hasty & rashe erle of sent Paul & diuerse other without any stroke geuen to their enemies fled 
to sent Omers, and there wer taken of the best of the armie, as the Frenche and Duche 
Chronicle reporteth thre or foure score persones, emongest whom the capitain of Bullayne 
was one, and many lordes and knightes slain. \ After that the Englishmen had taken all the 
cartes munitions & vitailes that their enemies had brought thither, they returned to Caleis in 
great triumphe, and within fiue daies after there issued out of the Englishe pale, about the 
numbre of. v. C. men towarde Arde by night tyme, thynkyng to haue found the toune vn- 
prouided, but sir Mansard de Boys and the lord Kygnie defended it and let the Englishe- 
men of their purpose, and so with losse of fourty men they returned to Caleis : whiche 
dedde persones wer brent in an old hous, because their enimies should be ignorate of the da- 




mage 



KYNG HENRY THE. IIIJ. 33 

mage that the Englishemen had by them sustained. Therle of sent Paule beyng at Terwin, 
imaginyng how to recouer somewhat of his losse but more of his honor, sente for a greate 
compaignie of noble men and valiant personages, and cocluded to inuade the Marches of 
his enemies. But the Frenche kyng consideryng the erles euil fortune and vnfoi tunate 
chance, comauded hym to leue of his enterprise, with whiche he was sore displeased. Yet 
to auoyd perelles, the Frenche kyng laid in garrison at Bullein and other places, the Mar- 
ques of Pownt sonne to the duke of Barr, and therle of Dampnay, and sir Ihon IJarpadane 
a knight of greate renoune and high estimacion. The kyng of England circuspectly for- 
seyng thynges to come, and imagenyng that the Frenchemen attempted some newe enter- 
price, against hym or his dominions beyonde the sea, sent. iiii. M. men to Caleis and to 
the sea, whereof, iii. M. landed at Sluce, whiche besieged a castle standyng at the mouthe 
of the hauen, and made diuerse assautes and lost diuerse of their compaignie, but newes 
were brought to theirn, that the duke of Burgoyne had required licence of the Frenche kyng 
to besiege the toune of Caleis, for whiche cause thei raised their siege, and returned to the 
defence of that fortresse and desired praie of the Frenche nacion. 

U THE FIFTHE YERE. 

ABOUTE this season Loys Duke of Orliaunce brother to the Frenche Kyng, a man of The. v. 
no lesse pryde then haute courage, wrote letters to Kyng Henry aduertisyng hym, that he >er 
for the perfighte loue whiche he bare to the noble feates of chiualrie and rnarciall actes, in 
auoidyng the slowe worme and deadely Dormouse called Idlenes, the ruiue of realmes and 
confounder of nobilitie, and for the obteignyng of laude and renoune by deades of armes 
and manly enterprises, coulde imagine or inuent nothyng either more honorable or laudable 
to them both, then to mete in the feld eche parte with an hundred Knightes and Ksquiers, 
all beyng Gentlemen bothe of name and armes armed at all pointes and furnished with 
speares, axes, swerdes and daggers, and there to fighte and combate to the yeldyng, and 
euery person to whom God shal send victory to hnue his prisoner, and him to raunsome at 
his pleasure, offeryng hyin sclfe with his company to come to his citie of Angulesme, so that 
the kyng of England wolde come to the laundes of Burdeaux and there defend this cha- 
lenge. .The L kyng of England whiche was as graue and wittie as the duke was light and cou- 
ragious, wrote to hym againe that he net a litell mused hut muche more rneruailed that the 
duke beyng sworne as well to him as to kyng Richard to mainteyne the peace betweene his 
brother the Frenche kyng and theym concluded, and to that had set his signe and great 
scale, wolrie nowe for vainglory vnder colour of doyng dedes of Armes not onely violate the 
peace and breake the amitie betwene them before concluded, but also gene an occasion of 
displeasure and ingratitude, by the whiche in conclusion might rise mortall war and deadely 
enernitie, affirmyng farther that no kyng anointed of very dutie was ether bound or obliged 
to answere any chalenge but to his pere of egall estate and equiuolent dignitie, and that~no 
Christian prince ether ought or shoulde consent to warre or effusion of christen bind but ( 
onely for the defence of his realme, or for conquest of his right, or for amplifiyng of Christes 
faithe and chrhtian religion, and not for pride, worldly fame and vainglory, declaryng also ' 
that when opportunity of time and conuenient leisure serueo\_jie would transfret and passe 
the sea himselfe with suche company as he thought most conuenient into his countrey of 
Gascoigne, at whiche time the Dukemyght set forward with his band for the attainyng of 
Honour nnd accomplishing of his couragious desire and haute enterprise, promising in the 
worde of a prince not thence to depart till the duke either by fulfillyng his owne desire, or , 
by singuler combate betwene them two, onely for auoidyng the effusion of Christen bloud, 
shoulde thinke himself satisfied and fully answered. [Howbeit, at that time he beyng enbu- 
sied with weightie affaires & vrgent causes concernyng the publike welthof his realme could 
neither apoint time nor place, protestyug that the, deferryng of time was nether for disdaine 

F nor 



34 THE. VI.' YF.RE OF 

. nor yet for cowardnes, hut only to abate the pride of him whiche knowyng not himself, nor 
fering reproche, regarded not his othe writyrig nor scale. To this answere the duke of Or- 
leaunce replied and kyng Henry reioyned, which doynges what for the vnprincely launtes 
and vncharitablc checkes in them coteigned, and what for rehersyng againe thinges to you 
-here before declared I omitte and put in obliuion. The duke of Orleaunce not content 
with the king of England, assembled an armie of. vi. M. men and entered into Guien and 
besieged the town of Vergy, wherof was Capitaine sir Robart Antelfelde a valiant knight 
and an hardy captain, hauyng with him onely thre hundred Englishmen. The duke almostc 
euery day assaulted the towne fiersely, but thy within the towne couragiously defended the 
same : In so much that when he had lien there thre monethes & had lost many of his men 
and nothyng gotten, without honour or spoile returned into Fraunce. After this the Ad- 
miral of Britayne whiche beyng highly elated and'muche encouraged because the laste yere 
he had taken certaine Englishe shippes laden with wine accompanied with the Lord CastyH 
a valiant baron of Britaine, and xii. C. men of armes, & xxx. shippes, sailed from sainct 
Malovyes and came before the towne of Darthtnouthe and woulde liaue landed, but by the 
puissaunce of the townsmen and aide of the countrey, they were repulsed and put backe in 
whiche conflicte the Lorde of Castell with his two brethren with foure hundrcdc other were 
slain, and aboue two hundred prisoners taken and raunsomed, wherof the Lord of Baque- 
uile high Marshall of Britaine was one, whiche was brought to the kyns and after redemed. 
The Admiral sory of this intbrtunate enterprise with muche Josse and no gain returned 
hastely into his countrey. Kyng Henry being aduertised of this attempt, sent the Lord 
Thomas his sonne whiche after was duke of Clarence to the sea with a gret nauie of shippes 
to the entent eyther with battaill or depopulacion of the sea coastes bothe of Britaine and' 
of Fraunce to reuenge this iniurie and inuasion he sailyng by the seacostes landed diuers times 
and fiered shippes & brent townes and destroied people without fauoure or mercie, and when he 
thoughtehis quarell well reuenged lie sailed toward England, and in hisretournynghecncountred 
with two great Carickes of leane laden with riche marchandise and substantial stuf betwene 
whom was a greate confh'cte and a blouddy battell, but after long fightyng, the Englishemen 
preuailed and brought bothe the Carickes into Camber before Rye, where one of them by mis- 
auenture of fier perished to the losse and no gaine of bothe the parties. About this time 
Ilion- duke of Burgoin whiche had long laboured and now obteined licence to besiege the 
towne of Caleis, preparyng enginnes, ladders, cartes, and all other instrumentes necessary 
and conuenient for so great a feate and notorious siege, and assembled at S. Omers vi. M. 
men of armes, xv. C. Crosbowes, beside, xii. M. fotemen, hauyng vitail Bumbarde.s and 
other municions of warre sufficient ami conuenient for his abrode blowen enterprise. But 
when all thynges wer prepared and the hole army assembled lie was by the French kyng and 
his councell (whiche put diffidence in the exploite of his glorious busines) counterrnaunded 
prohibited farther to precede in that weightie purpose : for the which cause he conceiued 
so great an hatred and deadely malice against the Duke of Orleaunce (as the onely stop and 
let of his glory and renoume) that he euer after not only maligned and grudged against him 
and his procedynges, but also (as you shall shortly heafe) brought him to death and finall 
destruction. i 

f THE SIXT YERE. 

rhc.vi. I'N tn i s y ere tf ie Earle of Northumberland whiche bare still a venemouS scorpion in his 
?<*<> cankered heart, and coulde not desist to inuent and deuise waies and meanes howe to be re- 
uenged of kyng Henry and his fautours, began secretely to communicate his interior imagi- 
nacions and priuie thoughtes with Richard Scrope Archebishop of Yorke brother to Willia. 
lord Scrop treasorer of England whom- kyng Henry (as you haue hearde) beheaded at the 
iowne of Bristow, and with Thomas- Mowbrey erle Marshal sonne to Thomas duke of 
Norffolke, for kyng Henries cause before banished the realme of England, and with the 

lordes 



KYNG HENRY THE, IIIJ. 35 

lordes, Hastynges, FauconbBidge, Bardolfe and cliuerse other. whiche he knewe to beare 
deadely liate and inward grudge toward the kyng. After long consultation had, it was fil 
nally concluded and determined amongest theyiu that all they, their frendcs and alies witli 
all their power shoulde mete at Yorkcs wold at a day appointed and that therle of Northum- 
berlad should be chefetaine and supreme gouernour of the armie, which promised to bryng 
with him a great nomber of Scottes. 

THIS sedicious conspiracy was not so secretely kept nor so closely cloked but that the 
kyng thereof had knowledge, and was fully aduertised. Wherefore to preuent the time of 
their assembly, he with suche power as he could sodainly gather together with all diligece 
marched toward the North parties and vsed such a celeritie in his iourney that he was thither 
come with all his hosteand power before the confederates hearde any inkelyng of his march- 
yng forward, and sodainly there wer apprehended the Archebishop, the earle Marshal, sir- 
Ihon Lampley, and sir llobart Plumpton. These personnes wer arrained, atteinted and 
adiudged to die, and so on the Monday in Whitson weke all they withoute the Citie of 
Yorke were beheadded. Here of nccessitie I oughte not nor will not forgeate howe some^f 
folishe and fantastical! personnes haue written, howe erronius Ipocrites and sedicious Asses 
haue endited, howe supersticious Friers and malicious Monkes haue declared and diuulged 
both contrary to Goddes doctrine the honour of their prince and comrnen knowen veritie that r , 
at the howre of the executio of this Bishop (which of the Executioner desired to haue fiue 
strokes in remembraunce of the fiue woundes of Christ) the kyng at the same time sittyng at 
diner had v. strokes in his necke by a person inuisible, & was incontinently strike with a 
leprey, whiche is a manifest lye as you shall after plainely perceiue. What shall a man say of 
suche writers whiche toke upon them to knowe the secretes of Goddes Judgement? what 
shall men thinke of such beastly persons whiche regardyng not their bounden .du.tie, and 
obeisance to their prince & souerain Lord enuied the punishment of trailers and torment of 
offeders ? But what shall all men coniecture of suche whiche fauouryng their own worldly 
dignitie, their own priuate auctoritie, their own peculiar profit, wil thus iuggle raile and 
imagine fantasies against their soueraigne lord and Prince, and put theim in memorye as a 
miracle to his dishonor and perpetual infamy: Wei let wise men iudge what I haue said. 
Beside these persons, diuers other of thesaid conspiracie and faccio, the lorde Hastinges, the 
lord Fauconbridge, sir Ihon Coluile of the dale, sir Ihon. Griffith were beheaded at Durham. 
Therle of Northumberland hearyng his councelto be reueled and his confederates to be put 
to execution and shameful death, fled into Scotland to his old frend George of Dunbarre 
earle of the Marche, which the yere before was reuoked out of exile and restored to his 
possessions name and dignitie, where he taried till the next Somer & then sailed into 
France and after into Flaunders desyryng aide and assistence againste kyng Henry, but 
when he sawe littel hope of comfort and that fevve willyngly were ententife to his request, 
he accompanied with the Lorde Bardolffe muchc dismaied and more desperate returned 
again to his trew frendes into Scotlande and there made his abode the hole yere abydynf 
the fauour of Fortune and chaungc of his vnfortunate chaunce duryng whiche tyme the 
kyng withoute any difncultie toke into his possession the towne of Barwicke, the castelles of 
Alnewyke and all other Fortresses appertainyng to the Earle : and liyng at Berwycke he 
caused to be put to death the Barons sonne of Greystocke, sir Henry Beynton, and Ihon 
Blenkensoppe and fiue other as fautoures and workers of this newe inuented conspiracy. 
When the kyng had thus appeased and asswaged that late begonne commotion, he sent his 
son the prince of Wales accompanied with Edward duke of Yorke and a great puissance, 
to encounter with the Scottes which by promise wer bound to ayde and assiste the confede- 
rates and rebelles. But thei hearyng that the founders of the warre were apprehended and 
put to deathe, made no haste forward but taried peacibly at home. So that the prince 
entryng into Scotland and findyng no resistence, brent tounes spoyled villages and wasted 
the countrey euery where as he passed, which thyng so muche,amased the kyng of Scottes 
and his councel, that notwithstandyng that he had gathered and appoincted a greate hoste vn- 

F 2 dcr 



36 THE VII. YERE OF 

der the conducte of the Erles of Douglas and Bowgham to resist the prince and his inuasions, 
yet they sente Ambassadors to hym requiryng hym of peace and finall concord, whiche requeste 
he vtterly denaied, but at their humble peticion he graunted them a truce for certaine monethes, 
of the whiche they were botheglad and ioyous, and so the prince laden with pray and spoile 
retourned with great gain to his father. While the prince thus infected the countrey of Scot- 
lad on the land, sir Robart Vmfreuile vice Admiral! of England vexed the coutreys of Fyffe 
and Loghdian on the sea coast, for he liyng in the Scottishe sea. xiiii. daies and etiery daie 
landed on the one side or the other and toke praies spoyles and prisoners matigre the gret 
powers of the duke of Albanie and the Erie Douglas, insomuche that he brent and toke the 
town of Peples on their faire day and caused his men to mete Clothe with their bowes : and 
with great gain retournyng to his shippes brent the Galiet of Scotland with many other ves- 
sels, and sente Clothe vitail and diuers Marchandises to euery towne in Northumberland, 
seltyng thereon no great price: Wherefore the Scottes called hyrn liobyn niendmarket. 
The kyng about this time was newely vnquieted and perturbed, for notwithstandyng this 
fortunate successe that he had obteigned in all his outward warres and interiour affayres, yet 
some of his people bare suche a cankered hearte to warde hym that to expell hym from hi 
rule and dignitie they left no occasion vnsought nor deuise vnattempted. For sodainty 
sprage out a fame of an vncertain auctour that king Richard was yet liuing in Scotland, to 
whiche fable suche credite was geuen that if prudente policie had not forsene the sequele, it 
had kendeled a greatter flame then within short space might haue well bene quenched or 
cxtincte. 

IT THE SEUENTH YERE. 

Th.vii, IN this sommer, the Pestilenciall plage so infected the Citie of London and the countrei 
ycre. rofid about that the king durst not repaire thither nor yet nere to the confines of the same, 
wherfore he departyng from the castel of Ledes, determined to take ship at Quinboroughe 
in the Isle of Shepey, and to sail ouer to Lye in Essex and so to Plasshey, there to passe 
his time till the plage were seased: and because certain pyrates of Fraunce were lurkyng at 
the Temmes mouthe waityng for their pray, Thomas Lord Camois with certaine shippes of 
warre was appointed to wafte ouer the king. When the kyng was on the sea, in the middest 
of his iourney, whether the wind turned, or that the Lord Camois kept not a directe course^ 
or that his shippe was but a slugge. The Frenchemen whiche by all similitude had knowledge 
of the kvngcs passage entered amongest the kynges nauie and tokefowre vcsselles nexte to the 
kynges shippe and in one of the sir Thomas Rampston knight the kiuges vice chamberlain 
with all his chamber sturFeand apparel, and folowed the kyng so nere that if his shippe had. 
nat bene swift he had landed sooner in Fn;ce then in Essex, but by Goddes prouision and 
fortunate chauuce he escaped the daunger and arriued at his appointed porte. The kyng 
beyng sore moued with the lord Camois, caused him to be attached and endited that he con- 
discended and agreed with the Frenchemen that the kyng in his iourney should be intercepted 
and taken. On this poinct he was arraigned the last dajjatVQctober before Edmond erle of 
Kent that day high stuard of the realnie, on which day were he giltie or giltless, fautie or 
clore, culpable or innocent of that fact and doyng, he was by his peres found not giltie and 
dismissed at the barre, hauyng restitucion bothe of his landes goodes and offices. In this 
yere kyng Henry not onely desiryng newe affinitie with forein princes but also the preferment 
of his line and progeny, sent the Lady Phylip his yonger doughter to Ericke kyng of Den- 
marke, Norwey and Swethen which was conueighed thither with great pompeand therewith 
muche triumphc maricd to the said kyng, where she tasted bothe welthe, and wo, ioye & 
pain. About this season died sir Robert Knolles knight a man of great policie, wisclome and 
experience in war which had bene a Capitayn from the time of Kyng Edward the. iii. till his 
latter dayes, iu the whiche he beyng Gouernour of Aquitayne encombred with age resigned 

1 his 



KYNG HENRY THE. IIIJ. 37 

his office to sir Thomas Belfford a valiaunt capytaine and returned to London, where he 
disseased and was honorably buried in the Churche of the White Fryers. 

f THE EYGHT YERE. 

YOU haue heard before how kyng Robert of Scotlande being very aged and impotent, was The. via.. 
notable to rule and gouerne his realme, and how Walter his brother, beyingby hym created duke yer< 
of Albanie, (whiche was the firste duke that euer was in Scotlande) was made gouernor of 
his brothers countree and dominion. After whiche office and preheminece by hym obteigned, 
he so sore thirsted after the croune and scepter royal that he cared litle though the kyng his 
brother and his two sones had been at Christes fote in heuen. And somwhat to further his 
purpose, it vnfortunatly chaused that Dauy of Rothesay prince of the realme and eldest sonne 
to the kyng, was accused to his father of diuerse heynous crimes, and in especiall of lasciuious 
& dissolute liuyng, as rauishyng of wiues, deflouryng of virgins, and defyling of maidens, 
w her fore the kyng deliuered hym to his brother the gouernor, trustyng that by his good 
coiMsaill and discrete aduertisemente he would not onely amend his life, but also to fall 
to wisedom prudence and grauitie. Whe the duke had possessed part of his desired 
pray, he sent his nephewe fro castle to castle, from prisone to prisone, from place to place, 
and in conclusion lodged him in a toure within the castle of Franckelande, where with fa- 
inyne he caused miserably to ende his life, puttyng a poore woman to painfull death, whiche 
gaue to the Prince the milke of her brestes by a rede into the prisone. His death was long, 
hidden from the king his lather, but in conclusio, the gouernor shewed to the king how 
diuerse persones traiterously had murdered hym whiche wer apprehended and iudged to die, 
& yet in their l ; ues they neuer knew nor yet saw hym. The kyng notwithstandyng his bro- 
thers excuse, doubted much thend of his other sonne named larnes, wherfore he priuely 
prouided a shi[>, in the whiche he put the child beyng then of the age of. ix. yeres, under the 
tuicion of the lorde Hery Senclere erle of Orkeney, willyng him to couey the prince into f. 
realme of France if by any possibilitie he could thether attain. And if fortune should driue 
hym on ^ cost of England, he wrote letters to the kyng of England, y tenor wherof in- 
sueth. 

" ROBERT Kyng of Scottes, sendeth gretyng to Kyng Henry of Englande, although by A letter 
relacion of other persones I haue knowen before this tyme, what magnanirnitie, what cle- 
inencie, and other infinite vertues be planted and roted in your royall persone, yet in the voy- Scottes.. 
age that you your self personally last made into Scotlad, I haue had manifest and open expe- 
rience of the same. For whe you like our enemy inuaded our countrie, brent our tounes, 
and destroyed our people, yet by the fauor that you shewed to suche places and people 
whiche receined and fostered your noble father when he fled out of Englad (for feare of 
rebelles whiche then sore afflicted his lande) we haue receiued altnoste as muche profit and 
aduantage as we did hurte and damage, by your terrible warres and bloudy inuasions. 
Wherefore I cannot but laud and praise your highnes & Judge your noble herte mete for a 
kyngdo, but also I doloue and will not cease to loue you duryng my naturall life. And 
notwithstandyng that realmes and nacions daily contende and make warre for glory rule 
and empire, yet to vs bothe beyng kynges, no suche occasion is geuen to do as they do, or 
to folowe their steppes or progression, but we (whiche is the duetie of a kyng) oughte to 
striuewho shall prosecute other with moste humain fauor and continual ckmencie, and as 
muche as we maie to be felowes, compagnios and alies, insinguler loue and perpetual amitie. 
And as for suche causes as now be different and in discencion betwene vs and our realmes for 
my part I shall endeuor my self to bryng all thynges to a good coclusion & mutuall confor- 
mitie. And because that I now am in the same trouble and perplexitie for my children, that 
your father was with the rebelles of Englande, I am compelled of very necessitie to desire 

aide 



38 THE. VIII. YERE OF 

aide and seke coforte of forain princes and strange nacions. And although that by the help 
of God and power of my people, I am able inough to kepe the same against all outwarde 
powers and forain attemptes. Yet from the secrete malice of suche as lurke and bee daily 
norished in my very bosome, I cannot kepe theim in suertie within myne owne dominion. 
And yet in no other place thei can bee from that pestiferous conspiracy put in any sure de- 
fence or perfight sauegard, except thei he preserued by the faith and fidelitie of good and iust 
men. The worlde this tyme is so full of malice, so replenished with rancor, that whereso- 
euer thatgolde or siluer (whiche bee instrumentes of mischief) maie enter or penetrate, there 
shalbe founde ministers prone and redy to do and perpetrate al detestable crimes and mis- 
cheuous inuencions: But because I kuowe and perceiue your person to be endued with so 
many notable vertues, and to be adorned with such Magnanimitie, fidelitie, iustiee, cle- 
mencie, and finally, not onely to be replenished with the whole compaignie and felowship 
of the vertues Moral, but also to be of that power, riches & puyssance that no prince in our 
tyme, maie to your highnes be ether compared or assimuled, I beyng by your noble and 
notable qualities allected and encoraged, most hertely require your helpe and humbly desire 
your aide, relefe and comfort. For mine eldest sonne Dauid, (as I suspect and as the fame 
runeth, althonghe I cannot yet thereof make a perfight proft'e) is muithered, by no comen 
murther, by no open tliefe, by no notorious malefactor nor by no furious persone, but by 
my brother his vncle whiche ought to haue protected and saued him, to whom I comitted the 
gouernance of me, my children, my whole realme and all that I had, whiche vnnaturall 
.kinseman hath not only killed my child, but hath shamefully slain and murdered hym with the 
.moste cruell and miserable kynd of death, which Js famyne. And so he, which ought & 
.whose duety was to haue aduoyded and put fro me the iniuries of all other persones, hath 
afflicted me with the moste contumelie, the greatest iniury and manifest damage, that euer 
subiecte did attempt against his Prince, or brother against brother, or enemy against 
.kinseman. For he whom I made.gouernor to withstand the power and malice of mine outward 
enemies, compasseth and imagineth how to destroy myne issue, and consequently myne 
owne persone. Wherfore for the fauor that you here to Justice sent by God to mankinde, 
and for the naturall loue and fatherly affection that you here to your children and posteritie, 
I humbly require and hertely desire your magnificece, that this mine onely child, not onely 
maie safely and surely liue vnder your defence and protection but also that you of your ac- 
customed goodnes will vouchsaue to preserue and defende this the onely heire of my pos- 
teritie from the malicious attemptes of his cruell kynred and ambicious consanguinitie. And 
this the rather, for the remembrance both of your fathers chance, whiche in his necessitie 
..found muche humanitic in our nacion, and also of the frailtie of worldly suretie, whiche 
: assone changcth from good to euill, and from euill to worse, as the faire and redolent flower 
this dale florisheth, and to morow widreth and sodainly vadeth. Requiryng you to haue in re- 
membraunce, that if princes put their whole confidence only in their comon people, which 
T>e more variable then the Wethercocke or wynd, and haue no outward frendes nor forain 
nmitie, their empire is fallyng and their regiment very britell. But if princes be coupled in 
.the chaines of indissoluble amide, and will mutually & faithfully defende their cornen ene- 
mies, and aduoyde their manifest iniuries, there is no power or strength of the comen 
people, that ether can hurte or cast theim from the throne: in suche a suretie is a kyng 
.that so is garnished with the loue, fauor and amitie of outward princes and louyng neigh- 
bors. Wherfore, if it may seme expedient to your high wisedome, to here this my lowly 
requeste and louyng suete (whiche I thynke your clemencie will not reiect nor retell) my 
desire is, that accordyng to the last truce concluded betwene yon and vs, in the whiche is 
.conteigned that all men conueighyng letters from the one of vs to the other, should suerly 
& sauely passe and repasse without any cotradiccio: That it would plese you not to breke 
,nor deny the said liberty to this berer our only sone, but for your honor to kepe your pro- 
mise sincerly inuiolated & .faithfully obserued. And thus the gracious God preserue your 
noble person in your royal estate long to continew." 

4 WHEN 



KYNG HENRY THE. 1IIJ. S9 

WHEN all thynges necessary were prepared, the mariners halsed vp their ankers and 
departed from Bas castle with this young prince and Henry Percie sonne to the lord Percie 
slain before at Shrewsbury, and by rigor pf tempest wer driuen on the cost of llolder- 

-nes called Flamborough hed the. xxx. daie of Marche, where the yong prince for to re- 
freshe liymselfe toke lande. He wroughte not so priuily, but he was knowen and taken with 
all his copany, & conueighed to the kyngbeyngat Winsore, where he with dew reuerece deli- 
uercd his fathers letter. When the letter was redde & vnderstand, the kyng assembled his 
counsail to knowe what should be doen with this noble enfant. Some to whome the con- 
tinual warres and daily battail was bothe displeasut and odious, affirmed that there could 
not happen a better or a more surer occasion of peace and amide betwene bothe the realmes, 
whiche beyng so offred, they would in no wise should be reiected but taken, consideryng that 
this prince was sent thither, in trust of sauegard, in hope of refuge, and in request 
of aide and comfort against his euill willers and malicous enemies: other (whose opinion 
toke place) affirmed hyin to be a prisoner and so to bee ordered, for asmuche as he was 

. taken the warre beeyng open, and that his father did not onely maintayne therle of Nor- 
thumberland and other rebelles within his countrie and geue them great honors, but also sent a 
.greate nombre of his nobilite against the kyng at- the battaill of Shrewesbery. W-herfore it 
was agreed that he should be deteined as a prisoner, lawfully taken and duely appreheded. 
When tidynges of this difinitiue sentence was shewed to his father, he tooke suche an in-* 
warde conceit and so sore a penciffenes, that he ended his naturall life within a few inone- 
thes after. Although the takyng of this young prince, was at the first tyme displeasant to 
the realme of Scotlande: yet surely, after he and all his region had greate cause to reioyse 
and thanke God of their fortunate chaunce and good lucke that insued. For where before 
that tyme the people of Scotlande wer rude, rustical!, without any vrbanitie, hauyng litle ler- 
uyng and lesse good maners, & good qualities least of all. This prince beeyng. xviij. yeres 
prisoner within this realme, was so instructed and taught by his scholemasters & pedagoges 
,apointed to him by the onely clemencie of the kyng, that he not onely florished in good learn-' 

-yng ajid freshe litterature (as the tyme then serued) but also excelled in all poynctes of Mar- 
ciall feates, Musicall instrumentes, Poeticall artes and liberal sciences. In so muche th;it ; 
at his returne from captiuitee, he furnished his realme bothe with good learnyng and ciuilL. 
policie, whiche before was barbarous, sauage, rude & without all good nurtur. . 

f THE NYNETH YERE.. 

TIIERLE of Northumberland, whiche had been in Fraunce and other regions to oh- TH*. ix. . 
teigne aide against kyng Henry, and had missed of his purpose, now puttc his whole confidence ycre * 
in the Scottes, and in especiall in his olde frende George erle of Marche, and so assembled 
a great power of the Scottish nacion to inuade Northumberland, and recouered diuerse of 
his owne castles and seigniories, to whom the people without nombre daily resorted. Wher- 
fore he entendyng to bee reuenged of his old greues, accornpaignied with the lorde Bar- 
dolfte and diuerse other Scottes and Englishmen entredinto Yorke shire and there began to > 
destroy and depopulate the countrie. Wherof the kyng beyng aduerttsed, caused a greate 
army to be assembled and marched toward his enemies, but or the kyng came to -Notyng- 
hani, Raufe Rekesbie shrife of Yorke shire, in the middest of February with the po^er of ; 
the countrie, sodainlie set on therle and his compaignie, at a place called Bramhatn More, 
where after long fightyng, the erle and the Lorde Bardolffe and many other-wer taken and ^ 
brought to Yorke and there executed, and their heddes sent to London. . 

AFTER this the kyng hauing knowledge that diuerse pirates wer wanderyng on the cost 
of Englande, prepared a great armie furnished with men, vitaile and -.municions- of warre 
mete & conuenient for such 1 an enterprice, and in the beginnyng. of Marche sent to the sea, 
lorde Edtnond- Hollande erle of Kent, chieftain of that crewe- and ar-mie. When the erle" 

had-J 



40 THE TENTH YERE OF 

had searched all the coaste of Fraunce, and had founde not one pirate or sea robber, he vras 
aduertised by his espials that they heryng of his armie, wer diuerted to the partes of Britayn. 
Wherefore the said erle entendyng to be reuenged on them whiche he sougtit for, made his 
course thether, before his arriual they had conueighed their shippes into the hauens, so that 
he could not fight with them on the sea, wherfore lie launched out his botes and with his 
fierce souldiers toke land and fiercely assaulted the towne of Briake standyng on the sea side. 
The citiezens threwe out dartes, cast stones, shotte quarrelles and manfully defended their 
walles. In wliiche conflicte the erle receiued such a wound in his head that he departed out 
of this world the. v. day after. The assailantes not dismaied but set a fire with the death of 
their captaine like men desperate styll assaulted the towne and by fine force entered into the 
same and set it a fier and slewe all that would make any resisteuce, and for lacke of a cap- 
tain, the men of warre laden with praies and prisoners returned againe into Englande. 

THIS Edmond erle of Kent was in such fauour with kyng Henry that he not alonely ad- 
uanced and promoted him to highe offices and great preheminences, but also by his meane and 
MO small coste obteigned for him the eldest doughter and one of the heires of the Lord I3ar- 
nabo of Millaine brother to Lord Galeace whose sone also called Galeace murdervng his 
vncle Barnabo made himselfe first duke of Millaine, for which marriage Lord Barnabo 
paied to him an hundred M. Duccattes at the churche of saint Marie Oueryes in South- 
warke at the day of the solempnite, by doen Alphos de Caniola. This Lucie after the death 
of her husband by whom she had no issue, was moued by the kyng to mary with Ins bastard 
brother the Earle of Dorcet a man very aged and il visaged, whose person nether satisfied 
her fantasy nor whose face pleased her appetite, wherfore she preferring her own mind more 
then the kynges desire, delityng in him the whiche shoulde more satisfie her wanton pleasure 
then gaine her any profile, for very loue toke to husband Henry Mortimer a goodly yong 
Esquier and a bewtifull Bacheler. For which cause the kyng was not onely with her dis- 
pleased but also for mariyng withoute his licence he seassed and fined her at a great some 
of money, which fine kyng Henry the. v. bothe released and pardoned and also made him 
knyght and promoted hym to great offices both in England and Normandie, whiche sir Hen- 
ry had issue by this Lady, Anne maried to sir Ihon Awbemond mother to Elizabeth Chan- 
dos mother to Phillis maried to sir Dauie Halle capitayne of Caen, she had also issue Mari 
maried to Ihon Cheddar and Luce espoused to sir Ihon Cressy. fThis yere by reason of Frost r \ 
^ shepe and birds died without nomber, whiche continued fiftene weekes7 

*[ THE. X. YERE. 

Th. x. ABOUTE this time Ihon duke of Burgoine a man of a quicke witte, desirous of rule, & 

of a haute courage, being of great auctoritie ainongest the Frenche nacion to whome ciuill 
discorde was more pleasure than fraternall amitie and mutuall concorde, began sore to 
grudge and maligne against Lewes Duke of Orleance brother to the French kyng, because 
that he was chefe of the kynges councell and ordered al thinges by his discrecion, because the 
king his brother was (as you haue heard) fallen into a frensy and tlierfore meddled in no- 
thyng. The duke of Orleance on the otherside beyng highly set vp in pride, began to dis- 
dain and froune at the duke of Burgoin, because he perceiued that he aspired & gaped to haue 
the supreme regimente in the publike affaires and weightie causes, thus the one would haue 
no superior, and the other would haue no pere. This cancard disdain in shorte space grewe 
to suche a hate, that all the realme of Fraunce was deuided into two faccions, thone parte 
fauoryng the duke of Orleauce, and the other inclinyng to the duke of Burgoyne, whiche 
deuisiou had almoste brought the realme of France to vtter ruineand perpetuafl confusion. 
The Frenche kyng beyng sornwhat amended of his dissease, heryng of this controuersie be- 
twene these two princes, set for theim bothe to Paris, where he reproued their pride, re- 
buked their malice, and taunted their vngodly dooynges, in so muche that all the nobilitie 

beygn 



KYNG HENRY THE. IIIJ. 

beyng present, Judged the displeasure to haue been bothe forgotten and forgeuen. But 
high corages are not so sone abated, nor roted malice is not in hast plucked vp, for the 
duke of Burgoyne still co passing the destruccion of the duke ofOrleance, appoyncted a se- 
crete frende called Raft'e of Actouille, to bryng his purpose to passe. This Raft'e forgettyng 
not his enterprise, assembled together a compaignie of suche persons as he moste trusted, & 
as a Woltte gredy of his pray, when the duke of Orleance was commyng from the court in 
the night season, he fiersly set vpon hym and shamefully slewe hym. When this murder 
was published, the king lamented, the nobles grudged, and the comon people cried to God 
for vengeance. The duke of Burgoyne iustified this act by the mouth of Master Ihon Petit 
doctor in deuinite, whiche wrested scripture and doctors so far out of course, that his Justi- 
fication within fe\ve yeres after was adiudged heresy by the whole vniuersite of Paris. The 
French kyng, lest that greater mischief should ensue, was compelled to hide and cloke his 
inward arfeccion and dolorus herte and to dissimule the matter, doubtyng lest the duke of 
Burgoyne whose herte and haute corage he had well knowen before, (if he should proceade 
against hym for this euill acte) would ioyne and take part with the Englishe nacion against 
the realme of France. Wherefore after long consultacion had by the entreatie of the kyng 
and other Princes of the bloud royall, Charles duke of Orleance sonne to duke Lewes lately 
murdred, and Ihon duke of Burgoyne were reconsiled and brought to a fained concord and 
a fainte agremente, eche of theim takyng a corporall othe vpon the holy Euangelists, neuer 
after to disagre or renewe any displeasure for any thyng before passed. But what preuaileth 
an othe where hertes still burne & malice continually smoketh, who careth for penury when 
apetite of reuengyng daily encreaseth. 

IN this case was the duke of Orleance whiche perceiuyng the king his vncle to beare 
with the duke of Burgoyne, and to let the detestable murder of his father so lightly pasee 
without pain or punishmet, alied and confederated hvmself with the dukes of Berry and Bur- 
bon, & the cries of Alaunson and Arminacke, whiche reised agreate puissance of people, 
and defied the duke of Burgoin and his cdplices as their mortall foo and dedly enemy. The 
duke of Burgoine feryng the sequele of the matter (because ther was a mocio of mariage 
to be had betwene the prince of Wales and his doughter) was somwhat the bolder to send 
to the kyng of England for aide and succors against his enemies. Kyng Henry no lesse 
forseyng then that whiche after ensued, whiche was that the discord of these two great princes 
might turne his realme to profit and honor, sent to the duke of Burgoine, Thomas erle 
of Arundell, sir Gilbert Vmfreuile lorde of Kyne, sir Robert Vinfreuile, and sir Ihon Grey 
with. xij. C. archers, whiche toke shippyng at Douer and landed at Sluce. When thenglish- 
men wer arriued in Flaunders, the duke of Burgoin with thenglishmen and all his power, 
rode daie and night til he came nere to Paris, and ther the next daie after with hard fight- 
yng and coragious shotyng, the Englishmen gat the bridge of saint Clow, whiche passed 
ouer the riuer of Saine, and toke and slewe all the souldiers whiche the duke of Orleance 
had left there in garrison to defend the bridge. Emongest whom sir Mansard de Boys a 
valiant capitain was taken prisoner by the Englishemen & highly raunsomed. But the duke 
of Orleace and his compainy whiche wer like to haue been compassed with their enemies, so 
that almost al their waies of refuge were stopped and enclosed, in the nyght tyme made a 
bridge ouer the riuer on the part of saint Denis strete, & so escaped & fled into the high cou- 
tries. And after this conflicte the duke of Burgoyn beyng now in his ruffe thin kyng no 
man ether in aucthorite or bloud equiuolente to his person, and blinded with a kail of vain- 
glory before his ieyes, toke vpo him him the hole rule and gouernance of the realme and or- 
dered the kyng as pleased him, and not to the kinges wil, and thinking that in so trobelous 
a season he had vnknit the knot of all ambiguities & doubtes perceiuingall thynges to haue 
better succeded for his purpose then he before imagined, dismissed Thenglishmen into their 
countrey geuing to them harty thankea and great rewardesj Which doyng king Hery much 
disalowed, consideryng that he had sent away his defence before the great brunt of the war 
wer ouerpassed, & shuld haue taken hede before what policie his enemies had practised or 

G what 



42 THE. XII. YEIIE OF 

what puissance they had assembled. For he well remebred that one faire daieassufeth not a 
good Sommer, nor one fliyng Svvalovv prognosticated! not a good yere. 

f THE ELEUENTH YEIIE. 

ih.xi. Kyng Henry nowe beyng quiet & not molested with ciuil discencion nor domesticali 
factions called his high court of parliamente i the whiche after he had concluded diuerse 
Actes mete and expedient for the publike welth of his realme and people, he exalted and 
promoted his thre yonger sonnes to hie honors, as lorde Thomas to the Duchie of Clarence, 
lorde Ihon to the duchie of Bedford, & lorde Humphrey to the cluchie of Glocester, and 
lord Thomas his halfe brother erle of Dorcet he made duke of Excester. Howbeit some 
wTherj3_sai he was erected to that estate and dignitie by kyng Henry the. v. in the first yere 
of his reigne, whiche thyng is nether materiall nor disputable consideryng he had none issue. 

f 

1T THE TWELFTH YERE. 

The. xii. While these thynges wer thus doyng in England, Iho duke of Burgoyn which ruled 
the rost and gouerned both kyng Charles the Frenche kyng and his whole realme, so muche 
stomakedand enuied the duke of Orlifice & his fautors that he caused the Freeh kyng in per- 



son to arme himself against them and their adherentes, as traitors to liym and apparat ene- 
mies to the comon welth, & sent diuerse eapitaines to inuade their landes and territories in 
the countrees of Poytiers and Angulesme, & other seigniories aperteinyng and belongyng to 
the homage and obeisance of the duchie of Aquitain & Guien. Wherfore the dukes of 
Orleance, Berre, and Bui bon with their fi edes and alies, scyng that now their onely hope 
consisted in the kyng of England, sent to hym Alberte Aubemound a man of no lesse lern- 
yng then audacite, & yet of no lesse audacitie, then wit and policie, whiche in the name of 
the confederates offred certain codicions as you shall here after accordyng to myne aucthor 
truly reported, whiche wer made & cocluded in the yere of our Lorde. M.CCCC.xij. the. 
viij. dale of Maie. 

FIRST, thesaid lordes offred that fro thece furth thei should expose and set furth their 
owne persons, finances and lades to serue the kyng of England his heires and successors, 
when souer thei wer required or called in all hist quarelles: whiche iust quarelles the kyng 
of Knglade shall take to aperteigne to the duchie of Guyen with the appurtenances, affirna- 
yng how thesaid duchie perteigneth and ought to apertain to hym of righte by lineall heritage 
and lawfull succession, manifestyng from thence furthe, that thei should not blemishe nor 
spotte their truthe nor fidelite to assiste and aide hym in recoueryng thesame duchy. 

ALSO thesaied Lordes offered their sonnes, doughters, nephewes and neces, parentes 
and all their subiectes, to contract mariage accordyng to the discrecion of the kyng of En- 
glande. 

ALSO thei offred tounes castles tresures, & generally al their goodes to ayde the kyng his 
heires and successors for the defence of their rightes and quarels, so that the bonde of 
their allegiance might be saued, the whiche in another secrete apointment they before had 
declared. 

ALSO thei offred to the kyng of England generally al their frendes adherentes alies and 
well willers to serue him in his quarel for the recouery of the hole Duchie of Guien. 

ALSO to cease al fraude, the sayd lordes recognised that they were ready, to affirme the 
saied Duchie of Guien to belong to the kyng of England, in like and semblable wise in li- 
berty and franchises, as euer any of the said kynges predecessors held or possessed the 
same. 

ALSO the said lordes knowledged that al the townes castels and fortresses that they had 

1 within. 



KYNG HENRY THE, IIIJ. 43 

within the Duchie of Guien, to holde them of the kyng of England as the very trewe duke 
of Guien, promisyug all seruice and homages after the best maner that in suche case might be. 

ALSO they promised to deliuer to the kyng as much as laie in the all townes and castelles 
apperteinyng to the roialtie and seignorie of England, whiche are in 'nombcr. xx. what 
townes and castels, and as to the regarde of other townes and fortresses whiche were not iu 
their puissaunce and seigniory, they woulde healpe the kyng of England his heires and 
deputies to winne them with men in sufficiente number at their propre charges and cxpences. 

ALSO the kyng of England was agreed that the duke of Berry his trewe Uncle and* vas- 
salle and the duke of Orleance his subiecte and vassalle and the Earle of Arminacke shoulde vm\ik 
holde of hym by homage and fealtie the landes and seigniores hereafter folowyng, that is to"iVth" 
saye the Duke of Berry to holde the Countie of Pontiew duryng his life, and the duke ofind or 
Orleaunce to hold the countie of Angulesme duryng his life onely, and the countie of Per- clfT"^" 
rigot for eucr, and the Erie of Annniacke to holde. iiii. castels vpon certain sureties and tie r H O - 
condicions as by indenture should be appointed. 

FOR the which offers couenauntes and agrementcs they affirmed that the kyng of England 
as Duke of Guien, ought to defende & succour them against all men as their very Lord and 
soueraigne, and not to conclude any treatie of leage with the Duke of Burgoine, his bre- 
thren, children, fi endes or alies. 

FURTHERMORE, the kyng of England ought to ayde the sayd Lordes as his trewe 
vassals in all their iuste quarels for recoueryng of damages for iniuries to them wrongful- 
ly done. <)} Vi 

ALSO they required the kyng of England to send to the. viii. thousand men to ayde 
them againste the Duke of Burgoine, whiche daily prouoked the French kyng to make open 
warre on them, their landes and seigniories, promisyng farther to disbouice and pay all the 
costes and charges whiche the sayd armie of Englishmen should expend duiyng their waire, 
whiche letter was written the. viii. day of May. 

KYNG Henry louingly receiued & gentely enlertayned this messenger Albcrte, and 
when he had well debated and considered the case,: # he first detesting the abhominable mur- 
der of the late duke of Orliaunce and seyng no lustjce ministred nor no punishment done 
for so shamefull an acte, hauyng also approued experience that the Duke of Burgoine 
wolde kepe no longer promise then he him self listed. And secondarily consideryng what 
large offers these Princes had made to him bothe greatly to his honour and to the high pro- 
fit and commoditie of his realme and subiectes, thought that he was b'ounde by the office of 
aTKyiig to ayde and succour theym whiche cried for lustice and could liaue none, and in espe- 
ciall because they in that point beyng his subiectes and vassalles ought to be defended in 
maintenaunce of his superioritie and seigniorie: wherfove he louyngly promyscd them aide 
and relefe. This return of the messenger was to them as pleasant as is the deliuerance of a 
captiue fro his sore imprisonment, or of a marchant passyng by the way beset about by 
Thcues, beyng reskewed by his frendes or copanions. And not without cause, for the , * Ar s"'- 
French king not of his owne courage animated, but maliciously encesed by the duke of Ari'to" L 
Burgoyn, persecuted the faction of the Orliaunces from citie to citie from tovvne to towne, v - kin s. of 
with such power and extremitie that they were bothe of force and necessitie compelled to 
repaire to the Citie of Bourges in Berry, and there to appoincte theym sdfes ether to ren- 




enemy to the Englishmen into the parties of Picardy with nYten C. horseroe and a groat ^fcSST"" 
nomber of fotemen, he ordeined certain of his men to gene assaulte to the tonne of Guisnes J MI&I, 
while he stode in a stale to lie in w'aite for the relefe that myght come from Caleis. The f he Poet " 
furious Frenchmen brake a fewe old pales about pore mens gardcins of Guisnes, but the tapem* 
men of warre of the Castell shotte so fiercely at them with arowes and caste oute wildeficr h?** 5 "'* 
in swche abundance that the assailantes were faine to retire. And so the erle of sainct kpses* 

GS Paule 



41 



The. xiii, 
ytre. 



THE. XIIII. YERE OF 

Paule whiche neuer wonne gain but loste honor at the Englishe mens handes, returned no 
onely with losse of his people but defrauded of his desired pray, returned to the toune of 
Saint Quintins. 

If THE. XIII. YERE. 

THe Frenche kyng in the meane seaso by the enticement of the duke of Burgoine layd 
sege to the citie of Bourges in Berry where the duke of Orleance and his confederates had 
included and fortified themselfes. When the kyng of England was thereof aduertised, he with 
all diligence sent forthe his sonne Thomas duke of Clarence, and Edward duke of Yorke 
with. viii. C. horsrnen and. ix. thousand archers whiche toke land in the bay of Hogges in 
Normandy by sainct Waste in the territory of Constantine. Thenglishemen swarmed like 
Bees rounde aboute the countrey, robbyng Marchantes, spoilyng husbandmen and brennyng 
townes, and were ioyously receiued of the Erles of Alauson and Richmond fautors of the 
Ofliencial part. The councel of Fraunce not willing that the Englishmen should ioyne or 
concurre with the Dukes of Orleaunce and Berry or their complices, caused a common fame 
( although it were not trewe) to be diuulged abrode that there was a finall peace and a perfit 
amide concluded betwene the Frenche kyng & his lordes whiche lately were to hym aduer- 
saries. When this fable was notified to the Englishmen whiche were by hasty iourneys passed 
the ryuer of Leire, they spoiled the towne and Monastery of Beauliew, and wasted with 
fire and swerde the countreis of Touraine and Maine. Against whom the duke of Burgoyn 
sent the lord of Rambures with a great armie, whiche in short time was before vanquished. 
The Dolphyn of Fraunce fearyng the doynges of the Englishemen concluded a fayned peace 
betwene the dukes of Orleaunce and Burgoyne and their adherentes, so that the duke of 
Orleaunce should without delay dispatche out of the dominions of Frauuce all the English 
armie. The duke was not rich to paie, and the Englishmen were gredy to haue, in so 
muche that they marchyng toward Guien in good order what by sackyng of townes & what 
with raunsomyng of riche persones, gat great treasure and many good prayes. Beside this to 
the aide of the duke of Orliaunce king Henry sent to Caleis therles of Kent and Warwike 
with. ii. thousand fightyng men whiche spoiled & defaced the countie of Bullenois, and 
brent the towne of Samer de Boys and toke with assault the fortresse of Russalte with diuers 
other. The duke of Orleance which was daily called on to dispatche the Englishemen out 
of Fraunce, came to the duke of Clarence and his army rendryng to them a M. gramercies and 
disbursed to them as muche money as ether he or his frendes myghte easily spare: and for 
two hundred and. ix. M. Frankes which remayned vnpaide he deliuered in gage his second 
brother Ihon erle of Angulesme whiche was Grandfather to Frances afterward French king 
and sir Marcell of Bourge, sir Ihon of Samoures, sir Archibault of Viliers and diuers other, 
which earle long continewed in Englande as you shall perceiue hereafter. When this 
agrement was taken, the dukes of Clarence and Yorke with gret pray (riche prisoners, and 
welthy hostages) came to Burdeaux makyng warre on the frontiers of Fraunce, to their 
greate gaine and profitable lucre. So by the onely commyng of the Englishmen into 
France the duke of Orliaunce was^je^tored not onely to peace and quietnes with al- persons 
saue the duke of Burgoyne : But also fell in suche fauour with the kyng & the realm that he 
was of all men welbeloued, muche honored and highly cstemed, and so continewed till wa- , 
^ v ^-uering^Fprtujie turned her variable whele. For after this he beyng enemy to the Englishe 
"* nation was vanquished and takeiy prisoner and so remained in Englande aboue. xxiiii. yeres, 
till the flower of his age was passed or sore blemyshed. 

1 THE FOURTENTH YERE. 

Tie. *iuj. AFter these great and fortunate chaunces happened to kyng Henry, he perfightly re- 
membring that there could be no more praise geuen to a prince then to execute his office in 

4 admin- 



KYNG HENRY THE. IIIJ. 45 

administryng Justice whiche aboue all thyng is the very necessary minister to all people, en- 
tendyng to Hue in quietenes, beyng now deliuered of al Ciuilldeuision and intestine discen- " / 
cion, with the which almost all Christendom was infected and disturbed, not onely to the 
gret decay of Christes religion and Christian creatures but to the great exaltacio of Painiin 
princes, by the dilatyng of the pestiferous sect of the false counterfait prophet vainglorious 
Mahumet : called a great cousail of the thre estates of his realme, in the whiche he delibe- 
rately consulted and concluded aswell for the politike gouernance of his realme as also 
for the war to be made against the Infidels, and especially for the recouery of the holy Citie 
of Jerusalem, in whiche Christian warres he entended to ende his transitory life, and for 
that cause he prepared a great army, and gathered muche treasure, entending to set forward 
in the same spring time. But se the chaunce, what so euer man intendeth God sodainly 
reuerseth, what princes will, god wil not, what we thinke stable, God sodainely maketh 
mutable, to the entent that Salomons saiyng might be found trewe, which wrote that the wis- 
dome of men is but folishnes before God. When this Prince was thus furnyshed with trea- 
sure sufficient, with valiant capitaines and hardy souldiers, with tall shippes furnished with 
vitayles municions and all thynges necessary for suche a iourney roiall, he was taken with 
a sore sodain disease and laied in his bed : whiche disease was no Lepry stryken by the 
handes of God asfolish Friers before declared, for then he neither would for shame, nor for 
debilitie was able to enterprise so great a iourney as in to lewrie in his own person, but he 
was taken with a sore * Apoplexye of the whiche he languished tyll his appoyncted howre, ' 
and had none other grefe nor malady. Duryng whiche sickenes as Auctors write he caused 
his crowne to be set on the pillowe at his beddes heade and sodainly his pange so sore tro- dered of 
beled him that as he lay as though al his vitall sprites had been from him departed : suche Sow to< 
chamberlains as had the cure and charge of his bodyc thinkyng him to bee departed and *i>ichcm 
deade couered his face with a linnen cloth. The prince his sonne being therof aduertised, oTt^r 56 ' 3 
entered into the chamber and toke away the crowne and departed: the father being sodainly heade f ' om 
reuiued out of his traunce quickly perceiued the lacke of his crowne, and hauyng know- ftiyngoftht 
ledge that the prince his sonne had possessed it, caused hym torepaire to his presence, re- bod y com - 
quiryng of him for what cause he had so misused hlselfe. The prince with a good audacitie therefore" 
answered, sir to mine and all mennes iudgemetes you semed deade in this world, wherfore j h <y wh ' il ' e 

I-II n II / . i " aut t " ls 

I as your next & aparant heir toke that as mine own & not as yours: well faire son said the disease are 
kyng (with a gret sigh) what right I had to it & how I enioied it God knoweth, wel q h the f/, 11 " 1 f 
prince if you die kyng I wil haue the garlad & trust to kepe it with the swerd against all mine 
enemies as you haue done: well said the kyng I comit all to God & remeber you to do well, 
and with that turned himself in his bed & shortly after departed to God, in a chamber of 
the abbotesof Westminster called Jerusalem the. xx. day of March in the yere of our Lord 
M. iiii.-C. xiii. and in the yere of his age. xlvi. when he had reigned, xiii. yeres, v. monthes & 
odde dales in muche perplexitie and littel pleasure, whose body with all funerall pope was co- 
ueighed to Canterbury, and there solemply buried, leuyng behind him by the lady Marie 
daughter to lord Hufrey erle of Hereford & Northapton, Henry prince of Wales, Tho- 
mas duke of Clarece, Iho duke of Bedford, Humfrey duke of Glocester, Blanche duches 
of Bauier & Philip Quene of Denmarke. for by his last wife Quene lane he had no chil- 
dren. This kyng was of a mean stature, wel proporcioned and formally compact, quicke 
and deliuer & of as tout courage. After that he had appeased all ciuile discecions he shew 
ed him selfe so gentely to all men that he gat him more loue of the nobles in his latter daies 
then he had malice and il will of them in the begin nyng. When tidynges of his death was re- 
lated to,the duke of Clarence beyng in Aquitayri, he with all diligent celeritie toke shipwit-h 
therle of Angulesme, and other his hostages & returned into England to the great cotbrt 
of his brethren. 

The end of the vnquiet tyme of kyng Henry the fourth. 

THE 



THE VICTORIOUS ACTES OF KYNG HENRY 

THE FIFTH. 



Tke.-i.ye. T TEnry Prince of Wales, sonne and heire to kyng Hery the. iiii. borne at Monmouth 
A JL on the lliuer of Wye, after the obsequies of his noble paret soleply celebrate and 
supteously finished, toke vpon him the high power regiment of this realme of Englande 
the xx. daie of Alarche in the yere after that Christ our sauior had entered into the immacu- 
late wobe of the holy Y r irgin his naturall mother a thousande foure hundred and. xii. and 
-v wascrouned the. ix. dale of Aprill then nextensuyng, and proclaimed kyng by the name of 
Vf kyng Henry the. filth. Before whiche royall possession so by hym obteined, diuerse noble 
men and honorable personages did to hym homage, liege and swaredewe obeisance (whiche 
-^> thyng had not been before expjjrimeted) as to hym in whom they conceiued a good expecta- 
cion bothe of his verteous beginnynges and also of his fortunat successe in allthynges whiche 
shoukl be attempted or begonne duryng the tyrne of his prosperous reigne and fortunate 
Empire. 

THIS kyng, this man was he, whiche (accordyng to the olde Prouerbe) declared and 
shewed that honors ought to change mariers, for incontinent after that he was stalled in the 
siege royall, and had receiued the croune and scepter of the famous and fortunate region, 
determined with hymself to put on the shape of a new man, and to vse another sorte of 
liuyng, turnyng insolencie and wildnes into grauitie and sobernes, and waueryng vice into 
constant vertue. And to thentent that he would so continue without goyng backe, & not 
thereunto bee allured by his familier copaignions, with whom lie had passed his young age 
and wanton pastime & riotous misorder (insomuche that for imprisonmente of one of his 
wanton mates and vnthriftie plaifaiers he strake the chiefe Justice with his fiste on the face. 
For whiche offence he was not onely committed tostreight prison, but also of his father put 
out of the preuy counsaill and banished the courle, a,nd his brother Thomas duke of Clarence 
elected president of the kynges counsaill to his great displeasure and open reproche) he 
therfore banished and seperated fro hym all his old flatterers and familier compaignions, 
(not vnrewarded nor yet vnpreferred) inhibityng them vpon a greate pain not once to ap- 
procbe ether to his speche or presence, nor yet to lodge or soiourne within ten miles of 
his courte or mansion. And in their places he elected and chose men of grauitee, men of 
witte, and men of high policy, by whose wise counsaill and prudente instruction he mighte 
at all tymes rule to his honor and gouerne to his profite. This prince was almost the Ara- 
bicall Phenix, and emogest his predecessors a very Paragon : For that he emongest all go- 
uernors, chiefly did remembre that a kyng ought to bee a ruler with wit, grauitie, circurn- 
speccion, diligence and constancie, and for that cause to haue a rule to hym comitted, not 
for an honor, but for an pnorarious charge and daily burden, and not to looke so muche 
on other mennes liuynges, as to consider and remembre his owne doynges and prOpre actes. 
For whiche cause, he not to muche trustyng to the readinesse of his owne witte, nor to the 
iudgementes of his owne waueryng will, called to his counsaill suche pmdent and politique 
personages, -the whiche should not onely help to ease his charge & pain in s-upportyng the 
burden of his realme and Empire, but also incense and instruct hym with suche good rea- 
sons and fruitefull perswasions, that he might shewe hymself a synguler mirror and manifest 
-example of moral vertues and good qualities to his cornen people and louiog subiectes. For 
it is daily seen, that a vicious prince doth muche more hurtc with his pernicious exaple to 

other 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 47 

other, then to hymself by liis owne peculier offence. For it is not so muchc cuill as Cicero 
saicth (although it bee cuill in it self) a prince to do cnill, as ho by his cuill doyngeb to cor- 
rupt olhcr, because it is daily seen, that as princes chage, the people altercth, and as kyngcs 
go, the subiectes folovvc. 1'or certainly he that is preferred to high autlioritee, is therefore 
nuiche exalted and had in honor, that he should rule, ouerse and correct the mantrs and 
codicions of the people, and vigilantly to forsee and daily study how to acquire to.iiymself 
lauclc and glory, and to other profile and comodite, and not to delight in \vordly pleasures 
whichc are commen emongest the lowest sorte of the vile and rusticall people. And he that: 
Mill do not-hyng nor can do nothyng is more worthy to be called a sernant then a ruler, 
a subiect rather then a gocrnor. For what can bee more shame or reprociie to a prince, 
then he whiche ought to goueme and rule other shall by cowardncs, slouth and ignorance 
as a pupille not of. viii. or. x. yercs of age, but beyng of. xx. or. xxx. yores and more, 
shalbe compelled to obey and folowe tlie willes of other, and be ruled and beare no rule, 
'like a ward and not like" a garde, like a seruant and not like a Master. Suche a gouernour 
was kyngllicharde the secondc, whiche of hymself bcejng not of the most euill disposition,, 
was not of so symple a minde, nor of suchc debilite of witte, nor yet of so litle herte and j 
corage, but he might haue demaunded and learned good and profitable counsaill, and after/ 
aduise taken, kept, retayned and folowed the same: But howsoeuer it was, vnprofitable.; 
counsailers wer his confusion and finall perdicion. Suche another ruler was kyng Edwarde 
the seconde, wliiche two before named kynges fell from the high glory of fortunes whelc. 1 to 
exstreme misery and miserable calainittee. 13y whose infortunate chance (as I thynke) this 
kyng Henry beyng admonished, expulsed from hyin his old plaie felowes, his prcuie Sico- 
]>hantes and viigracious gard as authors and procurers of al mischifes and .riot, and assign- 
ed into their, places men of grauitee, persons of actiuitee, and counsaillers of greate witte 
and pollicie. 

AFTER (hat he had laicd this prudent and polletique foundation, . he erjtendyng in his 
mynd to do many noble and notable actes, and remembrynglhat all goudnee Cometh of God, 
and that all worldly thynges and humain Actes bee more weaker and poorer then the celestial! 
powers heuenly rewardcs, determined to begin with some thyng pleasaunt and accepta- 
ble to God; Wherefore he first commaunded the Clergie syncerely and truly to prcache the 
worde of God and to line after thesame,- so that they to the ternporaltec might be the Lan- 
ternes of light and mirrors of vertue. The laie men he willed to serue God and obey their 
prince, prohibityng to them aboue al thynges brechc of matrimony vse of sweryng & wilful 
penury, exhortyng bothc to loue together as man with wife or brother with brother. Be- 
side this he elected the best learned men ia the lawcs of the realme to the offices of iuslice, 
and men of good liuyng he preferred to high degrees and authoritec. 

THE madnes of the Welshemen and Scottes (whose often incursions and robberies he 
\vel had in his fathers daies experimented and assaied) he studied to asuage and re- 
presse, to the intent that he beeyng quiet in his o-wne regions, might ether make outward 
warre without doubte or dangier, or els for the commen wealth of his realme. to study haw. 
to encreace the glory of his seigniory, & so both kepe conseruc it. 

WHEN all thynges were thus settled and framed to. his purpose, .he caused , the body of 
kyng Richard the second to be remoucd witliall funerall pompes conueniente for his estate, , 
from Langely to Westminster, where he was honorably enterred with Quene Anne his firste 
wife in a solempne toumbe erected and -set vp at the costes and charges of this noble prince 
kyng Henry. 

ALTHOUGH this prudente prince and this pollitique gouernor had set and established 
all thynges beyng in difference and variaunce within his owne peculier realmes, countrees 
and territories and confines of thesame: yet he nothyng lesse forgetting nor no one thyng 
more myndyng or desiring, then theceassyng of the long scisme and deuision sproi>g. con- 
tinued in the catholike churche of Christian religion by the moste ambicious desire and 
auaricious appetite of certaine persones callyng tlicmselfes spiritual! fathers, but in dee.de 

carnall 



48 TIJE. L YERE OF 

X 

carnall couclcotirs and grcdy glottos aspiryng for honor and not for vertue to the proad 
see of Rome, desiryng more to pille then to profile Christes flocke or Christian religion, 
hauyug knowledge tlial a general! counsaill was somoned to bee celebrate and kept at the 
fa ire citee of Constance vpon tiie riuer of Ryne, thought that it was not his honor nor yet 
his duetie, beyng thereof warned bv the Emperor Sigismond to bee as a hearer and no par- 
taker in so high a ca.use, and in especiall in so high an assemble. Wherefore he sent the- 
-ther Richard erle of Warwike and three bishoppes with other famous prelates and doctors, 
besides knightes & esquires to the numbre of eight hundred horsses. They wer men so well 
appareled and their horsses so richely trapped, and all the compaignie so well furnished, 
that the Almaines wondred, the Italians gased, and all other nacions were astonnied to se 
suche an honorable compaignie come from a countree so farre distant. At this Sinody were 
assembled (as one authore writeth) CCC.xlvj. bishoppes, Abbottes and doctors v. C.lxiiij. 
noble men, knightes and esquires, xvj. M. beside seruantes whiche (not accomptyng the 
townes men) wer numbred. ixv. M. persones. These Ambassadours were highly receiued 
of the Emperor Sygismond and of the Romishe bishop called Ihon the. xxiij. whiche in 
thesame counsuill for greate and abhominable crimes and detestable offenses by hyni perpe- 
trated andcomrtted (of the whiche he could not pourge hymself nor make any defence) was 
by thesame Sinody accordyng to the demerites put doune and of his estate depriued. Grego- 
ry the. xij. was one of the Scismatical numbre, fearyng shame more then regardyng his 
wordly afleccion did putte doune hymself of his ovvne propre mocion from his foolishe vsurp- 
ed name and Fopishe dignitee. But Benedict the. xiii. still and stifly affirmyng hymself to 
be the very Viker of God, so muche desired honor, and so muche was wrapped in his 
owne folishe and fantastical opinion, that no frend could persuade hym, nor argumet entice 
hyrn, nor no reason refrain hym from thesame, and so accordyng to his desert by open Judge- 
ment, against his wil, lost bothe name and honestie. And thre yeres after Otho Columbe 
a noble Romainc borne was elected to the bishopricke of Rome and named Martyne the 
fifth. 

i IN this cousaill Ihon WiclifFe borne in England, and Ihon Husse and Iherom of Prage 
Wer condemned to death. Duryng this firste yere, sir Ihon Old Castle, whiche by his 
wife was called lorde Cobhatn, a valiant capitain and an hardy gentleman, was accused to 
the Archbishop of Cauntorbury of certain poynctes of heresy. Whiche bishoppe knowyng 
hym to be highly in the kynges fauor, declared to his highnes the whole accusacio. 
The kvng first hauing compassion of the noble man, required the prelates that if he 
were a straied shepe, rather by gentlenes then by rigoure to reduce hym to his old 
flocke. After that he sendyng for hym, godly exhorted and louyngly admonished hym 
to reconcile hymself to God and his lawes. The lorde Cobham not onely thanked 
the kyng of his moste fauourable clemencye, but also declared firste to hym by mouthe 
and afterwardc by writyng the foundacion of his faith, the ground of his belefe and 
the botome of his stomacke, affirmyng his grace to be his supreme hed and competent iudge 
& none other persone, oiFeryng an hundred knightes and esquires to come to his purgatio, 
or els to fight in open listcs with his accusers. The kyng not onely knowing the lawes of the 
reame, but also persuaded by his counsaill, that hereticall accusacions ought to be tried by 
the spiritual prelates, sente hym to the tower of London there to abide the determination of 
the clergie according to the statutes in and for that cace prouided. After whiche tyine the. 
xxiij. daie of Septembre, a solempne session was appoincted in the Cathedrall churche of 
sainct Paule, and another the. xxv. da of the said moneth in the hal of the Friers prechers 
in London, in whiche places thesaid lorde was examined, apposed and fully heard, & in con- 
clusion by the archbishop denounced an hereticke and so remitted again to the toure of Lon- 
don : Fro whiche place, ether by help of frendes or corrupcion of kepers, he priuely 
escaped and cam into Wales, where he remained by the space of thre yeres and more. 

AFTER this tyme in a certain vnlawfull assemble was taken sir Robert Acton knight, a 
man of greate wit 9c possessions, Ihon Broune Esquire, Ihon Beuerly clerke and a greate 

numbre 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 

mimbre of other whiche were brought to the kynges presence, and to hym declared the 
cause of their commocion and risyng : and accusynga greate nubre of tlieir sort and societie 
(_ \vhiche-cofessio because I haue not seen, I leaue at large.) After this folishe acte, so many 
pcrsoncs \vere apprehended that all the prisons in and about London wer replenished with' 
people. The chief of them whiche wer. xxix. wer condempned by the clergie of heresy, 
and attainted of high treason as mouers of warre against their kyng by the temporal lave in 
the Gnyld hall the. xii. daie of December, and adjudged for treason to be dra\vcn and 
hanged, and for heresy to be consumed with lire gallowes and all: Which iudgemente was 
executed in laniuerfolowyng on thesaied Robert Acton and the. xxviij. other. 

SOME sale that the occasion of their death was the conueighance of the Lorde Cobham 
out of prisone. Other write that it was bothe fbr treason and heresy as the record declareth. 
Certain^ affinne that it was for feined causes surmised by the spiritualtie more of displea- 
sourthen truth: the Judgement whereof I leaue to men indifferent. For surely all coniec- 
tures be not true, nor all writynges are not the Gospell, & therefore because I was nether 
a witnes of the iacte, nor present at the deede I ouerpasse that matter and begin another, 

IT THE SECONDE YERE. 

KYng Henry cotinuatly studiyng for the honor of hymself and aduancement of his The - * 
people, called his high courte of parliament the last daie of April in the touire of Leicester y< 
In the whiche parliamente many profitable lawes were concluded: and many peticions 
moued wer for that tyrne deferred Emongest whiche requestes* one was, ttmt a bill exhi- 
bited m the parliamente holden at Westminster in the. xj. yere of kyng Henry the fourth 
(whiche by reason that the kyng was then vexed and troubled with ciuill deuision & domes- 
ticall dissencion, came to none effect) might now bee well studied, pondered; regarded and 
brought to some good conclusion. The effect of whiche supplicacion-was, that the tempo- 
lalllandesdeuoutely gcaen, and disordinatly spent by religious and other spiritual I persones^ 
might suffise to maintain- to the honor of the kyng and defence of the realme, xv. 
erles, xv.C. knightes,. vj.M. ii.C. esquires, and. C. almose houses for relief onely of the poore 
impotente and nedy persones, and the kyng to haue elerely to his cofers twentie thousande 
poundes, with, many other prouisions and valewes of religioushouses whiche I oueipa.sse. 

THIS before remembred bill was muche noted and feared emogest the religious sort 
whom in effect it muche touched) uisomnche that the fat Abbotes SAvet, the proude Priors 
frouned, the poore Friers curssed thesely Nonnes wept, and al together wer nothyng- pleas- 
ed nor yet cotent. Now to nndea remedy for a mischief and a tent to stop a -wounde, the 
Clergy myndyng rather to-bowe then breake, agreed to offre to the kyng a greate some of nio-- 
ney to staye this newe moued demaund. The cause of this offre seined to some of the wise- 
prelates nether decente nor c.onuenient, for they wellforsawe and f)erfightly knee that if 
the commos perceiued that thei by reward or offre of money would resist their request & 
petiekm, that thei stirred & moued with a fury woold not onely rayle and despise theim as 
corruptours of Princes and enemies of the publique wealthe, but would so crye and caH on- 
the kyng and histemporall lordes that they were liketo lese bothe worke and oyle, cost and ; - 
linyng: Wherefore they determined to cast all chaunces whiche mighte serue their purpose, 
& in especiall to replenishe the kynges brayne with some pleasante study that he should ne-- 
ther phantasy nor regard the serious peticion of the importunate commons. 

WHERFORE on a daie when the kyng was present in the parliament, Henry Cbicheley 
Archebishop of Cautorbury thereto newly preferred, whiche beforetime had been a-Monke 
of the Carthusians, a ma whiche had professed vvilfull pouertie in religion, and yet commyng 
abrode muche desired honor, & a man muche regardyng Godes law, but ; morc louyng liis 
his owne lucre. After lowe obeysaunce made to the kyng he said after this maaer in effect. 

H- 






$0 THE. II. YERE OF 

Why I consider pur most entirely beloued and no lesse drad soueraigne lorde and naturall 
Prince, the louyng mynd, the daily labor and continuall study whiclie you incessantly im- 

- pjore bothc for thaduancetnct of the honor of your realme and also profile of your people: 
1 cannot nor ought not, except I would bee noted not onely ingrate to your royall person 
bcyng my patrone & preferrer, but also a neglecter of my dutye, a secrete mummer of suche 
thynges whiche louche both the inheritance of your croune & the honor of your realme ether 
holdc my peace or kcpe silence. For all authors agree that the glory of kynges consistelh 
not onely in high bloud and haute progeny, not in habounclant riches and superfluous sub- 
staunce, nor in plesant pastyme and ioyous solace: But the very tipe of the magnificence 
of a prince rcsteth in populous riche regions, wealthy subiectes and beautiful! citees and tounes, 
of the whiche thanked be God, although you be coueniently furnished both within your 
realmcs of England & Ireland and principalite of Wales, yet by lineal discet, by progeny 
of blud and by very inheritance, not onely the duchy of Normandy and Aquitaine with the 
counties of Aniowe and Mayne and the countrei of Gascoynare to you as true and vndubi- 
tate heir of the same laufully deuoluted and lineally disc-ended from the high and most noble 
prince of famous memory kyng Edward the third your great grandfather, but also the whole 
realme of Fraunce with all his prerogatiucs and preheminences, to you as heire to your 
great grandfather is of right belongyng and apperteiguyng. In whiche realme, to reherse 
what noble persons, what beautifull cities, what fertile, regions, what substancial marchates, 
and what plentifull riuers are conteigned and included, I assure you that time should rather 
faile then matter shoulde wax skant. The fraudulent Frenchmen to defraude and take away 
vour ryght and title to the realme of Fraunce, in the lime of your noble progenitor king Ed- 
ward the third, alledged a lawe, vntruly faincd, falcely glosed and Sophistically expounded, 
wherof the very wordes are these, In terrain salicam mulieres nesuccedant, which is to say, 

e l et not women succcde in the land*Salicque. This land Salicque the deceitful glosers name 
to be the realme of Fraunce. This lawe the Logical! interpretours assigne to directe the 
croune and regalitie of the same region, as who wold say that to that preheminence no woman 
were liable, to aspire, nor no heire Female was worthy to inherile. The French writers af- 
firm that Pharamond kyng of the Frenche Gaules, first instituted this lawe which neuer was, 
should or might be broken. Seenowe howe an euell gloseconfoundeth the text, and a perci- 
all interprctour marreth the sentence, for first it is apparantly knowen and by an hudred 
writers confirmed that Pharamond whom they alledge to be aucthour of ihis lawe was duke of 
Franconia in Germany, and elecled lo be kyng of the Sicambres, whiche callyng them selfes 
Frenchmen had gotten parte of the Gaule Celtike betwene the riuers of Marne and Seyn. 
This Pharamond disceased in the yere of our Lord. iiii. C. & xxvi. long after whose death, 
Charles the great beyng Emperoure and many yeres inakyng war re on the Saxons dyd in 
bluddy battaile disperse and confounde the whole puissance of that nacion in the yere of 
our Lord viii. C and flue, and broughte theim to the catholique faith and Christian confor- 
mitie. Alter which victory certaine souldiers as the Frenche Cronographiers affirm, passed 
ouer the water of Sala and there inhabited, betwene the riuers ot Elue and Sala, and wer 
commonlv called Sali Frenchemen or Sali Gaules, whiche countrey nowe is the lande of 
Mismie. This people had suche displeasure at the vnhonest fashions of the Germain women, 
that they made a law that the Females shuld not succede to any inheritance within that land. 
NOWE with indifferent eares if you wyll note these two pointes you shall easily perceiue 
that the lawe Salicque was only fained and inuented to put your noble progenitours and you 
iroivi your lawfull ryght and true inheritaunce. For they saie that Pharamond made the 
lawe for the land Salicque, whiche the glose called) Fraunce. Then I demaunde of master 
Closer or rather master Doctor commenter, yf I may call a commenter an open Her, whe- 
ther Pharamond* whiche died iiii. C. xxi yeres before the Frenchemen possessed the Gaule 
Salicque and neuer sawe or knewe it, made a lawe of thatthyng whiche at that tyme was 
not his nor inhabited by his people. Beside this, the realme of Fraunce whiche is your pa- 
trimony is compact of. Hi. Gaules Belgiquc, Celtique and Aquitain, and no part of Salicque: 

then 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. g\ 

then may the gloser expounde aswell thatGaule Belgiqtie is the countrey of Brytain, as to 
glose that the lande Salicque is the whole realme and dominion of the croune of Fraunce. 
Wonder it is to see how the Frenchmen luggle with this phantastical lawe, folowyng the 
crafty hasarders whiche vse a plaie called seest thou me or seest thou me not. For whe 
kyng Pepyu whiche was Duke of Brabante by his mother Begga, and master of the palayce 
of Fraunce coueted the croune and scepter of the realme, the Frenche nacion not remebryng 
this infringible law, deposed Childeryck the. iii. the very heyre male and vndoubted childe 
of the line of Pharamond and Clouis kynges of Fraunce by the cousail of Zachary then Bi- 
shop of Home, and set vp in trone this Pepyn as nexte heire gcnerall discended of lady 
Blithyld doughter to kyug Clothayre the first. Hugh Capet also whiche vsurped the croune 
without right or reason on Charles duke of Lorayne the sole heire male of the line and stocke 
of Charles the greate, after that he had shamefully murthered and in pitifull prison by the 
procurement of the Bishop of Orleauuce destroied the said Charles, to make his title seme 
true and aperegood, wherein dede it was bothe euell and vntrue, to blynd the opinions of 
the common people and to set a glasse before their eics, cdueighed him selfe as heire to 
the lady Lvngard doughter to the kyng Charlemaine sonnc to Lewes the Emperor which was 
sonne to Charles the great kyng of Fraunce. Kyng Lewes also the ninth whome the Frenche- 
men call Sainct Lewes beyng very heire to the saied vsurper Hugh Capet, coulde neuer be sa- 
tisfied in his conscience how he might iustely kepe and possesse the croune & regalitie of the 
realme of Frauce tyll he was perswaded and fully instructed that Quene Isabell his graundmo- 
ther was lineally discended of Lady Ermengard daughter and heire to the aboue named 
Charles duke of Lorayn, by the forcsaid Hugh Capet of life and realme wrongfully depriued: 
by the which manage the bludde and line of kyng Charles the great was againe vnited and 
restored to the Croune and Scepter" of Fraunce, so that it more clearer than the sonne, 
openly appeareth the title of Kyng Pepyn, the claime of Hugh Capet, the possession of 
kyng Lewes, ye and of all the French kynges to this day, are deriued, claymed and con- 
ueighed from the heire Female and yet they would barre you as though your great graund- 
mother had bene no wotna.n nor heire female, but a painted Image or fained shadowe. If 
so many examples, if suche copie of presydentes collected out of your owne histories and ga- 
thered oute of your owne writers suffice not to confounde your simple Salicque lawe inuented 
by false fablers and crafty imaginers of you fablyng Freeh menne, then here what God 
saieth in the book of Numeri. When a man dieth without a sonne let the inheritance diseend 
to the daughter: If your princes call them selfes most Christian kynges let theim folowe the 
lawe of God before the lawe of the Painym Pharamond. Are not all lawes discrepant from 
Goddes lawes euel, and to al Christen eares odious and noisome: are Frenche women dyscen- 
ded of the blud roial no Christians, and not wortlrye to inhcrite in the realme of Fraunce? Is 
the realme of Fraunce more noble then the kyngclome of ludaof whom Christ discended by 
a womas? When God sayed to Abraham that in one of his sede al nacions shnld be blessed, 
how came Christ of the seede of Abraham but onely by that immaculate Virgin his glorious 
mother? Likewise, when the Prophet Michee said, thou tribe of luda art not the leaste of 
estimacion emongest the Princes of luda, for oute of the shall come a capitayne whiche 
shall rule and direct my people of Israel. Howe discended Christ from the rote of lesse, 
and howe was he duke and capitain of the Israelites, and how discended he of the line of 
Dauid: But onely by his mother a pure virgin and a marled wife. Beholde, by Goddes lawe, 
women shall inherite Behold in Fraunce, Frenchemen haue inherited by the onely line of 
the women, and yet Englishmen be prohibited to claime by the heyre Female contrary 
to the lawe of God and man. Wherfore regarde well mysoueraigne Lord your iust and true 
title to the realme of France, by Goddes lawe and mannes lawe to you lawfully diuoluted as 
very heire to Quene Isabell your great graundmother daughter to kyng Philip the faire and 
suster and heir to. iii. kynges disceasyng without any issue.- Whiche inheritance of the 
woman is declared to be iuste by the Mosaicall lawe and vsed and approued by the Galilean 
discent as J haue before declared. Therefore for Goddes sake leese not youre patrimony, 

II 2 disherite 



5<2 THE. II. YI-UIE OF 

-disherite net your lie'ires, dishonour not your sclfe, diminishc not 'your title, which your 
.noble progenitors so highly haue cstemed. Wherfore auaunce forth your banner, fight for 
your ryghte, conqticre your inheritaunce, spare not swerde blud or fire, your warrc is iuste, 
your cause is good, and your claim true: and therfore courageously set forward your warre 
against your enemies. And to the entent that we your louyng chapleins and obedient sub- 
iectes of the spirituakie would shewe ou>rsclfes willyng and desiryng to aide you for the reco- 
uery of your auncient right and true title to the croune of France, we haue in our spirituall 
eonuocacion gra-unted to yourhighnes suche a some of money as neuer by no spiritual per- 
sons was to any prince before your daies geuen or aduanced, beside our daily praiers and 
continual precacions to God and his saintes for prosperus succcsse to ensue in your merciall 
exploite and roiail passage. When tire Archebishop had finished his prepared purpose, 
Jlanlfe Fa'lc of Westmerland, a man of no lesse grauitie then experience, and of no more 
experience than stomack, whichc was then high AV'arden of the marches toward Scotland, and 
therfore thinkyng that y! the king shuld passe ouer into Fraunce with his whole puissaunce, 
that his power should be to wcake to withstand the strength of Scotland if they shuld inuade 
duryng the kyngcs absence. AVherfore he rose vp, & makyng his obcysance to the kyng sayd. 
The Oracis SUltELV sir, as my Lord Canterbury hath clerkely declared, the conquest of Fran nee 
crip of * -is very honorable, and when it is gotten and obteigned very profitable and pleasant : I3nt 
vmtmer. sauyng your graces reformacion, 1 say awl aifirme that to conquere Scotland is more neces- 
sary, more aparante easie, and more profitable to this realme then is the gaine of Fraunce, 
For althoughe I am not so well learned as my lord Archbishop is, nor haue not preceded to 
degre in the Vniuersitie, yet I haue red, and heard great clarckcs say, that strengthe knitte 
and combined together is of more force and efficacie then when it is seuered and dispersed. 
As for an example, sprinkle a vessel of water and it mouteth not, but cast it out wholy 
together and it bothe washeth and norisheth. This notable saiyng before this time hath en- 
coraged Emperors, animated kynges and allured princes to conquere realmes to them ad- 
jovnyng, to vanquishe nacions to their dominions adiacent, and to subdewe people either neccs 
sary for their purpose, or beyng to them daily enemies or continual! aduersaries. For profe 
\vherof, bcholde what was the chefe cause and occasion why rulers and goucrnors so sore 
laboured, tliirsted and couetcd to bryng al regions to them adioinyng into one rule or Mo- 
narchy? Was it not done to tins entent that the conquerors might haue the only power 
& entier gubernacion of all the laudes and people within their climate, and gouerne the in 
time of peace and also haue their aide in time of war? AVhiche monarchic was of that ma- 
icstie and estimacion in the world, that no other forein prince or exterior potentate ether 
had audacitie or was able to altempte any thyng within the territory or region of the monar- 
chial pri'ice and adourned kyng- Let the kyngdorne of the assiriens be your example, and 
it that suflise not, then loke on the Pcrcians, after on the Grekes and lastly on the Romanies, 
uhiche euer desired and coueted more to haue the littel Isle of Scicile, the territory of the 
Nnmidians and the mean Citie of the Samnites beyng daiely within their kennyng and smell, 
rather then to obtein populous Gaule, plenteous Pannony, or manly Macedony liyng farre 
from sight and out of their circle or compasse. This desire scmeth to rise of a great pru- 
dent and vigilante policy, for as a prince is of more puissaunce when his countreis ioyne, so 
is he of more strength when his power is at hande. And as men lackyng comforte be more 
releued by frendeswhiche be presente, then by kinsfolke duellyng in forein cou treys and regions 
farre of. So princes haue commonly coueted and euer desired to se and beholde their do- 
minions liyng nere about them, rather then to here by reporte from the countreis farre dis- 
tant from them. If this hath bene the pollccy of conquerours, thappetite of purchasers 
and the study of gouerners, why doth your grace desire Fraunce before Scotland*:, or couet 
a countrey farre from your sight, before a realme vnder your nose? Do you not remember 
how the hole Isle of Hritain was one entier Monarchi in the time of your noble auncetor 
Kyng Brute first kyng and ruler of your famous Empire and glorious region: whiche deuid- 
yng his rehue to his thre sonnes gaue to Lothryne his eldest sonne that part of Britain that 

your 



KYNG HENRY THE. V, 53 

your highnes now enioyeth, and to Aibanact his second sonne lie gaue the countrey of Alba- 
ny nowe called Scotland, and to Camber his third sonr.c he gaue the countrey of Cambria 
nowe called Wales: reseruyng alwaies to him & his heires homage, lege and Veaultie loiull 
for the same countreis and dominions. By tliis deuisio, the glory of the monarchic of Bn- 
taytie was clerely defaced, by this separacion the strength of the Britishc kynges was sore 
diminished, by this dispersion intestine war began, and Ciuil rebellion sprange first within 
this region. For while all was vnder one, no nacion durste either once iauade or alternate 
warre against the Britons: but when the land was once deuided and the monarchic vndone, 
outward enemitie or foreyn hostylilie not halie so muche infested, greued or troubled the 
valiaunt Brittons as their owne neighboures discended of one parent, and come of one pro- 
geny. For the Albanactes otherwise called the false fraudulet Scottes, and the Cambers 
otherwise called the vnstable Welshemen, did not alonly withdrawe their fealtie, denie their 
homage, and refuse their allegiance due to the kynges of this realme, bnt also made con- 
tinuall warre and destroied their tounes and slewe the people of their neyghboures and Bri- 
tons. For whiche cause diuerse of your noble progcnitoures haue not onely made warre and 
subdewed the Scottes for the deniyng of their homage and surryng of rebellion, but also 
haue deposed their kynges princes, and erected and set vp other in their estates and dig- 
aiities. Sealer kyng of Scottes, for his rebellion was by Dunwallo iUolnncius your noble 
predecessor slayn and extincted. Kyng Arthure also the Glory of the Brittons erected An- 
gosile to the scepter of Scotland and receaued of hym homage and fealtie. Yf I shuld re- 
hearse how many kynges of Scotland haue done homage to your auncient predecessors, or 
reherse howe many Scottishe kynges they haue corrected and punished for their disobedience 
and deniyng of homage, or declare what kynges they as superior lordes and high Empe- 
roures ouer the vnderkinges of Scotland, haue elected & made rulers, to thetent that all 
people might manifestly perceiue that it was more glorious, more honourable and more fa- 
mous to a Kyng to make a Kyng then to be a kyng by natural discent, 1 assure you, your 
eares would be more wery of hcryng, then my tounge woulde be fatigate with open truth 
tellyng. Your noble progenitour kyng Edward the iirste couelyng to be superior and to 
surmount in honour, or at the least to be equiuolent in fame with his noble ancestours and 
famous progenitors, daily studied and hourely compassed howe to bryng the whole Isle of 
Briteygne whiche by Brute was deuided into thre partes into one monarchy and one domi- 
nion. After longe studie and greate consultacion had, he subdewed Wales, and tamed the 
wylde people and broughte that vnruly parte to his olde home and aunciente degree, whiche 
thyng done he likewise inuaded Scotlande and conquered the countreye to the towne of Per- 
ciie called Saincte Ilions towne standyng on the rincr of Tay, whiche he walled, diched and for- 
teiied, rulyng that part with Englishe lawes, Englishe cnstomes and by Englishe ludges, and 
was almoste at a poynte thereof to haue made a pertighte conqueste and a complete Mo- 
narchic. But Oh Lorde, hasty deathe whiche maketh an ende of all mortall creatures, so- 
deynly berefte hym of his life and toke awaie his spirite, and so all thynges whiche he had 
deuised, whiche he had yrnagined and seriously pretended, the small momente of an houre 
turned vpside doune and sodainly subuerted. Sith whose deathe your greate Graundfather, 
ye and your noble father haue attempted to bryng that runnegate region into his auncient 
course and former line, as a thyng both necessary, comieniente and mete' to bee ioyned and 
vnited to this realme, and so not only to reuiue the old empire "and famous Monarchye, but 
also to vnitc and cobine that vertue and stregtu which from the tymc of Brute was dispersed 
and seuered, in one body, in one hed and one corporation. Wherfore, if to your high 
wisedome it seemeth not necessary ta kyng this terme necessary for nedefull to eonquere the 
realrne of Scotlande asathyngthatnedes muste be doen,yctwiH I not flic from my firstsaiyng, 
but proue it necessary (as the logical! paraphrasian and Philosophical interpreters) do by a 
distinccion expounde this terme necessary to signitie a thyng conuenient: That the conquest 
in Scotlande before the inuadyng of Fraunce is moste expedient, for experience teacheth and 
reason agreeth that euery personc entt-dyng a purposed enterprise, or a determinate voyage 

1 should 



5* THE. II. YERE OF 

should not onely prouicle and make preparation for all thynges requisite and nedefuli for his 
Lynxisa purpose or exployte, but also ought vigilantly to forsee with * Lincis iyes, and preuC-t and 
toa'loife stuc ty w ' ln the serpentyne pollicie how to aduoyde and retell all thynges whiche might ether 
who.e bee an impediment to his progression and settyng forward or occasion of his returne and 
r l sse f n ' s enterprise, least he leuyng behynd hym an euill neighbour, a continuall aduer- 
thynges. sary & a secrete enemie, maie assone lese his o\vne propre realme, as conquere and gayne 
the dominion of another: wherfore the trite and common adage saith, leaue not the certain 
for the vncertain. Wherefore it is necessary that I enucleate and open to you certain arti- 
cles conteined in the old league and atnitie betwene the realmes of Fraunce and Scotlande, 
wherof the wordes be these. 

1. THE warre or iniurie moued or done by the Englishemen to one of the saied nacions, to 
be as a commen wrong to bothe. 

2. IF the Englishemen make warre on the Frenche nacion, then the Scottes at the costes 
and charges of the Frenche kyng, shall minister to theim succours. 

3. LIKEWYSE if the Scottes be molested by the English warres, the Frenche nacion ha- 
uyng their costes allowed, shall bee to theim ayders and assisters. 

4. AND that-noneof bothe the nacions shall ether cotitracte or make peace with the realms 
of England without the consente and agrement of the other. 

AN13 to thenterrt that this league and amitee should be kept vnuiolate Robert le Bruse 
the vsurper of Scotland willed by his testament twoo thynges in especiall to be obserued, the 
one neuer to breake the treatie concluded with Fraunce: the second neuer to kepe peace or 
promes with Englishmen lenger than the kepyng therof were to theim ether profitable or 
necessary. Yet Ihon Mayer and other Scottish writers coloure this cause, saiyng that he 
would have no peace concluded with Engiande aboue thre yeres. But whatsoeuer writers 
write or talkers saie, they bee to hym moste faithfull executors and haue neuer yet broken his 
testament but daily kepe his precept and commaundement. And for the performaunce of this 
will and kepyng of this league, none of yourauncetours euer inuaded Fraunce, but incon- 
tinent the Scotles troubled and vexed England. None of your progenitors euer passed the 
sea in iust quarell against the Frenche nacion, but the Scottishe people in their absence en- 
tered your realme spovled your houses slewe your people and toke great praies innumerable, 
only to prouokc your auncestors for to returne fro the inuadyng of France. If I should de- 
clare to you their comen breaking of leagues, their craftie and subtill dissimulacio, their 
false faire promises often swprneand neuer kept, I doubt not but you would ten tymes more 
abhorrc their doyng, then I would bee ashamed of the tellyng. Therfore I saie still, and 
atiinne it necessary and conuenient to forse, that you leaue no enemies behind at your 
backe when you go to conquere aduersaries before your face. Beside this, if you consider 
the daily charges, the inconstant chances that maie happen, I thinke, yea and litle doubt 
but Scotlande shalbee tamed before Fraunce shalbe framed. For if you will inuade Fraunce, 
accompt what number of shippes must transport your armie, recon what charge of ancors, 
what a multitude of Cables, and what innumerable thynges apperteigne to a nauie. When 
you be there, if your men decay by sickenes or by sworde, if vitaill faile, or if money wax3 
skante, if the wynde turne contrary or an hideous tempeste arise, you shall bee destitute of 
aide, prouisio and treasure, which in a strange region are the collision & defacyng of an 
armie. On the other side if you inuade Scotlande, your men bee at hande, your vitaill is 
nere, your aide is euer at your backe, so that in that voyage you shall haue haboundance in 
all thynges, and of nothyng you shall haue wante. See what an occasion fortune hath 
offered vnto you, is not their kyng your captiue and prisoner? Is not the realme in greate 
deuision for the crueltie of the duke of Albany, rather desiring to haue a forain gouernor, 
then a natural! tyraunt. Wherfore my counsaill is, firste to inuade Scotlande, and by Gods 
grace to conquere and ioyne that region to youre Empire, and to restore the renoumed 
Monarchy of Britayne to her olde estate and preheminence, and so beautified with realmes 
and furnished with people, to entree into Fraunce for tlierecoueryng of your righteous title and 

i true 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 5$ 

true inheritaunce, in obscruyng the old auncient prouerbe vsed by our forefathers, whiche 
saieth, he that will Fraunce wynne, muste with Scotlailde firste bcginne. 

NO q h the Duke of Excester vncle to the kyng, (whiche was well learned, and sent 
into Italy by his father entendyng to haue been a prieste) he that will Scotlande win, let 
hym with Fraunce first begin. For if you call to remembraunce the coinon saiyng of the wise 
and expert Phisicions, whiche bothe write and teache, that if you will heale a malady you 
must firste remoue the cause : If you will cure a sore, you muste first take awaie the humor 
that fedeth the place. If you will destroy a plante, plucke awaie his sap whiche is his 
norisshyng and life. Then if Fraunce be the norissher of Scotlande, if the Frenche pen- 
cios be the susteinersof the Scottishe nobilitee, if theeducacion ofScottes in Fraunce be the 
cause of practise and pollicie in Scotlande, then plucke away Fraunce and the courage of 
the nobles of Scotland shal be sone daunted and appalled: Take awaie Fraunce and the hertes 
of the cornen people wil sone decaie and waxe faint: Plucke away France and neuer looke. 
that Scotlande will resist or withstande your power. For when the bed is gone, the body 
sone falleth, and when the sap fayleth the tree sone withereth. Let men reade the Chroni- 
cles and peruse our Englishe Chronographiers, & you shall sone finde that the Scottes haue 
seldo of their owne mocion inuaded or vexed Englande, but onely for the obseruyng of the 
league in the whiche they bee bounde to Fraunce: For the Scottes.are the shaft and dart of 
the Frenchemen to shote and cast at their pleasure against the Englishe nacion. And where 
they haue inuaded, as I cannot deny bat they haue dooen, what glory or what profile sue- 
ceded of their entreprice, I report me to their peculier histories. Kyng Malcolyn inuaded' 
Englande, when kyng Willia the second was makyng warre in Normandy. Dauid le Bruses 
also entered Englande, your greate graundfather kyng Edward the third liyng at the-siege of 
Caleis. Was not Malcolin slain beside Tinmouth and Kyng Dauid taken beside Dun-ham.' 
Let the gouernors of Scotlande, (for the kyng is sure ynough) entre into Englande 6n that 
price and se what he shall gayne therby. What notable acte wcr Scottes cuer able to do 
out of their owne countree and propre climate ? Or when were they able to coueigh an armie 
ouer the sea at their owne costes and expences? Rede their owne histories and you shall 
finde fewe or none. Their nature and condicion is to tary at home in idlenes, ready 
to defende their countree like brute beasles, thinkyng their rusticall fassion to he high honestie, 
and their beggerly linyng to bee a welfare. Beside this, what auncient writer, or autentike 
historiographier ether write of them honor or jonce nameth thcim, except sainct Iherom, 
whiche saieth that when he was yong, he sawe in Frftttnce certain Scottes of the isle of Bvi-. 
tain eate the fleshe of men, and when they came into the woodes ftndyng there greate heardcs 
of beastes and flockes of shepe< lefte the beastes and cut off the Inittockcs of the heard men < 
and the pappes and brestes of the shepherdes women, extemyng this meate to be the great- 
est deinties: And Sabeliicus saieth that Scottes muche delighte and reioyse in liyng. You 
may now apparauntly percciue what puissaunce Scotland is of it self, litle able to defende- 
and lesse able to inuade like a noune adiectiue that cannot stand without a substantiue. If 
France be taken from them, of whom shall they seke aide ? Denmarke will them refuse because 
the kyng is your brother in lawe : Portyngall Castel will not them regard c, ; bothe the kynges ' 
beeyng your cosyns germain and auntes sonnes: Italy is to farre: Germany and Hungary- 
be with you in league. So that of necessitee they in conclusion destitute of all ayde, depriued. 
of all succoure, bereued of all frendship (if Fraunce be coquered) must without warre or 
dent of sworde come vnder your subiection and due obeysance. And yet I would not in 
this your conquest, France should bee so muche mynded, that Scotlande should be forgotten, >' 
nor that your entier -.power should be sent into Fraunce and no defence left against the imia- 
sions of Scotlande. = For of that might ensue this mischief, that if your whole power wcr van- 
quisshed in France, the Scottes beyng elated by the victory of their frendes might do more, 
(lispleasure.to your realme in one ycre then you should recouer again in fine. But sithe God 
liathsent you people, riches, municios of warre and all thynges necessary ether to inuade bothe, 
or to defende the one and penetrate the other. Passe the sea your self with an armie royall, 

and 



$6 THE. II. YFRE OF 

and leue my lorde ot Westmerlande and other graue capitaines of the Northe with a con* 
uenient nombre to Defend the Marches if the subtill Scottes encouraged by the Frenchmen 
will any thyng attept duryng your voyage and absence. And this is to be remebred, if you 
get Scotlande you hauea countree baraynealmoste of alt-pleasure and goodnes, you gay no 
people sauage, waueryng and inconstant, of riches you shall haue litle and of pouertie muchc: 
But if you get Fraunce, you shall haue a countree fertile, pleasant and plentiful!, you shall 
haue people, Ciuill, witty and of good ordre. You shall haue richc citees, beautiful touncs 
innumerable Castles, xxiiij. puyssaunt Duchies, Ixxx. and odde populous Countrecs, and an 
hud red and thre famous bisshoprickes, a. M. and more fat Monastaries, and parishe 
Churches (as the Frenche writers affirme) x. C. thousande and mo. This conquest is ho- 
norable, this gavne is proffitable, this Journey is plesaunte, and therfore nether to be left nor 
forslewed. Vitaill you shall haue sufficient from Flaunders, aide of men you maie haue daily 
out of England, or els to leaue a competentecrewe in the Marches of Caleis to refreshe your 
armie and to furnishe still your numbre. Although the cost in transportyng your me be 
greate, yet your gayne shal be greater, and therfore accordyng to the trite adage, he must& 
liberally spende that will plentefully gayne. And because my lorde of Westmerlfule hath 
alleged that the Romaines desired the dominion of suche as were viider flight of their owne 
Egle, or whose possesions were a mote to their eye, as the Numidians & other whiche he 
hath wisely rehersed. Beholde the condicions of the counsailers and the desire of the mo* 
uers, what persones were they whiche cotieted their poore neighbors rather then riche fo- 
reines? Men effeminate, more mete for a Carpet then a Campe, men of a weake stomacke 
desiryng rather to walke in a pleasant gardein then passe the sees in a tempesteous storme, 
what should I saie? Menne that would haue somewhat and yet take litell payne, memie 
that coueted thynges nothyng honourable nor yet greatly profitable. But I remember that 
the noble Cato the Censor which when it was alledged in the Senate at Rome that Affrike-- 
was farre of, and the sea brode, and the iournie perillous, caused certain newe figgrs to 
bee brought into the Senate, whiche grewe iu the territory of Carihage, and dcruaunded of 
the Senators howe they liked the Figges? Some saied they were newe some said they were 
swete and some said they were pleasant Oh quod Cato, if they be newe gathered, the is 
not the region far of where they grewe (skant thre daies sailyng) and if it be of no longer 
distance then so nere to vs be oure enemies. If the figges be swete, then is the soile delicious 
and fertile. If the fygges be pleasante, then is the coutrey profitable. If you gaine the Sci- 
cilians, you shall be riche men in corne. If you get the Samnites you shall haue plenty of oyle. 
If you vanquishe the Numidians, you shall haue copie of beastes: but subdewe Carthage and 
conquere A-ffricke, you shall haue not onely Conic Oyle and beastes, but gold, purple, preci- 
ous stones, Oliphantes and all thynges bothe necessary and pleasant. Therfore my councell is 
rather to seke riches bcyng farre distant then pouertie liyng at hand, for paine is -forgotten 
euer where gaine foloweth. This noble saiyng of sage Calo so encouraged and inflamed the 
haut hertes and lusty courages of the manly Romains, that they neuer desisted to persecute the 
people of Affricke tyll Carthage was vtteriy destroyed and the whole countrey subdewed and 
brought vnder the Romain Empire. lulius Ceasaralso desired rather to conquere the Brit- 
tons deuided from the continent, ye and inhabityng almost in thende of the worlde, rather then 
to gayne the Pannonians adioynyng to Italy, saiyng, breke the stroger and the weaker will 
bowe : Subdue the riche and the pore wil yeld be lord of the lordes and the vassales must nedes 
be subiect, vanquish the Frenchemen and the Scottes be tamed. This counsaill of Cato, and 
this saiyng of Cesar maketh me bothe to speke and thynke that if you get Fraunce, ye get two, 
and if you get Scotland you get but one. When the duke had said and sat doune, his opinion 
was muche noted and well digested with the kyng, but in especiall with his three brethren and 
diucrse other lordes beyng young and lusty, desirous to win honor and profile in the realme 
of Fraunce, ensuyng the couragious actesof their noble progenitors, whiche gat in that region 
bothe honor and renoune. So that now all men cried warre, warre, Fraunce, Fraunce, and 
the bill put into the parliament for desoluyng of religious houses was clerely forgotten and 

buried 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 

burred, and nothyng thoughte on but onely the recouering of Fraunce accordyng to the 
title by the Archbishoppe declared and set furth. And so vpon this poynct after a fewe 
Actes for the publicke wealth of the realme condiscended and agreed, the parliamet was 
proroged to Westminster. 

THE kyng like a wise prince and pollitique gouernor, entendyng to obserue the auncient 
ordres of famous kynges and renoumed potentates vsed aswel emong Paynimes as Christians, 
whiche is, not to inuade another mannes territory without open war and the cause of the 
same to hym published and declared, dispatched into Frauce his vncle the duke of Excester 
and the erle of Dorcet, the lorde Grey admirall of Englande, the Archbishop of Deuelin, the 
bishop of Norwiche with, v hundred horsse, whiche were lodged in the Temple housin Paris, 
kepyng suche triumphante chere in their lodgyng, and such a solempne estate in ridyng 
through the citee, that the Parisians & all the Frenche men had no small meruell at their ho- 
norable fassions and lordly behaueours. The French kyng receiued them very honorably, 
and sumpteously banquetted theim, shewing to theim goodly iustes and marciall pastymes, by 
the space of three daies together, in the whiche iustes the kyng hymself to shew his courage 
and actiuitee to the Englishemen, manfully brake speres and lustely turneyed. 

WHEN this great triumph and marciall disport was finished, the Englishe Ambassadors 
accordyng to their commission, required of the Frenche kyng to deliuer to the kyng of Eng- 
liid the realme and croune of Fraunce with the entier Duchies of Aquitain, Normandy and 
Aniowe, with the countrees of Poytieu and Mayne and.diuerse other requestes, offryng that 
if the Frenche kyng would without warre or effusion of Christen bloud rendre to the kyng 
their Master his uery righte and lawfull inheritaunce, that he would be content to take in ma- 
nage the lady Katheryn doughter to the Frenche kyng & to endewe her with all the duchie 
and countrees before rehersed. And if he entended not so to do, then the kyng of Eng- 
lande did expresse and signifie to hym that with the ayd of God and help of his people he 
would recouer hisright and inheritaunce wrongfully with holden with mortall warre and dent 
of sworde. The Frenchemen were much abasshed at these demaundes thinkyng theim very 
vnreasonablc and farre excessiue, and yet not willyng to make any determinate aunswer till 
they had farther brethed in so weighty a cause, praied thenglishe Ambassadors to saie to the 
kyng their master that thei now hauyng no opportunitee to coclude in so hie a matter would 
ahortly send Ambassadors into England whiche should certefy declare to the kyng their 
whole mynde, purpose and aunswer. 

THE Englishe Ambassadors nothyng content with this doyng departed into Englande mak- 
yng relacion of euery thyng that was said or done. Here I ouerpasse howe some writers 
saie that the Dolphyn thinkyag kyng Henry to be geuen still to such plaies and light 
folies as he exercised & vsed before the tyme that he was exalted to the rroune sent to hym 
a tunne of tennis balles to plaie with, as who said that he could better skil of tennis then of 
warre, and was more expert in light games then marciall pollicy. Whether he wer moued 
with this vnwise presente, or espiyng that the Frenchemen dalied and vaynely delayed his 
purpose and demaund, was moued and pricked forward I cannot iudge, but sure it is that 
after the returne of his Ambassadors, he beeyng of a haute courage and bold stomacke, 
liuyng now in the pleasantest tyme of his age, muche desiryng to enlarge and dilate his Em- 
pire and dominion, determined fully to make warre in Fraunce, coceiuyng a good trust and 
a perfight hope in this poyncte whiche he had before experimented, whiche is, that victory 
for the moste part foloweth wher right leadeth, auaunced forward by Justice and sette furth 
by equitie. And because many Frenchemen wer promoted to Ecclesiastical dignitees, some 
to benefices, some to Abbeis and priores within his realme and sent daily innumerable 
somes of money into Fraunce for the relefe and aide of their naturall countremen and li- 
neall kynsmen, he therfore for the publique wealth of his realme and subiectes, ordeigned 
that no straunger here after should bee promoted to any spirituall dignitee or degree within 
his realme without his especiall licence and royall concent, and that all they that should so - 
be admitted, should find sufficient suretie not to disclose $ secretes of this realme to any fo- . 

I rain 



58 THE. II. YERE OF 

rain Or strauge person, nor also to minister to them any aide or succor with money or by any 
other ineane. Beside this he assembled a great puissance & gathered a greate hoste through 
all his dominions, and for the more furniture of his nauie, he sent into Holand, Zeland and 
Frizeland to conduct and hire shippes for the transportyng and conueighing ouer his men 
and municions of warre, and finally prouided for armure, vitaile, money, artillary, carraiges, 
tentes and other thinges necessary for so hie an enterprise: Whiche prouisions wer sone 
blowen into Frauce & quickly knowen in Paris. Wherefore the Dolphin who had taken 
on hym the gouernance of the realme, because his father was fallen again into his olde infir- 
rnitie, sent for the dukes of Berry and Alaunson and all the counseil of Fraunce, to coclude 
what should be done in so great a matter and so weightie a cause. After long cosultacion, 
it was determined to assemble people through the whole realme of Fraunce, to resist & re- 
pulse the kyng of Englande and his puissaunce whensoeuer he would arriue or set foote in 
Fraunce, and also to fortifie their tounes & stuffc them with garrisons and men of warre, 
and farther by taxes subsedies to leuy asmuche money as by wit or pollicie could be de- 
uised or imagined. Moreouer to staie the king of England at home, it was polletiquely 
deuised to sende to him a solempne Ambassade to make to him some offers accordyngto the 
demaundes before rehersed. The charge of this Ambassade was comitted to the erle of 
Vandosrne, to Master Wylliam Bouratier Archebishop of Bourgues and to Master Pe- 
ter Fremel bishoppe of Lysieux and to the lorde of Yury and Braquemont and to Maister 
Gaultier Cole the kynges secretory and diuerse other. These ambassadours accompanied 
with. CCC. and fifty horses passed the sea at Caleys and laded at Douer, before whose ar- 
riuall the kyng was departed from Wyndsor to Winchester, entendyng to haue gone to 
Hampton and to haue viewed his nauie, but hearyng of the Ambassadours approachyng, 
taried stil at Wynchester, where the sayd Frenche lordes shewed themselues very honorably 
before the kyng and the nobilitie. And in the bishoppes hal before the kyng, sittyng in his 
throne imperial & hislordes spiritual and temporal & a great multitude of the comons there 
for that entent assebled, At a tyme prefixed, the Archebishop of Bourgesse made an elo- 
quent and a long Oracion, dissuadyng warre, and praisyng peace, offering to the kyng of 
Englad a great some of money with diuerse base & pore countries with the Lady Katheria 
in marriage, so that he would dissolue his armie & distnisse his souldiors whiche he had 
gathered and made ready. 

When this Oracion was ended, the kyng caused the Ambassadors to be highly feasted, & 
set them at his owne table. And at a daie assigned in the foresayd hall, the Archebishoppe of 
Cauntorbury made to their Oracion a notable answere: theffecte wherof was, that if the 
Frenche kyng would notgeue with his daughter in manage, the duchies of Acquitain, Nor- 
mandy, Aniowe, & all other seignories & dominions somtime apperteinyng to the noble pro- 
genitors of the kyng of Englad, he would in no wise retire his armie nor breake* his iorney 
but would with all diligence entre into the realme of Frauce & destroy the people, depopu- 
. late the coutry & subuertlhe tounes, with sword blud & fyre, & neuer cease till he had_re- 
eouered his auncient right & lawful patrimony. The kyng auowed the archbishops saiyng, 
& in the word of a prince promised to performe it to the vttermost. The bishop of Bourgesse 
beyng inflamed with anger that his purpose toke none effect, desiryng licence & pardo of the 
king that he might speake: which once attained he verye rashly and vnreueretly sayd. 
Thynkest thou to put doune and destroy wrongfully the most cristen kyng, our most re- 
doubted souerain lord and most excellentest prince of all christianitie of blud and prehemi- 
nece. Oh kyng, sauyng thine honour, thinkest thou that he hathe offered or caused to be 
offered to the landes, goodes or other possessions with his owne daughter for feare of the or 
thy Englishe nacion, or thy friendes or well willers or fautours. No no ? but of truthe he 
moued with pitie, as a louer of peace, to the entent that innocent blud should not bee dis- 
persed abrode, and that Christian pesple shoulde not bee afflicted with battail and destroied 
with mortall warre, hathe made to the this reasonable offers and this Godly mocion, puttyng 
his hole affiance ia God most puissant accordyng to right and reason, trustyng in his quarel 

to 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 59 

(o be ayded and supported by his beneuolente subiectes and fauourable well willers. And 
sith we be subiectes and seruauntes, we require the to cause vs safely and surely without 
dammage to be conducted out of thy reahne and dominions & thatthou wilt write thyne an- 
swere wholy as thou hast geuen it, vnder thy scale and signe manuell. 

,THE Kyng of Englande nothyng vexed nor yet moued with the presumtuous saiynges and 
proude bragges of the vnnurtered and unmanerly byshop, but well remebryng kyng Salo- 
mon in the. xxiiii. of his prouerbes, whiche saithe, that with discretion warres muate be ta- 
ken in hand, where many can geue councell, there is victory, coldly and soberly aun- 
swered the bishop saiyng: My lorde I littel esteme your Frenche bragges, and lesse set by 
your power & strength, I know perfightly my right to your region, and excepte you will 
deny the apparant truthe so do you, and if you neither do nor will knowe yet God and the 
worlde knoweth it. The powre of your Mayster you see daily, but my puissance you hane 
not yet tasted, If your master haue louing frendes and faithful! subiectes, Iain I thanke 
God not disgarnished nor vnprouided of the same: But this I say vnlo you, that before one 
yere passe I trust to make the highest croune of your countrey stoupe and the proudest 
Miter to kncele clowne : and say this to the vsurpcr your Master that I within three 
monethes wyll enter into France not as into his land, but as into mine ov.ne true and law- 
full patrimonye entendyng to conquere it, not with braggyng worries, flatteryng oracions 
or coloured persuasions, but with puissaunce of men and dent of sworde by the aide of 
God in whome is my whole trust and confidence. And as concernyng mine answere to be 
written, subscribed and sealed, I assure you that I would not speake that sentence the 
which I would not write and subscribe, nor subscribe that line to the whiche I would refuse 
to put my scale. Therefore your saue conducte shall be to you deliuered with mine an- 
swere, and then you may depart surely and safely I warrant you into your countrey, 
where I truste soner to visite you then you shall haue cause to salute or bid me welcome. 
With this answere the Ambassadours sore dismaied, but more displeased (although they 
were highly entertained & liberally rewarded, departed into their countrye, relatyng to the 
Dolphyn and the kynges councehvhat they had done duryngthc tyme of their Ambassade. 

After thefrenche Ambassadours were departed, the kyng as I sayd before hauinga great 
foresight and disposyng all thynges in an ordre forgettyng not the old pranckes and sodeyn 
trickes of the variable Scottishe nacion, appoincted the earle of Westmerlande, the lorde 
Scrope, the Baron of Greystncke and sir Robert V r mfreuile with diuers other hardye par- 
sonages & valiant capitayncs to kepe the frontiers and Marches adioynyng to Scotland, 
whiche sir Robert Vmi'reuile on the day of Mari Magdalene entrecl with the Scottes at the 
toune of Gederyng, hauyngin his company only. CCCC. Englishemen, where he after long 
conflict and doubtful battaileslcwe of his enemies. Ix. and odde, and toke captiucs. CC(\ 
Ix. and discomfited and put to flight a thousand and moo, whom he followed in chase aboue. 
xii. miles, and so laded with praies and prisoners reculed agayne not vnhurt to the castle 
of Rokesbroughe, of the whiche at that tyme he was chief ca pi tayne and gouernour. 

When the kyng had ordered all thynges for the tuicion and sauegarcle of his realme and 
people, he leauyng behynd him for gouernor of the realme, the Queue his mother inlawe, 
departed to the toune of Southampton, entending there to take ship, and so to transfrete 
into Fraunce. And to thentent he would steale on the Frenche kyng before he were ware 
of him, he dispatched Antelop his pursuiuant at Armes with letters, the which the Frenche 
cronographers declare to be these. 

TO the right honorable prince Charles our cissyn of Fraunce & aduersary, Henry by the 
grace of God kyng of England & of Fraunce. &c. To deliuer to euery man his owne, is a 
woorkeof inspiracionanda dccde of sage councel, for right noble prince our cosyn and ad- 
uersary, sometymes the noble realmes of England & of Fraunce uere vnited, which nowe, 
be seperated and deuided, and as then they were acccustomed to be exalted through the 
vniuersal worlde by their glorious victories, and it was to them a notable vertue to decore 
and beautifye the house of God, to the whiche apperteincd holynes, and to set a concorde 

12 in 



<SO< THE. III. YERE OF 

in Christes religion. And by their agreable warres they brought fortunately the publike ene- 
mies to their subjection : but alas this fraternal faith is peruerted to fraternal occasion as 
Lot persecuted Abrahii by humayne impulsion, but nowe the glory of fraternal loue is deade, 
and the discent of auncient humaine cddicion is departed, and mother malice and Ire are 
resuscitate from death to life, but we call to wytnes the souereigne iudge in coscience, whiche 
will not bow either for praier or for giites, that we to our power for pure loue haue procea- 
ded by all mea ties to peace & amite. And sith we haue red in writyng and by coucel haue 
learned the iust title of our inheritaunce from vs deteined in prejudice of oure auncient 
linage, we be not of so small a courage but that we wyll fight to death to obteyne right and 
iustice: but by the authorise written in the boke of Deuteronomy, all mea are taught whiche 
come to besiege or assaulte any cytie or fortresse, fyrst to offre peace. And albeit that vio- 
lence the rauisher of iustice haue take away of log time the noblenesof our croune and oure 
iuste inheritaunce, yet we by charitie haue done what we might to recouer and bry.ng our 
old inheritaunce to the first degree and auncient estate, and therefore for faute of iustice, we 
may returne to armes. Wherfore, that our glorye may be wytnes of our conscience nowe 
and also by personal request, in the beginning of our iorney to the whiche we are toward 
for faute of iustice, \ve exhort you in the bowellesof our sauiour lesu Christ, whose euan- 
gelical doctrine wiFleth that you ought to render to all men that which you ought to do, and 
so to do to vs is the will of God oure souereigne lorde and creator. And to thentent that 
destruccion of Christen people should be exchewed whiche are the images of God, we haue 
demaunded our right and restitucion of the same from vs wrongfully withholden and 
deteined, or at the least of snche thynges whiche we haue so often times by our Ambassa- 
dors and messengers required & instantly desyred, wherwuh we haue offered to be pleased, 
satisfied and cotented for the onely reuerence of almightie God & for the v-tilitie of a vni- 
uersall peace whiche we thought should haue ensued.. And therfore we for our part because 
of a manage to be had and cocluded betwene vs, wer determined to forsake & refuse the 
fiftie thousand crounes to vs last promised and profered, preferryng peace before riches, & 
chosyng rather our rightful patrimony to vs by our noble progenitors lawfully deuoluted* 
and discended with oure eossyn your 'daughter the fcayre lady Katherin, rather then for trea- 
sure and desire of money the multiplier of uiMj,uitie, shamefully to dishenerite our selfe and- 
the croune of oure reahne whiche God forbid, Youen vnder oure priuy scale at o;ir Castel. 
of Hampton on the sea side, the. v. day of August. 

WHEN the letter was presented to the French kyng & by hi* councell well ouerlokedj, 
he made answere to the officers of armes that he had well perceiued tlie content of the let* 
lers, wherevpon he would tak aduice and prouide for the same in tyme and plaee conue* 
riieiu, licensing the messenger to depart at his pleasure.. 

U THE THIRD YERE.. 

Th ^ e " k - THIS noble prinee hauyng his nauy furnished, and all thynges necessary for suche a royal 
voyage, perc-eiuyng his treshe capitames to complain that tiiey had lost so many monethes- 
of theyere in the whiche they might haue done diueise haute enterpriwes in the lades of their 
enemies, and that nothyng was to the more odious than prolongyng lingering of tyme 
determined with all diligence to cause his souldiors to entr.e his shippes and so to depart.- 
. SE the chaunce, the night before the day of departure appoincted, he was credibly in* 
formed that Richarde earle of Cambridge brother to Edward duke of Yorke and- Henry 
torde Scrope & syr Thomas Gray knight had cop.is.sed ins death and final! distinction: wher- 
fore he caused them to be apprehended lamentyng sore his chaunce tliat he should be com* 
pelled to loose such personages by whose valiantne;-, and puissaunce he should be more dread- 
ful and feareful to his foes & enemies. When these prisoners were examined, they not 
enely confessed the cospirary, but ako declared that for a great some of mony which they 
hadreceiued of the Frenehe k)ng> they iuteded either to deLuer the kynsj-aliue into-the 

J O ** 

hande 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 61 

feandcs of his enemies, or els to murthcr him before that he should arriue in the duchy of 
Norniady. When kvng Henry hard al thynges opened whiche lie sore desired, he caused 
all hie nobilitie to asscble before his maiestie royal, before whom he caused to be 
brought the thre great oflendors and to them sayd: If you haue conspired the deth 
and destruction of me whiche am the head of the realme and gouernour of the people, with- 
out doubt I must of nccessitie ihinke that you likewyse haue compassed the confusion of all 
that be here witli me and also the final destruction of your natiue countrey and natural re- 
gion. And although some priuate Scorpion in your heartes, or some wild worms in your 
heades hath caused you to conspire my d -ath and comsion, yet you shuld haue spared that 
deuelish enterprice as long as I was with miiie army whiche cannot cotinue without a capi- 
taine, nor be directed without a guide, nor yet with the destruction of your owne blond 
and hacion you should haue pleased a foreign enemy and an a. indent adversary. Wher- 
fore seyng that you haue enterpnsed so greate a misehiete, so abhominabie a fact, to 
thentent that your fautors beyng in the armye may abhorre so detestable an otfetice by the pu- 
nishemcnt of you, ha^tyou to receiue the p^iyne that for your demerites yon haue deserued, 
&. that punishment that by thelawe for your otfences is prouided. 

WHEN these noble men were executed, the kyng sayd to his lordes, se you not the 
mad imagination of men whiche persecute me that dayely studye, and hourly labour, to 
my great irauaile and vnqo etnes for the aduancement of the publique wea'th of this 
rt-.ilme andregion^ and for that cause I spare no payne nor refu-e no tytne to ilientent to do 

food to all men and to hurt no man, and thus to do is my dutie & to tiiis as I thinke am 
b >rne. I pray to God that there be none among you that be infected with so much vn A 
truth that had leuer se me destro;ed and brought to co.. fusion, rather then to se his cou-rey 
flurishe encreased with honor and empire. 1 assure you that I coceiue no suciie opinion in 
any of you, but put in you both trust & confidence and if I may haue your helpe to 
beautify my reahne and to recouer againe the olde honor of myne auncestours by sub- 
duyng the Frenche nacion, I for my self wyll forget all peril and p tine and he your 
guide lodesrnan and conductor. And if you drawe backe and wyll not moue fonvarde, 
beleue me, God wyll so dispose, thai hctcatter jcu shalbe deceiued and sore icpenfhad I 
wyst. When- the kyng had finished his saiyng, all the noble men kneled'uounc proursed 
faithfully to serue him and duely to obey him, and rather to dye then tosufter him to ltd! 
into the Tiandes of his enemies. 

THIS done, the kyng thought surely in his conceipte all sedicion-to be drouned' & vtter- 
ly extincte. But if he had cast his eye to the tyre that was newly kindled, he should haue 
surely sene an horrible flame incesed against the walles of Ins o>'iie house and family, by 
the which in conclusion his line and stocke was cleane destroyed and consumed to ashes, 
whiche tyre at that verye tyme paraduenture might haue bene quenched and put out. For 
diuerse write that Richard earle of Cambridge did not conspire with the lorde Scrope and 
sir Thomas Graye to murther kyng Henry to please the- Frenche Kyng withal, but onely 
to thentent to exalte to the croune his brotherinlawe Rdmond earle of Marche as heyre to 
duke Lyouel. After whose death consideryng that the earle of Marche for diuerse secrete 
impediments was not liable to haue generacion, he was sure that the croune should come 
to him by his wife, or to his children. And thevtbie it is to be thought that he rather cofess- 
ed him selfe for nede of money to be corrupted by the Free he kyng, then he would declare 
his inwarde mynd & open his very entent. For surely he s.iwe that if his purpose were es- 
pied, the earle of March should haut; dronken of the same cup that he did, and what should 
haue come to his owne children he muciie doubted. And theifore beyng destitute of com- 
fort and in di-payre of life, to saue ins children he fayu d that tale, de^iryng rather to saue 
his succession then him selfe, winch lie did in dede For Richard duke of Yoike his sonne 
not priuely but openly claimed the croine, and Kdward fiis sonne bu'.h claimed & gained it 
as hereafter you shall heare, which tiiyng at thibt ; ni'.' if kyug Henry had foresene I doubt 
whether either euer that line should haue euiier claimed tiie gariaiide or gained the game. 

3 WHEN. 



62 THE. III. YERE OF 

WHEN the wynde was prosperous and pleasaunt for the nauye to set forward, they 
waicd vp the Ankers and hoysed vp their sailes and set forward with. xv. C. shippes on the 
vigile of the Assumpcion of our Lady and toke land at Caux, comonly called Kyd Caux 
(where the riuei'of Seine runneth into the sea) without resistencc or bludsheddyng. The 
kyng was lodged on the shore in a small priory with the dukes of Clarece and Gloucester his 
bretherne: the duke of Excetter and Yorke, the carles, Marshal, Oxforde, Suffolke, War- 
wicke and other lordes were lodged not farre fro him. The next day after, he marched 
towarde the toune of Ilarflewe standing on the riuer of Seyne betwene two hilles and 
besieged it on euery parte. The capitaine of the toune was the lorde Escouteuile with the 
lorde Blaynuile of Hacqueuile, the lordes of Harmanuile of Galarde Boyes, of Clere de 
Becton, ofAdsandies, of Brian, of Gaucort, of Lisleadarn and many other. 

THE Frenche kyng beyng aducrtised of the kynges arriuall, sente in all the hast the 
lorde Pelabreche constable of Fraunce and the lorde Bonciqualt Marshall of Fraiice, the 
Seneschal ofllenaude, the lorde Ligny and diuerse otlier capitaines, whiclie fortified tonnes 
with men vitaile and artillary on all the sea coaste. And heryng that the kyng of England 
had besieged Harflew at his first landyng, carne to the castle of Cawdebec beyng not farre 
from Harflewe, to thentent to succour their frendes which wer besieged if thei might by any 
pollicy or inuencion, and if not, then they imagined how to sleye and hurte the Englishe- 
iTien when they went into the countree on foragvng for bcastcs and vitaill and so trappe and 
dcstroye them, for thei costrued with themsclfes that their vitaile would sone faile because of 
the ay re of the sea and smell of the water. But they were deceiued, for notwithstandyng 
the prouision and pollicy of the Frenchemen, the Englishmen forrayed the countree, spoyl- 
ed the villages and brought many a riche praie to the Campe before Ilarflewe. Thenglish- 
men daily ceassed no!: to assaile the toune, the duke of Gloucester to who the ordre of the 
assaulte was comitted, made thre mynes vnder the ground & approched the walles with 
ordiuaunce and engyues, and would not sutfre theim within to reste at any tyme. The 
kyng liyng on the hill side with his battail did not onely kepe the Frenchmen from succoryng 
of the toune, but also toke a\vaie from the tounes men all the hope and trust of their succor, 
aide and relief, and also al the gonnepouder that was sent by the Frenche kyng to them 
that wer beseged was taken by thenglishmen. The capitaines of the Freeh men within the 
toune perceitied that they wer not able to resist the continuall inuasions and hourelyassaultes 
of the fierce Englishemenne, and knowyng that their walles were vnder my ned and shortely 
like to fal, & feryng tliat might happe of the chance if thei should fortune to be ouercome 
and take by force, desired of the kyng of England only truce for thre daies, promisyng 
that if they were not reskewed within thesame tyme, then thei to yeld themselfes and the 
toune their hues only saued. And to performe this, they deliuered into the kynges pos- 
session, xxx. of the beste capitaines and Marchauntes of the toune. The kyng of Englande 
accepted this oft're, lest he entendyng greater exploites might lese his tyme in suche small 
matters. When this composicion was agreed, the lorde Hacqueuile was sent to the French 
kyng to declare the necessite of the toune and the shorte tyme of the truce. To who the 
dolphin aunswered that the kynges power was not yet assembled in suche a nombre as was 
conuenient to raise so greate a siege. When the aunswer was reported to the capitaines, 
they seyng no hope nor similitude of aide and comfort to them commyng, after the third 
daie rendered to the kyng of Englacl the toune, beyng the. xxxvij. daie after that it was 
besieged, whiche was the daie of sainct Mawrice, to the greate abashement of all Nor- 
mandy, for it was the soueraigne porte of al that countree. The souicliours wer 
rauDSOined and the toune was sacked to the greate gayne of the Englishemen. The 
kyng of Englande ordeignod capitain of the toune of Harflew his vncle Thomas 
duke of Exccsler whiche established his leuetenaunt there Ihon Fastolfte with. xv. C. inenl 
and. xxxv. knightes, whereof the Baron of Carew & sir Hugh Lutterell were two coun-' 
saillcrs. And because diuerse of his nobles liyng Harflew were sicke of the flixe and many 
wer ded, emongest who therle of Stafford, the bishop of Norwich, the lordes Molins and 

1 Burnell 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 63 

Burnell wer foure beside other. The kyng licensed the duke of Clarence his brother, Ihon 
erle Marshall and Ihon erle of Arundel beyng infected \vith tliat desease to returne into 
Englande. 

KYNG Henry not a litle reioysyng of his good lucke and fortunate successe in the 
begin nyng of his pretensed conquest, determined withal diligence to set forward in perform- 
yng his intended purpose and warrely enterprise, but because Wynter approched faster and 
more furiously then before that tyme had been accustomed, he was sore troubled and vexed. 
For the whiche cause he called together al the Cheuetaines and men of pollicy in his annie 
to consult vpo the procedyng forward and to be sure of waie and redy passage. After long 
debatyng and muche reasonyng, it was as a thyng bothe necessary and conueniente and fully 
agreed and determined to set forwarde withall diligence before the dedde tyme of Winter 
approched, toward the toune of Caleis. And because their goyng forward should be called 
of slaunderous tongues a runnyngorfliyng awaie, it was decreed that the whole armie should 
passe the next waie by lande through the middest of their enemies, and yet that ionrney 
was iudged perilous by reason that the numbre was muche minished by the flyxe and other 
feuers, which sore vexed and brought to death aboue. xv. C. persones, whiche was the very 
cause that the returne was soner concluded and appoincted : but before his departyng he 
entered into the toune of Harflew and went on foote to the churcheof sainct Martynes and 
there offered. And all the men of warr which had not paied their raunsome, he sware 
them on the holy Euangelistes to yeld themselfes prisoners at Caleis by the feast of S. Mar- 
tyn in Nouember nexte, diuerse of the burgesses he highly raunsomed, and a greate part 
of the women and children he expelled the toune, geuyng to euery poore creature flue 
sowse. The priestes had licence to depart leuyng behinde them their substaunce. The 
goodes in the toune wer innumerable whiche wer al praie to the Englishemen, whiche sent 
the best into Englande as a remembraunce of good lucke. There were twoo strong toures 
standyng on the hauen side, whiche lokyng for aid did not yelde ten daies after the toune 
was rendered. 

WHEN the kyng had repaired the walles, fortefied the bulwarkes refresshed the ram- 
piers and furnished the toune with vitail and artillary, he remoued from Harflew toward 
Pountoyse, entendyng to pas the riuer of Some with his armie before the bridges were ether 
withdrawen or broken. The Frenche kyng hearyng that the toune of Harflewe was gotten 
and that the kyng of Englande was marchyng forwarde into the bowelles of the realme, sente 
out proclamacions and assembled people in euery quarter, comittyng the whole charge of 
his armie to his sonne the Dolphin & the duke of Aquitayn, whiche incontinent caused the 
brydges to be broken and all the passages to be defended, beside that they caused all come 
and other vitaill to be destroied in all places where they coniectured that-thenglishmen would: 
repaire or passe through, to thentent that they might ether kepe the in a place certain with- 
out any passage or departure, and so to destroye them at their pleasures, or els to kepe 
theim in a straite without vitailes or comfort, and so by famyne ether cause them to dye 
or yelde. 

THE kyng of Englande afflicted with all these incomoditees at one tyme was nether dis- 
maied nor discoraged, but keping furth his iorney approched to the riuer of Some, where 
he perceiued that all the bridges wer by his enemies broken and vnframed: wherfore he came 
to the passage called Blanchetaque where kyng Edwardes greate graundfather passed the 
riuer of Some before the battaill of Cressy. But the passage was so kepte that he could 
not passe without great daunger, consideryng that his enemies wer at his backe & before 
his face. Wherfore he passed forward to Arannes, burnyng villages & takyng greate booties- 
and euery daie he sent his light horsemen abrode to spye and seke what perilles ther wer at 
hand, what embushments ther wer laid on the one side or thother, & to find out where he 
might most sanely pas the riuer. The espialles returned and declared for a truth that the* 
coutree swarmed with men of warre, wherof he beyng aduertised, set furth in good ordre,, 
kepyng still his waie forwarde and so ordred his armie and placed his cariage, that hauyng: 

his- 



6+ THE. III. YERE OF 

his enemie* on both side* of him, he passed so terribly that his enemies wer afraid ancc te 
offre hym battaill, and yet the lorde Delabreth Constable of Fraunce, the Marshall Bonce- 
qualt, the erleof Vandosme greate Master of Fraunce and the lorde Dampier Admirall of 
Fraunce, the duke of Alanson and the erle of Richemonde vvithall the puyssance of the 
Dolphin laie at Abbeuile and durste not once touche his battailes, but euer kepte the pas- 
sages and coasted alofe like a hauke that liketh not her praie. The kyng of Englande still 
kept on his iourney till he came to the bridge of saincte Maxence, where he founde aboue 
xxx. M. Frenchemen and there pitched his felde, lokyng surely to be set on and fought 
withal. Wherfore to encorage his capitaines the more, he dubbed certain of his hardy & 
valeant gentlemen knightes, as Ih5 lord Ferreis of Groby, Reignold of Greistocke, Piers 
Tempest, Christopher Morisby, Thomas Pikering, Willifi Huddleston, Ihon Hosbalton, 
Henry Mortimer, Philip Halle & Willia his brother, & laques de Ormod & diuerse 
other. But when he saw y the Frenchmen made no semblance to fight, he departed 
in good ordre of battail by the toune of Amiece to a toune nere to a castle called 
Bowes, and there laie twoo daies, euery houre lookyng for battaill. And from thence he 
came nere to Corby where he wasstaied that night by reason that the come people and pey- 
sants of the countree assembled in greate nombre, .and the men of Armes of the garrison of 
Corby skirmished with his armie in the mornyng, which tariyng was to hym bothe ioyous 
and profitable, for there he discomfited the crew of horsmen & draue the rustical people 
euen to their gates, & also found there thesame daie a shalow forde betwene Corby & 
Peron, whiche neuer was espied before. At the whiche he, his armie & cariages the night 
ensuyng passed the great riuer of Some without let or daungier, the morowe after sainct 
Lukes daie, determined withall diligence to passe to Caleis, and not to seke for battail 
except he wer therto constrained & compelled, because that his armie by sickenesse was 
sore minished and appaired, for he had onely two. M. horsemen and. xiii.M. Archers, bill 
men and of all sortes. The Englishemen were afflicted in this iourney with an hundred 
discomodities, for their vitaile was in maner all spent, and nevve they could get none, for 
their enemies had destroyed all the corne before their comyng: Rest they could take none, 
for their enemies wer euer at hande, daily it reined and nightly it fresed, of fuell was 
skacenes and of fluxes was plenty, money they had ynough but comforle thei had none. 
And yet in this great necessitee the poore folkes wer not spoyled nor any thyng without pai- 
nient was .of the .extorted, nor great offence was doen except one, whiche was that a fool- 
ishe souldier stale a pixe out of a churche and vnreuerently did eate the holy hostes with- 
in thesame conteigned. For whiche cause he was apprehended, and the kyng would not 
once remoue till the vessel was restored & the offender strangled. The people of the 
countrees there aboute hearyngof his straight iustice & godly mynd, ministered tohym bothe 
vitailes & other necessaries, although by open proclamacio they wer therof prohibited. 

THE Frenche kyng beyng at Roan, hearyng that the kyng of Englande was passed the 
water .of .Some, was not a little discontente, and assembled his counsaill to the numbre of. 
xxxv. to consult what should be doen, the chief whereof were the Dolphin his sonne 
whose name was Lewes, callyng hymself kyng of Cicile, the dukes of Berry & Britayn 
therle of Pontieu the kynges youngest sonne and diuerse other, wherof xxx. agreed that the 
Englishmen should not departe vnfoughten with all, and fiue wer of the contrary opinion, 
tut the greater niwnbre ruled the matter. And so Mountioye kyng at Armes was sent to the 
kyng of Englande to ,defie hym as the enemie of Fraunce, and to tell hym that heshould 
shortly haue battaill. Kyng Henry soberly aunswered : Sir myne entent and desire is none 
other, but to do as it pleaseth Almighty God and as it hecometh me, for surely I will Tiot eeke 
your Master at this tyme, but if .he or his seke me I wil willyngly fight with hym. And if 
any of your nacion attempt once to stoppe me in my iourney toward Caleis, at their ieopardy 
be it, and yet my desire is that none of you be so vnaduised or harebrained as to be the 
,ftcc.asi.on that I in my defence shall coloure and make redde your tawny grounde with the 

deathes 






KYNG HENRY THE. V. 65 

deathes of your selfes and theffusion of Christen bloud. When he had aunswered the 
harauld , he gaue to him a great reward & liceced him to depart. 

WHEN the Lordes of Fraunce heard the kyng of Englandes answere, it was inconti- 
nent proclayrned, that all men of warre should resorte to the Constable of Fraunce to fight 
with the kyng of Englande and his puissaunce. Wherupon all men accustomed to beare 
Armure and desirous to wyn honor through the realme of Fraunce drewe toward the fold. 
The Dolphyn sore desired to bee at that battaile, but he was prohibited by the kyng his fa- 
ther, likewise Philip erle of Charolous sonne to the Duke of Burgoyn would gladly haue 
been at that noble assemble if the duke his father would haue suffred hym, but many of his 
men stale awaie and went to the Frenchemen. 

THE Kyng of Englande informed by his espialles that the daie of battail was nerer then 
he loked for, dislodged from Bomyers & roade in good arraie through the faire piaine beside 
the toune of Blangy, where to the intent that his armie should not bee included in a streight 
or driuen to a corner, he chose a place mete and conueniente for two armies to darrayne bat- 
tail betwene the tounes of Blangy and Agincourte, where he pight his felde. 

THE Constable of Fraunce, the Marshall, the Admirall, the Lorde Rambures Master of 
the Crossebowes and diuerse lordes and knightes pitched their banners nere to the banner 
royall of the Constable in the Countee of sainct Paule within the territory of Agincourte, by 
the whiche waie the Englishernen muste nedes passe towarde Caleis. The Frenchemen 
made greate fires about their banners, and they were in numbre had. Ix. M. horsemen, as 
their owne historians and writers affirme, beside footemen pages and wagoners, and all that 
night made greate chere and were rery mery. The Englishmen that night sounded their trom- 
pettes and diuecse instrumentes Musicall with greate melody, and yet they were bottie hungery, 
wery, sore traueled and rnuche vexed with colde deseases: Howbeit tliey made peace with 
God, in confessyng their synnes, requiring hym of help, and receiuyng the holy sacramente, 
cuery man encouragyng and determinyng clerely rather to die then either to yelde or Hie. 

NOW approched the fortunate faire daie to the Englishemen and the infest and vnlucky The } 
daie to the Frenche nobilitee, whiche was the fiue and twentv daie of October in the vere of of Affin " 

v */ CO11! ' . 

our Lorde lesu Chnste a thousande foure hundred and fifteene, bceyng then Fridaie and 
the daie of Crispin and Crispinian. On tlie whiche daie in the mornyng, the Frenche 
menne made thre battailes : In" the \ r award wer eight thousande Ilealmes of Knightes and 
Esquiers and foure thousande Archers and fiftene hundred- Crosebowes, which were guyded 
by the Lord Delabret Constable of Fraunce, hauyng with hym the dukes of Orlcaunce and 
Burbone, therles of Ewe and Richmond the Marshall Bonciqualt and the Master of the 
Crosebowes, the Lorde Dampier Admirall of Fraunce and other capitaincs. And the erle 
of Vandosme and other the kynges officers with. xvj. C. men of Armes wer 01 dred for a. 
wyng to that battail. And the other wyng was guided by sir Guyshard Dolphyn and sir 
Clugnet of Brabant and sir Lewes of Burbon with. viij. C. menne of Armes, of chosen 
and elect persones. And to breake the shot of the Englishemen wer appoincled sir 
Guylliii of Sauesens with Hector and Philip his brethren. Ferry of Maylley and Alen of 
Gaspanes with other, viij. C. men cf Armes. In the midle ward wer assigned as many per- 
soues or mo as wer in the formoste battail, and therof was the charge comitted to the dukes 
of Barr and Alenson, therles of Neuers, Vawdemont, Blamout, Salynges, Grafitpree and of. 
Roussy. And in the rerewarde were all the other men of Armes, guyded by the erics of. 
Marie, Dampmartyne, Fawquenberge and the Lorde of Lourrey Capitayne of Arclc, who 
had with hym men of the Frontiers of Bolonoys. 

WHEN these battailes were thus ordred, it was a. glorious sight to behold the, and surely 
they wer estetned to be in numbre sixe times as many or more then was the whole compaigny 
of the Englishmen with wagoners pages and all. Tims the Frenchmen wer euery man vnder 
his banner only waityog for the blouddy blast of the terrible trompet, and in this ordre they 
continued restyng themselfes and reconciling euery one to other for all old rancors and hatredcs 
whiche had been betwene theim, till the houre betwene. ix. and, x. of the daie. Duryng 

K whiche 



66 THE. III. YERE OF 

whiche season, the Constable of Fraunce saied openly to the capitayues iu effecte as fo- 
loweth. 

The ornciou FIIENDES and companions in armes, I canot but bothe reioyce and lament the chances 
f aUeof 5 " ^ f rtunes f these two armies whiche I openly se and behold with myne iyes here presente. 
j>uce. I reioyce for the victor ie whiche I se at hand for our part, and I lamet and sorow for the 
misery and calamitee whiche I perceiue to approche to the otherside: For wee cannot but 
be victours and triuphant conquerors, for who saw euer so florisshyng an armie within 
any Christian region, or suche a multitude of valiaunt persones in one compaignie? Is not 
here the flower of the Frenche nacion on barded horsses with sharpe speares and dedly wea- 
pons? Are not here the bold Britons with fiery handgones and sharpe swerdes? Se you 
uot present the practised Pickardes with strong and weightie Crossebowes? Beside these, 
we haue the fierce Brabanders & strong Almaines with long pykes and cuttyng slaughmesses. 
And on the otherside is a s?mal handfull of pore Englishmen whiche are entred into this re- 
gion in hope of some gain or desire of proffite, whiche by reson that their vitaill is cosumed 
& spent, are by daily famyn sore wekened, consumed & almost without spirites* for their 
force is clerly abated and their strength vtterly decaied, so ^ or the battailes shall ioyne 
they shalbe for very feblenes vaquished & ouercom, & in stede of men ye shal fight with 
shadowes. For you must vnderstand, y kepe an Englishma. one moneth from his warme bed, 
fat befeand stale drynke, and let him that season tast colde and suflfre hunger, you then shall 
se his courage abated, his bodye waxe leane and bare, and euer desirous to returne into his 
owne countrey. Experience now declareth this to be true, for if famine had not pinched 
them, or colde wether had not nipped them surely they would haue made their progresse 
farther into Fraunce, and not by so many perilous passages retired towarde Calays. Suche 
courage is in Englishmen when fayre weather and vitaile folow them, and suche vveaknes 
they haue when famine and cold vexe and trouble them. Therfore nowe it is no mastery to 
vanquishe and ouerthrowe them, beyng both wery & weake, for by reason of feblenes and 
faintnes their weapones shal fal out of their handes when they prefer to strike, so that ye may 
no easilier kyll a poore shepe then destroye them beyng alredy sicke & hungerstaruen. But 
imagyn that they wer lusty, strong and couragious, and then ponder wisely the cause of their 
comyng hither, and the meanyng of their enterprice: Fyrst their king a yong striplyng (more 
mete for a tenice playe then a warlike campe), claimeth the croune, scepter and souereign- 
tie of the verye substance of the Frenche nacion by battaile: then he and his entende to oc- 
cupy this countrey, inhabite this land, destroy our wiues and children, extinguishe our blud 
and put our names in the blacke boke of obliuion. Wherfore remembre wel, in what 
quarel can you better fight then for the tuicio of your nataral countrey, the honor of your 
prince, the surety of your children and the sauegard of your land and Hues. If these 
causes do not encourage you to fight, beholde before your eyes the tetes of your enemies, 
with treasure, plate & Jewels wel stuffed and richely furnished, which pray is surely yours 
if euery ma strike but one stroke, besyde the great raunsomes whiche shalbe paied for 
riche capitaines and welthy prisoners, whiche as surely shall be yours as you now had 
them in your possession. Yet this thyng I charge you withal, that in nowise the kyng 
him selfe be killed, but by force or otherwise to be appreheded & taken to the entent that 
with glorye & triumphe we may conuey him openly through the noble cytie of Paris to oure 
kyng and dolphyn as a testimony of our victory & witnes of our noble act. And of this 
thyng you be sure, that fly they cannot, and to yelde to our fight of necessitie they shalbe 
compiled. Therfore good felowes take courage to you, the victory is yours, the gaine is 
yours & the honor is yours without great laboure or muche losse. 

KYNG Henry also like a leader & not like one led, like a souereigne and not like a 
souldior ordred his men for his most aduantage like an expert capitaine and a couragious 
warrier. And fyrst he sent priuely CC. archers into a low medowe which was nere to the 
forward of his enemies, but separate with a great diche, and were there commaunded to kepe 
them selues close tyl they had a token to them geuen to shote at their aduersaries. Beside 

this 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 67 

this he appoincted a vawarde, of the which he made capitayne Edward duke of Yorke whiche 
of a hauie courage had of the kyng required and obteined that office: and with him were 
the lordes Beaumond, Wylloughby and Fanhope, and this battaile was all archers. Tlie 
middle ward was gouerned by the kyng him self with his brother the duke of Gloucester, 
& theories Marshal, Oxford andSuffolke, in the which wer al the strong bilmen, The duke 
of Exceter vncle to the kyng led the rercward, whiche was mixed both with archers & bil- 
inen. The horsemen like winges went on euery side of the battaile. When the king had thus 
ordred his battaile, like a puissaunt coqueror without feare of his enemies, yet cosiderlng the 
multitude of them farre to excede the smal nombre of his people, doubtyng that the 
Frenchemen would compasse and beset him aboute, and so fight with him on euery side, to 
thentent to vaquish the power of the French horsmen whiche might breake the ordre and 
arraye of his Archers, in whom the whole force of the baitaile did consist and in maner re- 
maine he caused stakes bound with yron sharpe at both endes of the length of v. or. vi. 
fote to be pitched before the Archers and of euery side the fote men like an edge, to the 
entent that if the barde horses ranne rashely vpo them, they might shortely be gored and de- 
stroied, & appointed certeine persons to remoue the stakes when the Archers inoued, and 
as tyme required : so that the fotemen were hedged about with the stakes, and the horsemen 
stode like a bulwerke betwene the and their enemies without the stakes. This deuice of 
fortifiyng an armye was at this tyme fyrst inuented, but sence that tyme, they haue 
imagined caltrappes, harowes and other newe trickes to defende the force of the hors- 
men so that if the enemies at auenture runne against their engines, either sodeinly their 
horses be wounded with the stakes, or their feete hurt with the other engines, so that of 
very necessitie for paine, the sely pore beastes are compelled to fal and tumble to the 
ground. When he had ordred thus his baitailes, he left a smal company to kepe his 
campe & baggage, and then callyng his capitaines and soldiours about him, he made to 
them an heartie Oracion in effect as foloweth, saiyng. 

WELBELOUED frendes and countrymen, I exhort you heartely to thinke and con- ^ rioa 
ceiue in yourselues that this daye shalbe to vs all a day of ioy, a day of good lucke and a day Hcnr/the 
of victory: For truely if you well note and wisely considre all thynges, almighty God vnder whose fiftl 
protection we be come hither, hath appoincted a place so mete and apt for our purpose as we 
our selves could nether haue deuised nor wished whiche as it is apt and conuenient for our 
smal nombre and litle army so is it vnprofitable and vnmete for a great multitude to fi^ht or 
geue battaile in : and in especial for suche men in whom is neither constant faith nor securitie 
of promise, whiche persons be of God neither fauored nor regarded, nor he is not accustomed 
to ayde and succoure suche people whiche by force and strength contrary to right & 
reason detain and kepe from other their iust patrimony and lauful inheritance, with whiche 
blotte and spotte the Frenche nacion is apparantly defyled and distained: so that God of 
his iustice wyll scourge and aflicte them for their manifest iniuries and open wronges to vs 
and our realme dayly committed and done. Therfore puttyng your onely trust in him, 
let not their multitude feare youre heartes, nor their great nombre abate your courage : 
for surely old warlike fathers haue both said and written that the more people that an army 
is, the lesse knowledge the multitude hath of material feates or politique practises, whiche 
rude rustical and ignorant persons shalbe in the feld vnto hardy capitaines and lusty 
men of warre a great let and sore impediment. And though they al were of Jike pollicy, like 
audacitie and of one vniforme experience in rnarcial affayres, yet we ought neither to feare 
them nor once to shrinke for them consideryng that we come in the right, whiche euer of 
God is fauored, set furth and auansed: in whiche good and iust quarel al good persons 
shal rather set bothe theyr feete forward, then once to turne theyr one heale backward. 
For if you aduenture your Hues in so iust a battaile & so good a cause, whiche way so- 
euer fortune turne her whele, you shalbe sure of fame, glory and renoune: If you be 
victors and ouercome your enemies, your strength and vertue shalbe spred and dispersed 
through the whole world: If you ouerpressed with s$ great a multitude shal happe to be 

K 2 slaine 



6* THE. III. YERE OF 

slaine or taken yet neither reproche can be to you ascribed, either yet infamy of you report- 
ed, consideryng that Hercules alone was not equiuolent vnto. ii. men, nor a smal handfull 
is not equal to a great nombre, for victory is the gift of God and consistcth not in the 
puissaunce of men. Wherfore manfully set on your enemies at theyr fyrst encountre, 
strike with a hardy courage on the false hearted Frenchemen, whom youre noble aun- 
cestours haue so often ouercome and vanquished. For surely they be not so strong to geue 
the onset vpo you, but they be much weaker to abide your stregth in a long fight and tyred 
battaile. As for me I assure you al, that England for my person shall neuer paye raun- 
some, nor neuer Frencheman shall triumph ouer me as his capitain, for this day by 
famous death or glorious victory I wyl wynne honor and obtaine fame. Therfore now ioy- 
ously prepare your seines to the battaile and couragiously fight with your enemies, for 
at this very ty me all the realme of Englande praieth for our good lucke and prosperous 
successe. 

WHILE the kyng was thus speakyng, eche armye so maligned & grudged at the other 
beyng in open sight and euident apparence, that euery man cried furth, furth, forward 
forward. The dukes of Clarece Gloucester and Yorke were of the same opinion, thinkyng 
it most conuenient to marche toward theyr enemies with al spede & celeritie, least in pro- 
longyng of tyme and arguyrig of opinions, the Frenche armye might more and more 
increace & hourly multiply. Howbeit the kyng taried a while least any ieopardy were 
not forsene, or any hazard not preuented. 

THE Frenchemen in the rneane season litle or nothyng regardyng the small nombre of 
thenglishe nacion, were of suche haute courage and proud stomackes that they took no 
thought for the battaile, as who saye they were victours and ouercomers before any stroke 
was striken, and laughed at the Englishmen, and for very prid thought the selues lifted 
into heauen iestyng and boastyng that they had thenglish men inclosed in a straight 
and had ouercome and take them without any resistance. The capitaines determined howe 
to deuide the spoyle: the souldiors plaied the Englishmen at dice: the noble men deuised 
a chariot how they might triumphantly conueigh kyng Henrye beyng captiue to the cytie 
of Paris, criyng to theyr souldiors, hast your selues to obtaine spoile, glory and honor, to 
thentent that we may study howe to geue you thankes for the great giftes and rewardes 
which we hope to receiue of your great liberalitie. The folishe folye of this vaine solace 
brake out so farre, that messengers were sent to the cyties and tounes adioyning, willyng 
them to make open playes find triumphes, (as though that the victory were to them 
certaine & no resistance could appeare) and also to geue God thankes for their prosperous 
net and notable dede, not remembryng that the whjrlewynd shortely with a puft'e blew 
away al their folishe ioy and phantastical braggyng. 

Of this doyng you may gather, that it is asmuche madness to make a determinate Judge- 
ment of thinges to come, as it is wisdome to doubt what wyll folowe of thinges be- 
gone. I may not forgdt how the Freche men beyng in this pleasaunt pastyme, sent a 
herault to kyng Henry to inquyre what raunsome he wold offre, and how he answered 
that within, ii. or. iii. houres he hoped that it should so happen that the Frenchemen 
should comen rather with thenglishmen how to be redemed, then the Englishmen should 
take thought how to pay any rausome or money for theyr deliuerance: asserteinyng them 
for him selfe that his dead carion should rather be their pray, then his liuyng body should 
pay any raunsome. When the messenger was departed, the Frenchmen put on theyr heal- 
mettes and set the in ordre vnder theyr banners, richely armed and gorgeously trapped 
and caused theyr trumpettes to blowe to the battaile. 

THE Englishemen perceiuyng that, sette a lytle forwarde, before whom there went an 
old knight called syr Thomas of ^ierpingham, a man of great experience in warre, with 
a warder in his hand, and when hrf cast vp his warder, al the army shouted, at the which 
the Frenchmen muche marueiled, out that was a sign to the Archers in the meadowe, which 
knowing the token, shot wholy altogether at the vavvard of the Freachemen. When they 

perceiued 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 9 

i 

pcrceiued the archers in the meadow, who they saw not before, and sawc they could not 
come to them for a diche, they with al hast set on kyng Henries forwarde, hut or they' 
ioyned, the archers in the forfront and the archers on the side whiche stode in the meadow, 
so wounded the iblenien, so galled the horses and so combred the men of armes that the 
fotemen durst not go forward, the horsemen rune in plumpes without drdre, some ouer- 
threw his felovv, and horses ouerthrew their maisters: So at the fyrst ioyuyng, as the Frenchemen 
wer clcarely discouraged, so thenglishmen were muche chered. When the Frenche vaward was 
thus discomfited, the English archers cast away theyr bowes & tokeinto theyr handes axes, 
nialles and swordes,billes and other weapons, and thenvith slewe the Frenchmen tyll they 
came to the middleward. Then the king approched and encoragrd his souldiors, that 
sliortly the second battaile was ouerthrowen and dispersed not without' great slaughter of 
men: howbeit diuers beyng wounded wer releued by their varieties and conueighed out of 
the fclde, for the Englishmen so sore labored with fightyng and slaiyng, and wer so busy in 
takyng of prisoners that they folowed no chace, nor would once breake out of the battaile. 
The Frenchmen strongly wstode the fearcenes of Thenglishmen when thei came to hady 
strokes, so that the fight was very doubtful & perilous. And when one part of the French- 
horse men thought to haue entred into the kynges battaille, they were with the stakes ouer 
turned, and either slain or taken. 

THUS this battaile continued, iii. long houres, some strakc, some defeded, some foyned, 
some trauersed, some kylled, some toke prisoners noman was idle, euery man fought either 
in hope of victory or glad to saue him selfe. The kyng that clay shewed him selfe like a 
valiaunt knight, whiche notwithstandyng that he was almost felled with the duke of Alaun- 
son, yet with plain strength he" slew. ii. of the dukes company and felled the duke: but when 
the duke would haue yelded him, the kynges garde cotrary to the kynges ininde outragiously 
slewe him. And in conclusion, mindyng to make an ende of that daies iorncy, caused his 
horsmen to fetch a compasse about & to ioyne with him against the rereward of Fraunce: 
in the whiche battaile were the greatest nombre of people. When the Frenchmen per- 
ceiued his entent, they wer sodenly amased and ranne away like shepe without aray or ordre. 

When the kyng perceiued the banners cast doune & the aray was clerely broken, he en- 
coraged his souldiors and folowed so quickly that the Frenchmen turnyng to flight, ranne 
hither and thither not knowyng whiche way to take, castyng away their armure and on theyr 
knes desired to haue theyr hues saued. In the meane season while the battaile thus con- 
tinued and that thenglitihmen had taken a great nobre of prisoners, certain Frenchmen on 
horsbackeVherof were captaines Robinet of Borneuile, Kifflart of Clamas and Isarnbert of 
Agincourt and other 'men of Armes to the nombre of. vi. C. horsemen : whiche fled fyrst 
from the felde at theyr fyrst commyng and hearyng that the Englishe tentes and pauilions 
were farre from the army without any great nobre of kepers or persons mete and couenient 
for defence, partly moued and styrred with coueteous desire of spoyle and pray, and partly 
entendyng by some notable act to reuenge the damage and displeasure done to them it theirs 
in battail the same day, entred into the kynges campe beyng voide of men and fortefied 
with varieties & lackeys, and ther spoyled hales, robbed tentes, brake vp chestes and caried 
awaye caskettes and slewe suche seruantes as they could fynd in the tentes and pauilions. 
For the whiche act thei wer long imprisoned and sore punished and like to haue lost their 
liues if the Dolphyn had longer liued. 

WHEN the kyng by a feareful messenger was of this euil acte soclainly aduertised, and 
when the outcry of the lackeys and boyes whiche rane away for feare of the robbers was 
heard into the felde, saiyng that the Frenchmen had robbed all the tentes and lodgynges of 
the Englishmen, he fearyng least his enemies beyng dispersed and scattered abroad should 
gather together againe and beginne a new felde: and doubtyng farther that the prisoners 
would ether be an aide to his enemies or very enemies to him if he should sufire them 
to hue, contrary to his accustomed gentlenes and pitie he comaunded by the sounde of a 
ompet that euery man vpon paine of death should incotinently sley his prisoner. When 

this 



70 THE. III. YERE OF 

this dolorous decre & pitiful proclamacio was pronounced, pitie it was to se and lotlisome 
it was to behold how some Frenchmen wer sodainly slicked with daggers, some wer brained 
with polaxes, some wer slain with malles, other had theyr throtes cut and some their bellies 
paunched: so that in effecte hauyng respecte to the greate nombre, few prisoners or none 
were satied. 

WHEN this lamentable manslaughter was finished, thenglishemen forgettyng their 
woundes and hurtes and not remembring what paine they had sustained all day in fightyng 
with their enemies, as men that wer freshe and lusty, ranged them selues again in aray both 
prest and redy to abide a newe felde, and also to inuade and newly to set on theyr enemies, 
and so couragiously thei set on the carles of Marie and Fauconbrige and the lordes of Lou- 
ray & of Thyne, whiche with. vi. C. men of armes had all day kept together and slew them 
out of hand. 

When the kyng had passed through the felde & saw neither resistence nor apparaunce of 
any Frenchmen sauyng the dead corsses, he caused the retrayte to be blowen and brought 
al iiis armie together about, iiij. of the clocke at after noone. And fyrst to geue thankes 
to almightie God geuer & tributor of this glorious victory, he caused his prelates & cliape- 
laines fyrst to sing this psalme In exitu Israel de Egipto. c. commaundyng euery man to 
knele doune on the ground at this verse. Non nobis domine, non nobis, sed nomine tuo da 
gloriam, whiche is to say in Englishe, Not to vs lord, not to vs, but to thy name let the glory 
be geuen: whiche done he caused Te deuni with certeine anthemes to be song geuyng 
laudes and praisyngcs to God, and not boastyng nor braggyng of him selfe nor his humane 
power. 

THAT night he toke refrcshyng of suche as he found in the Freche campe, and in the 
mcrnyng Moutioy kyng at armes and. iiij. Heraultes came to him to know the nombre of 
prisoners and to desire burial! for them whiche were slaine. Before he could make any an- 
swere to the Heraultes he remembryng that it is more honorable to bee praised of his ene- 
mies then to be extolled of his frendes: and he that praiseth him self lacketh louyng neigh- 
bors: wherforc he demaunded of the why they made to hym that request, considryng that he 
knew not certainly whether the praise & the victory wer mete to be attributed to him or to 
their nacion. Oh lorde q h Mountioy kyng at armes, thinkeyou vs officers of armes to be rude 
and bestial persones? If we for the affection that we beare to our naturall countrey, would 
ether for fauor or mede hide or deny your glorious victory: The foules of the aire, the 
wormes of the ground fedyng on the multitude of the ded carions, by your onely puys- 
saunce destroyed and confounded, will beare witnesse against vs, ye and muche more the 
captiues whiche be lining and in your possessio with their wiues and litle infauntes will saie 
wee bee open liers and vntrue taletellers: Wherfore according to the ducty of our office 
whiche is or should bee alwaics indifferently to write and truely to iudge, we saie, deter- 
myne and affirme that the victory is yours, the honour is yours and yours is the glory, ad- 
uisyng you, as you haue manfully gotten it, so polletikely to vse it. Well saied the kyng, 
seeyng this is your determinacion, I willyngly accept the same, desiryng you to know the 
name of the castle ncre adioynyng. When they had answered that it was called Agyncourt, 
he said that this conflict should be called the battaill of Agyncourt, whiche victory hath not 
been obteigned by vs nor our power, but only by the suffraunce of GOD for iniury and vn- 
truth that we haue receiued at the handes of your Prince and his nacion. That daie he 
feasted the French officers of Armes and graunted to theim their request, whiche busily 
sought through the felde for such as \\er slain, but the Englishmen suffred them not to go 
alone for thei searched with them and found many hurt but not in Jeopardy of their life, 
whom thei tokc prisoners and brought them into their tentes. 

WHEN the kyng ofEnglande had well refreshed hymself and his souldiours and had ta- 
ken the spoyie of suche as were slain, he with his prisoners in good ordre returned to his 
toune of Caleis. When tidynges of this notable victory was blowen into Englande, so- 
Jempne processions and other praisynges to almightie GOD, with bonefiers and dances wer 

] ordeined 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 71 

onleined in euery toune, citee and borough, and the Maire and the citizens of the citee of 
London went the tnorowe after the daie of sainct Simon and lude from the Churche of 
Sainct Paule to the church ofS. Peter at Westminster in deuoute manner, reudryng to God 
their inoste humble and heartie thanlces for his haboundant grace and fortunate lucke geuen 
and sent to the kyng their souereigne lorde. 

WHEN the kyng of Englande was departed the sondaie toward Caleis, diuerse French- 
men repaired to the plain where the battaill was and remoued againe the ded bodies, some 
to finde their lordes and masters and theim to conueigh into their countrees there to bee 
buried, some to spoyle and take the reliques whiche the Englishemen had left behinde: 
For thei toke nothing but gold, siluer, iuelles, riche apparell and costly armure. But the 
ploughmen and peysantes spoyled the dcd carkasses, leuyng theim nether shirte nor cloute, 
and so thei laie starke naked till Wednesdaie. On the whiche daie diuerse of the noble men 
wer conueighed into their countrees and the remnant were by Philip erle Charoloys (sore 
lamentyng the chaunce and moued with pitee) at his cost and charge buried in u square 
plot of. xv.C. vardes, in the which he caused to be made thre pittes, wherin wer buried 
by accompt. v.M. and. viii.C. persons beside them that wer caried awaie by their frendes and 
seruauntes, and other whiche beyng wounded to death died in Hospitalles and other places, 
whiche groue after was made a churche yarde, and for feare of Wolues enclosed with a 
high walle. 

AFTER this dolorus iorney and piteous slaughter, diuerse clerckes of Paris made many 
lamentable Verses, complainyng that the kyng reigned by will, and that coiisaillers wer 
perciall, affirrnyng that the noble men fled fagainst nature, and that the commons were des- 
troyed by their prodigalite, declaryng also that the clergy wer dombe and durst not saie the 
truth, and that the humble comons duely obeyed and yet euer suffred ponishement: For 
whiche cause by persecucion deuine, the lessc numbre vanquished, and the great was ouer- 
come. Wherfore thei concluded that all thynges were out of ordre, and yet there was no 
man that studied to bryng the unruly to frame. And no meruel though this battaill were 
dolorus and lamentable to the Freuche nacion, for in it were taken and slayn the flower of 
all the nobilite of Fraunce, for there wer taken prisoners- * 

Charles duke of Orleaunce nephew to the Frenche kyng. 

Ihon duke of Burbone. The young Lorde of Dynchy, 

Ihon of Craon lord of Dommart. Sir Ihon of Vawcort 

The Lorde of Fossenx. Sir Arthure Bremyer. 

The Lorde of Humyers. Sir lenet of Poys. 

The Lorde of Roye. The sone & heirc of the lord Ligny. 

The Lorde of Cauny. Sir Gylbert de lawney. 

Sir Borsqueret lorde of Hiicourt. The Lorde Daneobe in Ternoys and dt- 

The lorde of Noell called the whit knight uerse other to the numbre of fiftene 

and Bado his sonne. hudred knightes and Esquiers besyde 

Lorde Boncequalt Marshall of Fraunce the common people, 

whiche died in Engliid. 

There wer slain of nobles and gentlemen. 

Charles lorde Delabreth hie Constable Anthony duke of Brabant brother to 

of Fraunce^ the duke of Burgoyn. 

Jaques of Chastilon lorde of Dapier Edward duke of Barre. 

Admirall of Fraunce. Therle Neuers brother to J duke of Burr 
The Lorde Rambures Master of the goyn. 

Crossebowes. Sir Robert Barre erle of Marie. 

Sir Guyshard Dolphyn greate Master of The erle of. Vawdemont. 

Fraunce; The erle of Bawmont 

Ihon duke of. Alaunson. The erle of Graundpre. 

The 



72. ", THE. III. YERE OF 

The erle of Rqussy. The lord of Loguale his brother. 

The erle of Faucenberge. The lord of Mawley & his sonne. 

The erle of Foys. The lord of Diuirie. 

The erle of Lestrake. The lord of Newffile. 

The lorde Boys of Burbon. The lord of Galigny. 

The Vidane of Amias. The lord of Rocheguiche. 

The lord of Croy'e. The Vicedane of Lamoys. 

The lord Belly. The lord de Laligier. 

The lord Dauxcy. The lord of Baffremont. 

The lord of Brenew. The lord sainct Bris. 

The lord of Paix standard berar. The lord of Coutes and his sonne. 

The lord of Crcquy. The lord of Nannes & his brother. 

The lord of Lowrey. The lord of Ront. 

The Baily of Amience & his sonne. The lord of Applincort. 

The lord of Raynuale. The lord Delariuer 

with diuerse other vvhiche I leaue out for tediousnes. But surely by the relacion 
of the Heraultes and declaracion of other notable persons worthy of credite as Enguer- 
rant writeth, there were slain on the Frenche parte aboue ten thousande persones wherof 
wer princes and nobles bearyng banners Cxxvi. and all the remnant sauyng. xvi. C. wer 
knightes esquiers and gentlemen : so of noble men and gentlemen were slain, viii. M. iiii. C, 
of the whiche. v. C. wer dubbed knightes the night before the battaill. Fro the felde escaped 
on Hue, the erle Dampmartyn, the lorde Delariuier, Clunet of Brabante, sir Lewes of 
Burbon, sir Galiot of Gaules, sir Ihon Dengermes and fevve other men of name. 

OF Englishemen at this battaill wer slain Edward duke of Yorke therle of Suffolk, sir 
Richard Kikely & Dauygame esquire, & of al other not aboue. xxv. if you wil geue credite 
to such as write miracles: but other writers whom I soner beleue, affirme that there was 
slain aboue v. or vj. C. persons, whiche is not vnlike, considryng y the battail was earnestly 
and furiously fought by the space of three long houres wherfore it is not incredible nor vet 
vnpossible but more Englishmen then fine and twenty were slain and destroyed. 

TH IS battail maie be a mirror and glas.se to al Christian princes to bcholde and folowe, 
for kyng Henry nether trusted in the puissaunce of his people, nor in the fortitude of his 
champions, nor in the strength of his bardcd horses, nor yet in his owne pollicy, but he 
putte in GOD (whiche is the corner stone and immouable rocke) his whole cofidence hope 
& tru.<t. And he which neuer leaueth them destitute that put their confidence in hym, sent 
to hym this glorious victory, whiche victory is almoste incredible if we had not recde in 
the boke of kynges that God likewise had defended and aided them that onely put their 
trust in him and committed them selfes wholy to his gouernaunce. 

AFTER that the kyng of Englande had refreslned hymself and his souldiours in the toune 
of Caleis, and that suche prisoners as he had left at Harfflew (as you haue heard) wer come 
to hym to Caleis : the. vi. daie of Noucmbre he with all his prisoners toke shippyng at Caleis, 
and thesame dale landed at Douer, hauyng with hym the ded bodies of the duke of Yorke 
and the erle of Suffolke, and caused the duke to bee buried at his colledge of Fodrynghey, 
and therle at Ewhelme. In this passage the seas were so rough and trobleous that two 
shippes laden with souldicrs apperteignyng to sir Ihon Cornewal lorde Fanhope, wer driuen 
into zelande, howbeit nothyng was lost nor no person was perished. The kyng by soft 
iorneies with al his prisoners cam to London and so to Westminster, where he rested hym- 
self a conueniet tyme to deliuer his prisoners to their kepers, and to se them all in saue 
custody. Here I might declare vnto you if I would bee tedious and piolixe, how the 
May re of London and the Senate appareled in oriet grayned Skarlet, how. iij. C. cornoners 
clad in beautiful Murrey wel mounted and gorgeously horsed with riche collers and greate 
chaynes met the kyng at Blackhethe, reioysvng at his victorious rcturne. How the clergie 

of 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 

Ctf London with ri'che crosses, suptcous copes & massy cesers receiued hym at. s. Thomas of 
Wateryng with solepne procession laudyng and praisyng God for the high honor and victory ; 
to hymgeuen & graunted: but all these thynges I omit and returne to the very matter. 

WHEN the dolorus tidynges of this bloudy battail was declared to the Frenche kyng 
beyng then at Roan, and with hym the Dolphyn, the dukes of Berry and Briteyne and his 
second sonne therle of Ponthew, if he lamented this chaunce and cursed that euill daie in 
the whiche he lost so many noble men, no man haue maruaill. And yet the dolor was not 
onely his, for the ladies souned for the deathes of their husebandes, the Orphalines wept and 
rent their heares for the losse of their parentes, the faire damoselles defied that day in the 
whiche they had lost their paramors, the seruates waxed mad for dcstruccio of their masters, 
and finally, euery frend for hisfrend, euery cosynfor his alye, euery neighbor for his neigh- 
bor, was sorry, displeased & greued. Wherfore the Frenche kyng and his counsaill per- 
ceiuyng that the war was but newly begon, and that towarde them with euill spede, deter- 
mined to prouide for chances that might folowe, and to forsee thynges or thei sodainly hap- 
pened. And first he elected his chief officer for the warres called the Constable, whiche 
wes therle of Arminack, a wise and a pollitique capitain and an auncient enemy to thenglish- 
men, and sir Ihon of Corsey was made Master of the Crosbowes, and then they fortefied 
tounes & furnished garrisons. While these thynges were thus in workyng, either for Ma- 
lencoly that he had for the losse at Agincourt or by some sodein desease, Ihon Dolphyn of 
Vienoys heire apparaunte to Charles the Frenche kyng departed out of this naturall life 
xvithout issue, whiche was an happy chaunce for Robynet of Bournouile and his compaign- 
ions as you haue heard before, for his death was their life, and his life would haue been 
their death. 

f THE FOURTH YERE. 

AFter this notable victory obteigned by the Englishemen and that kyng Henry was de- The. mi, 
parted into England, and the Frenche kyng had made newe officers in hope to releue and >'" e> 
sette vp again the olde estate of his realme and coutrie. Thomas duke of Excester capitain . 
of Harflew accompaignied with thre. M. Englishmen made a great roade into Normandy, 
almoste to the citee of Roan : In whiche iorney he gat great habundance bothe of riches, 
and prisoners. But in his returne therle of Arminacke newly made Conestable of Frauncc, 
entendyng in his first iorney to wynne his spurres, and in his compaignie aboue. v. M. horsse- 
men, encountred with hym. The skirmishe was sore and the fight fierce, but because the - 
Englishemen wer not able to resist the force of the Frenche horsemen, the duke to sane his 
men was compelled to retire, as politiquely as he could cleuise: But for all that he could do, 
he loste almoste. ccc. of his fotemen. The Frenchemen not contet with this good lucke . 
folowed theim almoste to the Barriers of Harflew. When the Englishemen within the toune . 
espied the chace, thei issued out in good ordre and met with their enemies, and not onely 
slew and toke a greate numbre of theim, but also chased them aboue eMite miles toward 
the citee of Roan. 

ABOVTE this ceason Sigismond Emperor of Almayn whiche had maricd Barbara douyh- 
ter to therle of zilie cosyn germain remoued to kyng Henry (as by the peel i "re set out in 
the end of this boke you shall plainly perciue) a man of greute vertuc and fidclilie, 
whiche had not onely long labored to set an vnitee and cocord in Christes clmrche and 
Christian religio, but also he sent diuerse Ambassadors aswel to y Freche kyng as to the kyn<* 
of F.nglande, because he was farre distaunt from their countries and regions 10 encrease 
perfight peace and reasonable vnitie. Wherfore, seyng that his Ambassade brought nothynp 
to conclusion, he in person came fro the farthest part of Hngary into France and after into 
England, intendyng to knit together all christen princes in one line and amitce, and so be- 
yng frendes together, to make war and reuenge their quarelles against the Turke the perse- 
cutor of Christes faithe and enemie to all christendome. With this noble Emperor came 

L the 



74 THE. IIIJ. YERE OF 

the -Archebishop of Reynes and diuerse other noble men, as Ambassadors fro the Frcnche 
kyng into England. The kyng of England for old amitee betwene the hous of Englande- 
and Beame, withall his nobilitee hym receiued on Blackheth the. vii. daie of Maie, & 
brought him through London to Westminster with greate triurnphe, where lustes, tournayes 
and other marciall feates wer to hym with all ioye and pleasure shewed and set furth. Du- 
ryng whiche tyme there came into Englande Albert duke of hollande, whiche also was 
frendly entreteigned. And these two princes were by the kyng conueiged to Wynsore to. S. 
Georges feast, and elected compaignions of the noble ordre of the Garter, and had the 
color and habite of the same to theirn deliuered, and satte in their stalles all the solempnitee 
of the feast[: by the whiche ordre thei knowledged themselfes highly honored and muche ex- 
alted. After this solempne feast finished, the duke of Holland well feasted and greatly re- 
warded, returned into his countrie. But the Emperor taried stil, neuer ceasyng to declare & 
perswade what vtilitee, what goodnes and what ioye might ensue if bothe the realmes of 
Englande and Fraunce wer brought to a Snail concord and perfight vnitee. But the euill 
chaunce of the Frenche nacion was to his purpose a barre and a lette, because thei were 
predestinate to suff're yet more plagues and detrimentes of thenglishe people then before 
thei had tasted. For when concorde was at hand and peace was enteryng into the gates, a 
newe cause of more discord and dissencion sodainly brake out and came to the kynges 
knowledge: for he beyng informed of the losse of his me at the conflict late had in the ter- 
ritory of Roan (as you haue heard) was so displeased and vnquieted that he would heare 
of no treaty, nor haue once this word peace named. 

THE Emperor like a wise prince, seyng then the aspect of the planet reigned contrary to 
his purpose, ceassed to talke of that matter any more till another daie when the coniuccion 
should be in more meker signes stirryng to peace. And so when a mete & conueniet tyme 
came, he broched again the vessell of cocord and amitee, & put it in so faire a cup and pre- 
sented it with suche pleasant wordes, that surely the kyng had tasted it sufficiently if y 
Frenchme had not sodainly prepared a new army. For therle of Arminacke puffed vp with 
his last victory, although the honor wer small and the gaine lesse, determined clerely to get 
again the toune of Harflewe, wherfore as closely as he could, he gathered together men in 
euery part, and appoincted them all to mete at Harflew at a daie assigned. The ap- 
poinctment was kept and the toune was besieged bothe by water & land before the 
capitaines of the toune knewe perfightly the first mocion. For Ihon Vicount Narbon 
Viceadmirall of Fraunce had brought the whole nauy to the riuage and shore adioy-r 
nyng to the toune, entendyng priuely to haue enterd into the toune on the water side or he 
had been perceiued. But his subtile ymaginacion toke no place, for thei which kept the 
watch toure, sodainly perceiuyng their enemies to approche, rang the alarum bell. The 
duke of Excester incontinent caused all his men to repaire to the walles, and fortified the 
gates, >and dispatched a swifte Barke to kyng Henry with letters, requiryng hym of aide and 
succor. Although the Frenchemen perceiued that their wyly enterprise was knowen, and 
that the toune could not be taken and sodenly stollen as they had deuised, yet they cotinued 
their siege both by water and by land, and made diuers assaultes, at the whiche if they 
nothyng gained, yet euer somewhat they lost. When these newes were come to the eares 
of kyng H&nry, and that he knew that his people were in great ieopardye excepte great di- 
ligence were vsed for their relief and deliuerance, he without delay apparelled a great, nauy & 
intended in person to minister succors to his subiectes so besieged. The emperor Sigismond 
sagely disuaded him and wisely counsailed him not to aduenture him selfe in that iorney, but 
only to send some valiant captain whiche shortly might appeace that furious storme & 
quickly to quenche that blasyng flame : aduertisyng hym that it was neither necessary nor 
honorable for a prince in whom the whole waight and charge of the comon welth consisteth, 
to aduenture & hazard him self in euery peril and doubtful chaunce. The kyng beyng per- 
suaded with the reasonable and louyng aduertisment of his frende the emperor, appoincted 
the duke of Bedforde bis brother, accompanied with therles of Marche, Marshal, Oxford, 

1 Hunt- 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. , 75 

Huntyngdon, Warvvicke, Arundel, Salisbury, Deuonshire, and diuers Barons with. CC. sayle 
to passe into Normandy for reskew of the toune of Harflew. Whiche makyng good expedi- 
cion shipped at Rye, and with a prosperous wind and a freshegale came to the mouth of the 
riuer of seyn on the day of the Assumpcion Of our Lady. When the vicount Narbon per- 
ceiued the Englishe nauy to approche, he geuyng a token to ail his company, coragiously 
set toward his enemies & gate the possession of the mouth of the hauen. When the duke 
of Bedford perceiued the nauy of his enemies to come forward so fiersly, he set before 
certain strong and well made shippes, whiche at the fyrst encountre vanquished and 
toke two Frenche shyppes (wherof the capitaines were rashe and somewhat to bold) 
withal their souldiours and tackelyng. The duke folowed incotinently with all his pu- 
issance and like a valiant capitaine with great courage and audacitee, set on his ene- 
mies: the fight was long, but not so long as perilous, nor so perilous as. terrible, for 
battailes of the sea be euer desperate, for neither the assailauntes nor defendants loke 
for any refuge, nor know any backdore how to skape out. After long fight the victory 
fel to the Englishemen, and they toke and sonkc almost all the whole nauy of Fraunce, 
in the whiche were many shippes, hulkes and carikes to the nombre of fiue hundred, 
of the whiche. iii. great carickes were sent into England. In the same conflict were 
slaine of the Frenchemen no small nombre, as it appeared by their bodies which 
swarmed euery day about thenglishe shippes. 

AFTER this victory fortunately obteined, the duke of Bedforde sailed by water vp to 
to the very toune of Harflew, and without let or impediment landed and refreshed it both 
with vitaile and money. Which succours if they were welcome to the duke of Excetter 
his vncle, I reporte me to them that haue bene in necessitie and would haue gladly bene 
refreshed. 

WHEN the earle of Armynacke heard that the puissant nauye of Fraunce was vanquish-- 
ed & taken, he raised his siege before the toune and returned with sinal ioy to Paris, as he 
that had no hope nor sawe any likelyhod or meane to recouer again the toune of Harflew 
for whiche he so sore thirsted. 

AFTER this discomfiture and great losse, the fortitude & stregth of the Frenchmen began 
to decay, & their braggyng beautie began to fade. For nowe the princes & nobles of the 
realme fel into diuision & discord among them selues, as who say, that the nobilitie studiyn" 
howe to reuenge their olde iniuries and displeasures, refused to take payne for thaduaunce- 
ment of the publique wealth and saueguard of their countrey And for priuy displeasure co- 
uert or hatred, their power began to wexc so slender, & their libertie was brought intosuche 
a malicious diuersitie and doubtful difference, that as herafter shalbe shewed, it was mer- 
ueil that their coutrey was not brought to a perpetual bondage : whiche thing no doubt had 
tblowed if kyng Henry had lenger liued in this mutable worlde. For notwithstanding that 
the duke of Orleaunce the capitaine and head of the one faction was at that time captiue 
and prisoner in England, yet there grewe so muche priuy displeasure and cankard hatred 
betwene Charles the Dolphyn and Ihon duke of Burgoync, that while the one studied, 
compassed and deuised how to ouercome the other with armure or with pollicy, with dissi- 
mulacion or crafty coueyaunce, euery iorneiman of their faction, & eucry noble mil partaker 
with the one or the other, put all their whole study and diligence to auance forward their 
sect and part, and not one of them would take hede howc to resist and refell the present ieo- 
pardye whiche was commyng out of Englad. And as one incouenicnce su fired many to 
t'oleJw so was it in Frauce at this tyme, for the French kyng was not of good memory, the 
war that was toward, semed both doubtful and perilous, the princes were vntrusty and at 
discord, and an hundreth mo thinges which might bryng the realme to extreme misery and 
vtter distructio as after you shal heare. 

WHEN the duke of Bedford had acheued his enterprise and performed his comission, 
bothe in raisyng the siege of Harflew and vitaylyng of the toune, he with no smal nombre of 
prisoners and great haboundance of pray aswell in shippes as prouision for the sea, returned 

L 2 into 



76 THE. V. YKRE OF 

into England with great triumph and glory. For that victory he was not so muchc thftked 
of the kyng his brother, as lauded and praised by the Emperor Sieisraond beyng to him a 
straunger, whiche sayd openly happy are those subiectes whiche haue suche a kyng, but 
more happy is the kyng that hath suche subiectes. 

WHEN the Emperoure perceiued, that to inoue farther a peace, was but a vayne request, 
and to tarye lenger in Englande to procure an amitie was but losse of tyme, because he sawe 
the Englishemens myndes sore offended with the last siege of Harflew, with whiche facte, he 
hirnselfe was not wel cotent but greatly moued: Therfore leauyng all treaty and persua- 
sion, he entred into a league and amitie with the kyng of England. Whiche confederacy 
least it shuld be broken, euery of the contractors studyed & deuised all waies & meanes 
possible howe to obserue it vnuiolated and preserue it vnbroken : whiche plain meanyng & 
true dealyng was to the both after, not only muche honor but great comoditie. When the 
Emperor had thus cocluded a league with the kyng of England and had doneal things in 
England accordyng as was thought necessary, he toke his iorney homeward into Garumny, 
and the kyng partel)' to shew'e him pleasure, and partely because of his owne affaires, associated 
him to his toune of Caleys. During whiche tyme the Duke of Burgoyn offerd to come to Caleys 
to speake with the Emperor and the kyng because he heard speake of the league and con- 
federacy that was concluded betwene them. The kyng sent to the water of Grauelvng the 
duke of Gloucester his brother, and the earle of Marche to be hostages for the duke of 
Burgoyne, and sent also the earle of Warwicke with a noble company to coduct him to his 
presece At Griuielyng foorde the dukes met, and after salutacions done, the duke of Bur- 
goyn was conueighed to Caleys, where of the Emperor & of the kyng he was highly 
feasted and welcommed. Duryng whiche tyme a peace was concluded betwene the kyng of 
England & the duke of Burgoyn for a certain space, cocerning onely the counties of 
Flauders and Arthoys, for the whiche cause the Frenche kyng and his sone were highly 
displeased. The duke of Gloucester also was receiued at Grauelvng by the earle Charoloys 
sonne to the duke of Burgoyne, & by him honorably conueighed to S. Orners & there 
lodged that night The 'next day the earle Charoloys came with diuers noblemen to visito 
the duke of Gloucester in his lodging, and when he entred into the chambre the dukes backe 
, was towarde him, talkyng with some of his seruantes, and did not se nor welcome the earle 
Charoloys at the fyrst entrey : but after he sayd to hym shortly without any great reuerence 
or comyng towarde him, you be welcome fayre cosyn, and so passed furth his tale with his 
seruates. The earle Charoloys for al his youth was not wel content, but suffred for that 
tyme. 

WHEN the duke of Burgoyn had done al thinges at Caleys that he came for he after the. 
ix. day returned to Grauelyng, where the duke of Gloucester and he met againe, and louyngly 
departed the one to Caleys and the other to sainct Omers: for the whiche voiage the duke- 
of Burgoyn was suspected to be enemy to the croune of Fraunce. After the dukes depart^ 
yng the Emperor was highly feasted and rewarded, and at his pleasure sailed into Holand, 
and so roade into Beame. The kyng likewise toke ship and returned into England on saincl, 
Lukes euen, the yere of our Lord M. CCCC. xvij. 

U THE FI FT YERE. 



. v, 



IN this yere the kyng assembled together his high courte of Parliament and there in open 
y cre - audience made to them a shorte and pithy Oracion, declaryng vnto them the iniuiies lately. 
dooiu. and committed by the Frenche mucion, he shewyng also the iust and laufujl occasion 
of his warres, signifiyng furthermore the great discord and ciuile dissencion whiche reigned 
amongest the nobilitie of Fraunce, rehersyng many thynges for the whiche it were very ne- 
cessary and nedeful to represse & ouercome them withal their power & puissaunce, 
that without deferryng or prolongyng of tyme, desiryng the to prouide for money & 

treasure 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 

treasure out of hand for the conduct & wages of souldiors, to thentent that nothing 
should lacke when they shuld be ready to set on their enemies, His causes wer so iust 
and liis dcmaudes so reasonable, that he had no soner spoken but it wa,s assented, and 
he had no soner demauded but it was graunted. And for to gcue men a courage for to go 
furlli, money was fyrst gathered to make prouision for al thinges necessary for such a royal 
\oiage: for surely there was no creature whiche with that war was either discotented or dis- 
pleased, for it seined to al men no lesse profitable then honorable, nor no lease honorable 
then conuenient. 

IN this Parliament also Ihonduke of Bedford was made governor or regent of the realme 
and head of the publique welth which office he shuld enioy as long as the kyng was makyng 
warre on the French nacion. The kyng before he would take his voyage, sent the earle of 
Huntyngdon to serche and skoure the seas, least any Frenchmen Hyng in waite for him, 
might attrappe him sodenly or he had any knowledge of their settyng forward. This lusty 
earle called IhOn Holand, sone to the duke of Excetter behedded at Circiter in the 
tviue of Kyng Henry the fourth and cosyn to the kyng with a great nombre of shippes 
searched the sea from the one coast to the other. And in conclusion he encoutred with. ix. 
great carickes of leane (whiche Lord laques the bastard of Burbon had reteined to serue 
the Frenche kyng) & Set on the sharply, the conflict was great the fight long, but in 
conclusion the Frenchmen wer ouercome and fled, and. iij. of the greatest carickes with their 
patrones, and Monsure laques de Burbon their Admiral wer taken with asmuche money 
as should haue payed the souldiors of the whole flete for halfe a yere, and. iij. other carickes. 
wer bouged and sent to the botome of the sea. 

THE kyng hearyng of this good chaunce, about the ende of luly toke his ship at Portes- 
mouth, accopanied with the dukes of Clarence and Gloucester brethren to the sayd kyng, 
the earles of Huntyngdon, Mershal, Warwike, Deuonshyre, Salisbury, Suftblke and Somer- 
set: The Lordcs Kose, Wylloughby, Fitzhugh, Clynton, Scrope, Matriuers, Bourchier, 
Ferreys of Groby and Ferrers of Chartley, Fanhope, Gray of Codnore, sir Gilbert Vm- 
freuile, sir Gilbert Talbot & diuers other and so hauyng wynde and' wether to his desire, 
he laded in Normady nere a castle called Touque, wher he cosultcd with, his capitaines 
what way was best to be taken cocerning their high enterprise. 

THE Normans hearyng of the kynges arriual wer sodenly striken with a deadly feare 
and wer almost distracted fro their sences for dred, wher fore like mad men in desperacion. 
they ranneout of their houses, tonnes and villages withwiues and children bag and baggage, 
into the walled tounes and fortefied garrisons, cariyng with them come, wyne and vitaile 
necessary for their sustinance and liuyng, preparyng swordcs, hatchettes, crosbowes and al 
other weapons mete to set back and resist their enemies, sent worde to Charles the Frenche 
kyng, requirynghim to defend and preserue his louing subiectes.against their cruel and fierse 
enemies. The men of warre whiche were left in etiery place to skoure the countrey, went into 
walled tounes with the rural c6minaltee,to thentent to aide and assist the tounes men, for well 
they knewe that they were not able to resist their enemies beyng abroade in the felde. So were 
al the walled tounes and castles in Normandy and May newel furnished with men and vitaile. 
The names of the Frecnhe capitaines were totediousto reherse,'and therefore I ouerpasse them. 

WHEN kyng Henry had taken counsel, he layde siege to the castle of Touque beyn 
very wel forrefied both with nature and mans arte and began to assault it : & although 
thai they within valiantly defended it, yet by fine force he ouercame it, & toke it, and them 
within to mercy & made therof capitaines sir Robert Kerkeley knight, and after determi- 
ned to besiege the strong toune of Caen, remembryng according to the diitie of a good 
capitaine. that the Frcnchemen would come to healp'e their frendes beyng in nede and 
extreme necessitie: whiche thyng he most desired & wished. And vpo that purpose 
he set furth toward Caen after the warlikest fashion, depopnlatyng the coutrey, & des- 
troiyng the villages on euery part as he passed. The toune of Caen standeth in a plaine fer- 
tile coutrey, no stronger walled then depe ditched, well vitayled and replenished with people. 

For 



78 THE. V. YERE OF 

For the citizens fearyng the kynges comynghad prouided for all thinges necessary & defen- 
sible. And assone as the kyng was come, he cast a dcpe trenche with a high mount to pro- 
hibite them within the toune to haue any egresse or outwarde passage : and that done, be- 
gan fiersely to assault the toune. But the men of the toune were nothyng abashed and 
stode manly to their defence, abidyng all chaunces which might ensue. The tight was fierce 
and euery ma toke hecle to his charge. The Englishmen studied all the waies possible to 
damage their enemies, some shot arrovves, .some cast stones and other shot gonnes: some 
brake the walles with engynes and other vndermined : some set skalyng ladders to the wal, and 
other cast in wylde fyre,euery man laboured to come to handstrokes, whiche was their desyre. 
On the other side, the Normans threwedoune great stones, barres of yron, dartes hote pitche 
and burnyng brimstone and boylyng lead. Diuers daies this assault cotinued, not to the lytle 
losse of the Englishmen, whiche toke more harme of the defeders then they gat hurt of the 
assailantes. When kyng Henry perceiued that the dice rane not to his purpose, he abstained 
from the assault, & determined by vnderminyng to subuert and ouerthrowe the walles and 
towers of the toune. Wherfore withal diligence the pyoners cast trenches & the laborers 
brought tymber, so that within a fewe daies the walles stode only vpo postes to fal when fyrc 
should be put to it. The kyng caused his people to approache the walles and to kepe the citi- 
zens occupied, least either theyshuld make acoutremyne or be an impediment to his worke- 
inen and laborers. Wherfore he caused thassanlt to be cried againe: then euerye man ranne to 
the walles, some with skalyng ladders, some with hokes and some with cordes and plommetes, 
euery man desiryngto get vpo the walles and with hand to hand to graple with his enemy: The 
citezens man fully defended. While the fight was quicke and fierse on both partes, the English- 
men in diuers places perccd and brake through the walles, and diuers ouertures and holes 
were made vnder the foundacion by the pyoners, by the whiche thenglishmen might easely 
entre into the toune. The kyng hauyng copassion on the tonnes men, desiryng rather to 
Imue them saued then destroyed if they wold humbly submyt the selues to his grace, & 
fearyng that if the toune by fine force should be spoyled and taken, that he should be 
compelled to geue it as a pray to his men of warrc to be sacked and destroyed, sent 
them worde by an Herault that yet was tyme of mercy and clemency if they would in- 
continently rendre them selues & the toune: But they obstinately hopyng of succour, an- 
swered that they would stand at their defence. Then the Englishmen again skaled the 
walles and enlerprised to enter through the trenches. The fight was sore by the spaca 
of an houre, the Englishmen coragiously enforced to enter, and the Normans manfully 
defended, but inconclusion the Englishmen obteined. 

WHEN the kyng was possessed of the toune, he incontinently comaunded all barneys 
and weapons to be brought into one place, whiche with all diligence was done without any 
resistence. Then the miserable people knelyng on their knees, holding vp their handes, 
cried mercy, mercy, to whom the kyng gaue certaine comfortable wordes & bad them 
stand vp. And then as he was euer accustomed to do, he went on foote to the chief churche 
in the toune and rendred to God his most heartie thankes for his prosperous successe 
and fortunate chauce. And yet that same night he would not slepe, but comaunded 
al his armye to watche in aray, either least his men of warre in the ni^ht tyme mi^ht 
fal to spoyle & sacke, or els the citizens fearyng the sequele that might ensue would priuely 
steale and conueigh them selues away. 

IN the mornyng he called all the magestrates and gouernours into the Senate house 
where some for their stony stubbernes and mad obstinacy were adiudged to dye, other were 
sore fined and highly raunsomed. Then he callyng together his soufdiors and men of war, 
bothe gaue to the high laudes and praises for their manly doyuges, and also distributed to 
euery man accordyng to his desert the spoyle & gaine taken of the toune & the tounesmen 
chi< fly because at that assault he had tried to his honor their valiant corages and vnfearful 
liertes. 

IT is to be imagined that kyng Henry in this conflict would principally shewe aswell his, 

owne 



HENRY THE. V. 79 

owne force as the puissance and experience in warres of his nacion, ether to the intent 
tlmt the Frenchemen should know that they mette with suche an enemy as both was able to 
inuade their countrie and defend their strength & malice, or els not obliuious that in 
makyng of warre euery prince muste study to obtain fame and renoune: and as the old 
prouerbe saieth, of a thyng well begone, succedeth a prosperous ende and a happy con- 
clusion. 

ALTHOVGH the toune were wonne, yet the castle whiche was strong and well fortified 
bothe with men and all thynges necessary for the defence, was yet in the Frenchmens pos- 
session: The capitain where of, to thontent to shewe hyrnself valiant and not willyng to 
breake his othe, nether to wauer from his allegeance, bosted that he would rather dye in 
the defence then frely yeld the castle. Kyng Henry was not minded to subuert the Castle 
(without whiche waie it was not easy to bee wonne) because it was beautit'ull and necessary, 
both to kepe the toune fro goyng backe, and also to defend the same when opportunitee 
should serue: Whiche Castle if he destroyed, he of very necessitee must again build and 
reedifie, or els another in the place. Wherfore he sent worde to the lorde Mountayny 
beyng capitain, that if he would yelde the castle by a daie, he should depart without clainmage, 
And if he would be foolishe and obstinate, all clemency and fauor should be from hym se_- 
questred. When the capitain and his compaignions had well digested his message, beyng in 
dispaire of cofort, vpon the condicion offred, rendred the castte and yelded thernselfes. 
And so kyng Henry obteigned bothe the toune and castle of Caen. 

WHILE the Kyng of England was besiegyng this toune, the Frenchmen had nether a 
conuenient hoste to resist their power, nor wer ready or able to releue their frendes in. 
this miserable necessite, because thei had such diuision and dissencion emongest them- 
selfes, and a good cause why: for kyng Charles was of so small wit by reason of his 
sicknes, that he could not rule, and so he was spoyled both of his treasure and of 
his kyngdoine, and euery man spente and wasted the common treasure. Charles the 
Dolphin being of the age of. xvi. or. xvij. yeres onely lamented and bewailed the ruyne 
and decaye of his countrie: He onely studied thaduancement of the comon wealth, and 
he onely deuised how to resist his enemies: but hauyng nether inenne nor money, he 
was greatly troubled and vnquieted. And in conclusion, by the counsaill of therle of 
Armynacke Constable of Fraunce he founde a meane to get all the treasure and riches 
whiche quene Isabell his mother had gotten and horded in diuerse secrete places : and 
for the comon vtilite of his countrie he spente it wisely in wagyng of souldiors and 
preparyng of thinges necessary for the war. The queue forgettyng the great perel that 
the realtne then stode in, but reinebryng y displeasure to her by this act dooen, de- 
clared her sonne and the Constable to be her mortall enemies, & promised that they 
should be persecuted to the vttermoste. And e'uen for very womanly nmlice, she set in 
the highest authoritie aboute the kyng her husband, Ihon duke of Burgoyn geuyng hym 
the regiment and direccion of the kyng and his real me with all preheminence and soueraintie. 
The duke of Burgoyn hauyng now the sworde of authoritie, for the whiche he so sore longed 
and glad to be reuenged of his old iniuries, began to make warre on the Dolphyn: and when 
he had once tamed and framed to his purpose this young unbrideled gentleman, then he deter- 
mined as he might to refell and withstandc the come enemies of the realme. The same or like 
reason moued the Dolphin, for he myndyng first to represse and extincte the ciuill dissencion 
at home, before he would inuade forain enemies, prepared warre tosubdew and destroy duke 
Iho of Burgoyn as the chief bed & leader of that wicked and great mischief: Wherby the 
realme was muche vnquieted & more decayed, and in maner brought to a final ruvne and 
vtter destruccion. So Fraunce was inflamed and in euery part troubled with warr and 
deuision, and yet no man would ether prouide in so great a danger, nor once put furth their 
finger to hynder the mischief. 

KYNG Henry not myndyng to lye still in Normandy, nor to leaue his enterprice vnper- 
formed, sent the duke of Clarence to the sea coast, whiche with great difficulty gate the 

toune 



80 THE. V. YERE OF 

toune of Bayeux. The duke of Glqcestre also with small assault and lesse defence toke the 
citee of Liseaux. In the meane ceason Kyng Henry taried still at Cane fortefiyng the 
toune and the castle, and put out of the toune. xv. C. women and impotent persons, and 
replenished the toune with English people. While the kyng soiourned at Caen, he kepte 
there a soletnpne feast and made many knightes, and beside that, he shewed there an ex- 
ample of greate pitee & more deuocion. For in searchyng the castle he found there innu- 
merable substance of plate and money belongyng to the citezens, wherof he would net 
suffre one peny to be touched or conueighed away, but restored the goodes to the owners 
and deliuered to euery ma his oAvne. 'When the fame of gettyng of Caen was blowen through 
Normandy, the Normans \ver so sore afraied & so muche abasshed that you should not 
onely haue seen men, women & children ronnyng in euery waie by great plopes fro toune 
to toune, not knowyng whether to flie: but also the rurall persones and huseband men draue 
the beastes out of the villages into suche places where thei hoped of refuge or defence: so 
that a man would haue thought that Normandy had sodainly been left desolate and voyde 
of people and cat ell. But when the rumor was spred abroade of his clemencie shewed to 
captiues and of his mercy graunted Ho suche as submitted themselfes to his grace, all the 
capitaines of the tounes adioynyng came willingly to his presece, offryng to hym them selfes, 
their tounes and their goodes. Wherupon he made proclamacion that all men whiche had 
or would become his subiect.es and swere to hym allegeance should enioy their goodes and 
liberties in as large or more ample ?aner then they did before. Which gentle entretein- 
yng and fauorable hadlyng of the stubburne Normans, was the very cause why they wer not 
only content, but also glad to remoue and turne from the Frenche part and become sub- 
iectes to the croune of Englande. 

WHEN kyng Henry had set Caen in a good ordre, he left there, for capitaines, the one 
of the toune and the other of the Castle, sir Gilbert Vmfreuile erle of Kyne, and sir Gil- 
bert Talbot: and made bailife ther sir Ihon Pophane, and so departed fro Caen to Argen- 
ton whiche was shortly redred to hym. Then all these tounes folowyng without stroke 
striken yelded to hym, in whom he made captames these persons whose names ensue. 
At Creuly, sir Henry Tanclux an Almaine. 
At Thorigny, sir Ihon Popharn to whom the toune was geue. 
At Boyeux, the lorde Matrauerse. 
At Argenton, the lorde Grey Codner. 

At Chamboy, the lorde Fizghugh, and made him lord of the same. 
At Vcmoyle in Perche, sir Ihon Neuell. 

At Alfiso the duke of Gloucester & his leuetenat sir Raufe Letal. 
At Essay, sir William Hoddelston baylif of Alanson. 
At Faloys, sir Henry Fitzhugh. 
At Cruly, sir Loys Robset. 
At Conde Norean, sir Ihon FastolfFe. 
Diuerse tounes likewise yelded to the duke of Clarence wherein he putte these 

Capitaynes. 

At y cite of Lisieux, sir Iho Kikley. At Fangernon, Ihon saint Albon. 

At Cowrton, Ihon Awbyn. At Creuener, sir Ihon Kerby to whom it 

At Barney, William Houghton. was geuen. 

At Charnbroys, lames Neuell. At Annilliers, Robert Horneby. 

At Becheluyn, therle Marshall. At Ragles, sir Ihon Arthure. 

At Harecort, Richard W'oduile esquyer. At Fresheney le Vicount, sir Robert Brent. 
Likewise diuerse tounes in the country of Constantine wer surrendered to the 

duke of Gloucester, where he appoyncted these capitaines. 

At Cauenton, the lorde Botraux. At Chiergurg, the lord Grey Codner and 

At Seint Clow, Reignold West. after his decease, sir water Hunger- 

At Valoignes, Thomas Burgh. ford. 

At 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 81 

At Pont Done, Dauy Howel. At Hambery the erle of Suftblke, lorde 

At the Hay Dupayes, sir Ihon Aston of the same place by gift. 

Bayly of Constantine. At Briqueuile, thesaied Erie by gift also. 

At Costiices, the lord of Burgainy, At Anranches, sir Philip Halle, Bayly of 

At Seint Saluior le Vicount, sir Ihon Alanson. 

Robset. At Vire the lorde Matrauers. 

At Pontorso, sir Robert Gargrane. At Sainct lames de Bewron, the same 

lorde. 

WHEN the Kyng of Englande wanne thus in Normandy, his nauy lost nothyng on the 
sea, but so skowred the stremes that nether Frencheman nor Briton durst once appere, how- 
beit one day there arose so hideous a tempest and so terrible a storme, that nether cable held 
nor anker preuailed, so that if the erles of Marche and Huntyngdon had not taken the haue 
of Southampto, the whole nauie had perished and the people had been destroyed, and yet 
the sauegard was straunge: For in the same hauen two Balyngers and two great Carickes 
laden with marchaundise wer drouned, and the broken Maste of another Caricke was 
blowen ouer the wall of Hapton (as diuerse writers affirme) such is the power of the wynd, 
and suche is the rigonre of the tempest. Whe the fury of the wynd was asswaged and the 
sea waxed calme, tlierles of Marche and Huntyngdon passed ouer the sea with all their com- 
paignie and landed in Normandy marchyng towarde the kyng, before whom the Normans 
fled as fast as the fearfull hare dooth before the gredy Greyhounde, or the sely Partridge 
before the Sparowhauke. And so they passed through the countrie destroiyng of villages 
and takyng paines till thei came to tiie kyng goyng towarde Roan. Duryng this marciall 
feactes and greate conqnestes in Normandy, sir Ihon Oldecastle lord Cobham whiche was 
as you haue heard before was conuicted of heresy, and proclaimed a rebell, and vpon the 
same outlawed and brake out of the toure, was now as his fortune chauneed apprehended in 
the Marches of Wales by the Lorde Powes, and so restored to his olde lodgyng in the toure, 
where his kepers loked more narrowly to hym then thei did before. After whiche takyng, 
he was drawen from the toure on a hardell to Sainct Gilesfelde, and there hanged in chaynes 
and after consumed with fire. Well now leauyng the matters of Englande let vs returne to 
the affaires in Normandy. 

f THE SIXT YERE. 

AFter kyng Henry had thus victoriously obteined so many touhes and so many fortresses The. v-: 
from the possession of his enemies, and that his great fame and litle personage was the >cre> 
whole terror and feare of the Frenche nacion, he ymagined with hymself that he had no- 
thyng doen nor any thyng gotten excepte he brought the famous citee of Roan beyng the 
Empery and diademe of the Duchy of Normandy into his possession & dominion, to the 
whiche out of euery parte the Normans had conueighed their money lewelles and houshold 
stuffe : And whiche citee sithe his firste arriuall thei had not onely walled and fortressed with 
many rampiers & strong bulwarkes, but also with valiat capitaines and hardy souldiours to 
no small numbre. Wherfore he set forward his army toward the toune called Pontlarche 
standyng vpon the Riuer of Seyne. viij. mile from Roan betwene Paris and Roan. When 
When the Frenchernen whiche kepte the passage heard of the kynges approchyng, thei gathered 
together a great nurnbre of men of war re redy to defend and prohibite the passage, apoint- 
yng another a band of men if thei failed to kepe the farther side of the bridge and to watche 
and hourely attend that he nether by bote nor by vessel should eskapc any maner of wave. 
When he came to the toune, first he sette forwarde towarde the bridge, whiche when he sa\ve it 
so well defended that it would not without greate losse be obteigned, sotlainly he blewe the re- 
traite and reculed almoste a myle backward, where in a pleasant place by the riuers side he 
pitched his Campe : and in the night season, what with boles and barges, what with howes- 
hedes and pipes he conueighed ouer the brode riuer of Seyne a greate compaignie of his 
arraie. without any resistaunce of his enemies. For thei whiche wer on the hethersicle of 

M Seyne, 



82 THE. VI. YERE OF 

Seyne, thynkyng that thenglishmen had gone to conquere some other place folowed the not 
but studied how to defed their toune (whiche was ynough for them to- do). When the king 
saw that his men wer on the qtherside of the water, he the next day earely returned to ihe 
toune and assauted it on hothe the sides. When thinhabitantes perceiued that contrary to 
their cxpectacio they wer copassed & beset by their enemies and sawe no hope of refuge or 
succor, with humble hert and no great ioy rendered vp the toune. And so the kyng hau- 
vng no let or impediment determined to besiege and assault the citee and castle of Roan for 
the whiche he had taken diuerse long and tedious iornayes, and sent before hym his vncle the 
lorde Thomas duke of Excester with a great compaignie of horssemen and Archers, whiche 
with banner displayed came before the toune and sent to the capitaines Wyndsore a he- 
raulte at armes, wiliyng them to deliuer the toune to the kyng his Master, or els he would 
persecute them with fire, bloud and sworde. To who they proudly answered, that none thei 
receiued of hym, nor none thei would deliuer, except by fyne force ,thei wer therunto co- 
pelled. And to declare theselfes valiant capitaines & hardy men of war, there issued out of 
the toune a great band of men of annes & encoutred fiercely with theglish men, whiche 
like men nether afraied nor astonied manfully them receiued & with fyne force draue them 
into the toune again, leuyng with the Englishmen, xxx. of their compaignie prisoners and 
ded persons. The duke with. this good t>pede and proude aunswer of the Frenche capi- 
taines, returned to the kyng to whom was rendred alitle before y toune of Louierg, \vhiche 
he gaue to his said brother the duke of Clarence, whiche made there his deputie sir Ihou 
Godard knight. The duke of Excester also had newly taken the citee of Eureux and made 
eapitain ther sir Gilbert Halsall knight. When the duke of Excester was returned to Font- 
larchas you haue heard, the capitaines of Roan set fire on the suburbes, bet doune Churches, 
cut doune trees, shrede the busshes, destroyed the vines round about the citee, to thentent 
that thenglishmen should haue no relief nor comfort ether of lodgyng or fewell. 
Thecitee of WHEN the kyng heard of their dispitefull doynges, he with his whole army remoued from 
Roan b< e- p ont ] arcnC} anc i t [ ie ] ast <j a j e o f j u iy came before the citee of Roan and compassed it rounde 
aboute with a strong siege and a fearfull assaute. The king laie with a greate puissaunce 
at the hous of Charitee on the East side of the citee, & the duke of Clarence lodged before 
the port of Caux on the West part of the citee. The duke of Excester toke his place on 
the Northside at the porte Denise : betwene the dukes of Excester and Clarence was ap- 
poyncted the erle Marshall euen before the gate of the castle, to whom wer ioyned therle of 
Ormond and the Lordes of Haryngton and Talbot. And from the duke of Excester toward 
the kyng were encamped the lordes of Rosse, Willoughby, Fitzhugh and sir William Porter 
with a great band of Northrenme euen before the port saint Hillarij. Therks of Mortaint 
and Salsbery wer assigned about the abbey of saint Katherines. Sir Ihon Grey was lodged 
directly against the Chapel called Mount. S. Mighell, sir Philip Leche treasorer of the 
warres kept the hil next the Abbey, & the Baron of Carew kept the passage on the riucr 
of Sayne, and to hym was ioyned a valiaunt esquire called lenico, whiche twoo capitaines 
valiauntly kept the riuage of the water of Sayne. On the fartherside of the riuer wer lodged 
therles of Warren and Huntyngdon, the lordes Neuell and Ferrers, sir Gilbert Vmfreuile 
with a well furnished company of warlik souldiors directly before the gate called port du 
Pont. And to the intent that no aide should passe by the riuer toward the citee, a greate 
chaine of yron was deuised at Potlarche and sette on piles from the one side of the water to 
the other, and beside that chayne he set vp a new forced bridge, sufficient bothe for cariage 
and passage. At whiche therle of Warwicke whiche had gotten Dampfrot was sent to the toune 
of Cawdebeck standyng on the riucrside betwen the sea and the citee of Roan, whiche toune 
he so hardly assaulted, that the capitaines offerd to surrre the Englishe nauy to passe by 
their toune without hurte or detriment to the citee of Roan: And also if Roan yelded, 
they promised to rendre their toune without any fayle or farther delaie. And this composi- 
cion they sealed, and for performaunce of ihe same thei deliuered pledges. This appoynct- 
tnent the Englishe nauy to the numbre of. C. sailes passed by Cawdebeck and came be- 

ti fore 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 83 

fqre Roan and besieged it on the water side. To this siege came the duke of Gloucester 
with therle of Suliblke and the lor'de of Burgainy whiche had taken the toune of Chierburgh 
and \ver lodged before tho porte of Sainct Hillarij nerer their enemies by fortie roddes then 
any other j er^ones of the annie. 

DVRYNG this siege arriued at Harflew the lord of Kylmaine in Ireland with a band of 
xvi. liundreth Iieshrnen armed in uiayle with dartes and skaynes after the tnaner of their 
countrey, all talle, quickc and deliuer persons; which came and presented them selues be- 
fore the kyng liyng styl at the siege : of whom they were not onely geoitely entertained, but 
also (because that the kyng was informed that the Frenche kyng and tlie duke of Burgojn 
would shortly come, and either rayse the siege or vitaile or ma the toune at the North gate) 
thei wer appointed to kepe the Northsyde of the army, and in especial the way that cometh 
from the forest of Lyons. Whiche charge the lord of Kylmaine &, his company ioyfully 
accepted & did so their deuoyre, that no men wer more praised nor did more damage to 
their enemies then they did for surely their quickncs and swiftnes did more prejudice to 
their enemies, then their great barded horses did hurt or damage the nimble Irishmen. 

THVS was the fay re cytie of Roan compassed about with enemies besieged by princes, 
and beset about both by water and laude, hauyng neither comfort nor aide of kyng nor dol- 
phyn. And although the army were strong without, yet within there lacked neither hardy 
capitaynes nor manful souldiors. And as for people, they had more then ynowe, for as it 
was written by him that knew the nombre and had no occasio to erre from the trueth, there 
were at the time of the siege within thedtie, of christen people CC. and ten thousand per- 
sons. Dayly wer issues made out of the cytie at diuers portes, sometyme thenglishmen gat, 
at another time the Frenchmen saued, somtyme neither of both either got or saucd : for 
surely the capitaines and men of warre within the toune settyng more by honor then by life, 
preferryng fame before worldly riches, dispisyng pleasure & vilependyng fearfull heartes, 
svvare eclie to other netier to render or deliuer the toune while they mighteither hold sworde 
in hand or putsnerein rest. The kyng of England beyng aduertised of their haute coura- 
ges and high stomackes, determined to co.nqnere them by famyne whiche would not be ta- 
med by weapon. Wherfore he'stopped all the passages both by water and land that no 
vitaile could be coueighed to the cytie, he cast trenches rounde about the wallcs and set 
them ful of stakes and defended the with archers, so that they within could haue no way out 
ether to inuade their enemies (or if they could) to depart and relinquishe their fortresse 
and cytie. One day tidynsres wer tayned that the Frenche kyng approched with al his power 
to raise the siege & reskew the cytie : Wherfore kyng Uery comaunded al men to lye in 
their barneys lest they might by some subtile cautel be surprised vmvare and taken vnproui- 
ded. But the Freche kyng neither came nor sent, to the great wonder of thenglishmen. 
This siege thus continuyrig from Lammas almost to Christmas, diuers enterprises were at- 
tempted and diuers polices were deuised how euery part might dau age and hurte his aduer- 
sary and enemy, but no part mnche reioysed of their gaine. Duryng whiche tvme, vitayle 
began sore to faile within the toune, so that only vinegsr & water serued for drinke. If 1 
should rehcrse accordyng to the writyng of diuers authors, not onely howe deare dogges, 
rattes, myse and cattes wer solde within the toune: but how gredely they were by the poore 
' people eaten and deuoured, and also howe the people died" day ly for faute of foode, and 
how yong infates lay suckyng in the stretes on their mothers brestes liyng dead, staruen for 
hunger, you would more abhorre the lothsome doyuges then reioyse at their miserable mis- 
ch r ice. The riche men within the toune put out at the gates the pore and indigent crea- 
tures whiehe were by thenglishmen that kept the trenches beaten & driuen backe againe 
to, the gates of the toune, whiche against them were closed and barred. So this miserable 
people vncomfortably forsaken & vnnaturally despised of their owne nacion and hous- 
holde felowes, betwene the walles of their cytie and the treches of their enemies lay styl 
ciiyng for helpe and n-lief, for lacke wherof innumerahle scly solles dayly died and 
hourely starued. Yet kyng Henry nioued with pitie & stirred with copassion in the honor 

of 



THE. VI. YERE OF 

of Christes natiuitie on Christmas day refreshed all the poorc people with vitayle to their 
great comfort & relief: for the whiche act they not only thanked, lauded and praised the 
kyng of England, but also praied to God for his preseruacion and furtherance, and for the 
hynderance and euil successe of their vnkynd citezens & vncharitable country men. Tins 
miserable famyne dayly more and more encreasyng so daunted the heartes of the bold ca- 
pitaynes, & so abated the courages of the riche burgesses, and so turmeted the bodies of 
the poore citezens, that the stout souldiour for fai nines could skase welde his weapon, nor 
the riche tnarchaunt for money could not bye a sheuer of bread : so that the cominaltie 
cried to the captaines, and the nedy people besought the lorcles to haue compassion on them, 
and to inuent some way for their succor and comfort. The gouernours of the tonne, after 
long consultacion had, consideryng the great necessitie that they were in, and seyng none 
apparence of succour or relief, determined it both necessary and conuenient to treate with 
the kyng of England. And so vpo Newyeres euen ther came to the walles at the gate of 
the bridge diuers comissioners appoincted by the capitaines, whiche made a signe to the 
englishemen liyng without to speake with some gentleman or other person of authorise. 
The earle of Huntingdon whiche kept that part sent to them sir Gilbert Vmfrcuilc, to who 
they declared that if they might haue a guvde or a safcconduite they would gladly speake 
with the kyng. Syr Gilbert promised not onely to do theyr message, but also to cerlifie 
the of the kinges pleasure & purpose. Whiche comunicacion ended, he repaired to the 
duke of Clarence and other of the kynges counsail, adnertisyng the of the request of the 
citezens, whiche incStinent assembled theselucs in the kynges lodgyng, where sir Gilbert 
Vmfreuile wysely and soberly declared to the kyng the myndes and intentes of the citezens. 
The kyng like a graue prince consideryng that a thyng gotten without effusion of Christen 
blond is both honorable and profitable, and sawe that the haute corages of the braggyng 
Frenchmen wer now by his hard besiegyng sore abated and almost tamed, thought it con- 
uenient to hcare their lowly peticion and humble request and so willed sir Gilbert to ad- 
uertise them that he was content to heare. xii. of them whiche should be safely coueighed 
to his presence : With this answere sir Gilbert departed and made relacion therof to the 
capitaynes standyng at the gate. Whiche on the next day in the rnornyng appointed, iiii. 
knightes. iiii. lerned men and. iiii. sage burgesses al clothed in blacke to go to the kyng of 
Englad. These, xii. persons were receiued at the port sainct Hillarij by sir Gilbert Vmfreuile 
accompanied with diuers gentlemen and yomen of the kynges houshold, comonly called 
yomcn of the croune, and conueighed to the kynges lodgyng, who they found at Masse. 
When the deuine seruice was finished king Henry gorgeously apparelled and sumpteously 
adourned came out of his trauers, fiersely and princely beholdyng the Frenche messegers 
and passed by them into his chambre. After him incontinently the. xii. ambassadours wer 
conueighed, amongest who one learned in the ciuile law, more arrogant then learned & yet 
not so arrogant as vndiscrete sayd these wordes. Right high and mightie prince, right 
noble and puissant kyng, if you wyl with your selfe diligently cdsider wherein consisteth the 
glory of victorye and the triumph of a conquerour, you shall plainly perceiue, that the 
type of honor is in the tamyng of proud men, ouercomyng of valiant sou-ldiors and subdu~ 
yng of strong cyties and popnlus regions, and not in slaiyng christen people by hunger thirst 
and famine, in whiche consisteth neither manhod, wit nor policy. Alas, regard you your 
honor, and se yonder great multitude of miserable people criyng for meat and wepyng for 
drinke and diyng for lacke of succour and relief. What glory shall you obtayne in killyng 
of wretches by famyne, whiche death of all deathes is most to be despised and abhorred. 
If you wyl shew your selfe charitable before God, or merciful before men, let al our poore 
people whiche wyl depart out of our cytie passe through your campe to get their liuyng in 
other places, and then manfully assaut our cytie, & by force (if you dare) subdue and con- 
quere it. And if your enterprise succede fortunately (as a thing that is very doubtful) in 
this doyng you shall not onely obtaine worldly glory and terrestrial victory for ouercommyng 
the strong and puissant men of armes and the riche eytie, but also merite much before God 

for 



KVNG HENRY THE. V. 85 

for deliueryng and hauyng compassion of the poore ucdy and indigent persons. , When this 
Orator had sayd, the kyng, whiche no request lesse suspected then that whiche was thus 
desired, began a while to muse: And when he had wel perceiued the crafty cautel and 
fraudulent inuencion of the 1'renche messengers, he with a fierse countenance and a hold 
spirit made to them this answer saiyng : Thynke you O fatastical Frenchmen that I am so 
ignorant and so brutal that I cannot perceiue your double dealyng and crafty conueigh- 
haunce : ludgc you me so simple that I know not wherin the glory of a coqueror cdsisteth. 
Esteme you me so ignoraunt that I perceiue not what craftes and warlike pollices by strong 
enemies are to be subdued and brought to subiection : yes, yes, I am not so loiteryng a Iruand 
as to forgette so good a lesson. And if these thynges be to you blynd and obscure I wyl 
declare and open them to you. The goddesse of warre called Edlona (whiche is the cor- 

1 -111 ! JL 1 i' /" J r ' 1 

rectnce of princes for right witholdyng or imurie doyng, and the plage or uod tor euil 
liuyng and vntrue demeanor amongest subiectes) hath these, iii. handmaides euer of neces- 
sitie attendyng on her, bloud, fyre, and famine, whiche thre damosels be of that force & 
strength that euery one of them alone is able and sufficient to turrnent and afflict a proud 
prince : and they all ioyned together are of puissance to destroy the most populous coun- 
trey and most richest region of the world. If I by assaultyng of your toune should seke 
your bloud (although I gained as I doubt not but I should) yet my gaine wer not cleare 
without some losse of my people. If I set your cytie on fyre, and so consume it and you 
also, then haue I lost that precious iewel for the whiche I haue so sore longed and so long 
laboured. Therfore to saue myne owne people (which is onepoinct of glory in a capitaine) 
and to preserue the toune whiche is my lauful and iust inheritaunce : And to saue as many 
of you as wil not willyngly be destroied, I haue appointed the mekest maide of the thre 
damosels to afflict and plage you tyll you be bridled and brought to reason, which shalbe 
when it shal please me and not at your appointment : And therfore I say and affirme that 
the gayne of a capitaine by any of these thre handmaides is bothe glorious, honorable and 
triumphant, but of all thre the yongest maide is in all thinges most profitable and comodious. 
Now to answer to your demaundes, as touching the pore people Hyng in the ditches, I as- 
sure you I more lament your lacke of chantie toward your christen brethre ye and your owne 
nacion of one language and one countrey, then I reioyce at the vndoyng of so many crea- 
tures and castyng away of so many enemies. You like tirantes put the out of the toune to 
thentent that I should slay them, and yet I haue saued their Hues. You would neither geue 
them meat nor drinke, and yet I beyng their mortal enemy haue succoured and releued 
them : so that if any vncharitie be, it is in you, if any shame or reproche be taken, receiue 
it your selfe, for you be the doers. If I haue done them good let God rewarde me, for I 
loke of them no thankes, if you haue done them cuil so shal you be done to. And as to 
suffre your pore people to passe out of the cytie through my campe, no, no, I wyll not 
so accomplishe your cloked request, but you shall kepe them styl to helpe to spend your 
vitailes : And as to assault your toune, I wil you know it that I am therto both able and 
willyng as I se tyme & occasion : but seyng the choice is in my hand to tame you either with 
bloud, fyre, or famyne, or with all, I wyl take the choice at my pleasure & not at yours. 
And with that the kyng with a frownyng countenaunce departed fro them to his chambre 
and comaunded them to dine with his officers. 

WHEN he was departed, the Frenchmen began to marueil at his excellent wit, and to 
muse at the hautnes of his courage, and after they had dined and consulted together, they 
required once againe to haue accesse to his royal presence, whiche when it was to them 
grauted, they humblyng them selues on their knees besought him to take a truce for. viii. 
daies, in the whiche they might by their commissioners take some ende and good conclusion 
with him and his counsail. The kyng like a piteous prince rather couetyng the preseruacion 
of the people, then their destruction, after good deliberation taken, grauted to them their 
askyng, with the whiche answere they ioyously returned, 

AFTER their departure were appointed and set vp. iii. riche tentes, the one for the lordes 

of 



85 THE. VI. YERE OF 

of England to consult together, the second for the commissioners of the cytie, and y third 
for both partes to argue and debate the matter. The cdtnissitiners for the Englishe part wer 
the erles of Warwike & Salsbury, the lord Fitzhugh, sir water Hungerford, sir Gilbert Vra- 
freuiie, sir Ihon Robsert & Ihon de Vasques de Almada. And for the French part wer ap- 
pointed sir Guy de Butteler &. vi. other. 

DVHYNG this truce, euery day the comissioners met, the Englishmen accused, and 
the Frenchmen excused, the Englishmen demaunded muche, and the Frenchmen profered 
lytle. Thus with arguyng & reasonyng the. viiii. day came and notliyng was done, nor one 
article concluded. Wherfore the Englishmen toke doune the tentes & the Frenchmen toke 
their leaue, but at their departyng, they remembryng them selues required the Englishe 
lordes for the loue of God that the truce might continue tyl the sunne risyng the next day, 
to the whiche the lordes sone assented. When the Frenchmen wer returned to Roan, so*- 
denly in al the tonne sprong a rumour that the truce was expired and nothyng determined. 
Then the poore people ranne about the stretes like frantike persons, shoutyngand criyng 
and callyng the captaines and gouernors murtherers and manquellers, saiyng that for their 
pride & stytfe stomacke al this misery was happened in the toune, threatenyng to slay them 
if they would not agre to the kyng of Engludes demaund and request. The Magistrates 
beyng amased with the fury of the people, called al the toune together to knowe their 
myndes and opinions. The whole voice of the comons was to yeld,' yeld, rather than 
starue. Then the Frenchmen in the euenyng came to the tent of sir Ihon Robsert, requi- 
ryng him of getlenes to moue the kyng that the truce might be prolonged for. iiii. daies. 
The kyng therunto agreed and appointed tharchbishop of Canterbury and the other.' vu. 
before named for his part, and the citezens appoincted an egal nomber for them. So the 
tentes were againe set vp, dayly was assembles and muche treaty on both parties, and oa 
the fourth day by the helpe of God, the treaty was concluded and finished to the great re- 
ioysyng of the poore citezens, the copy wherof foloweth worde by worde. 

^f The appointmentes of the yeldyng vp of the cytie and castle of Roan. 

1 FIRST it is accorded that Guy de Botellier capitaine of the Cytie and castle of Roan with 
the consent of the noble citezens & other dwellyng and beyng in the sayd cytie and castell 
shall yelde and deliuer into the handes of the ful excellent kyng of England or other what 
so he be by him deputed, the cytie & castle aboue sayd without fraude or male engine, what 
tyme after the middes of the. xix. day of this present moneth of January our sayd lord 
the kyng wyllthe cytie and thecastel to be deliuered vnder maner and forrne within written. 

2 ALSO it is accorded that the day houre the sayd nobles and citezens & other what so 
they be dwellyng & beyng in the sayd cytie & castel shal submit them in al thinges to the 
grace of our sayd lorde the kyng. 

3 ALSO it is accorded that from this houre vnto real effectual yeldyng of the sayd cytk; 
& castle, none of the sayd nobles or other beyng in the sayd cytie or castle shal not go out 
of the foresayd cytie and castle without special grace of our sayd lord the kyng. 

4 ALSO it is accorded that from this houre vnto the deliuerance of the cytie, euery of the 
parties shall abstaine from all deedes of warre to make againe that other partie of them. 

5 ALSO it is accorded that the foresayd nobles, citezens and other beyng in the sayd cytie 
& castle shall pay to our foresayd lorde the kyng CCC. thousand scutes of golde, wherof 
alwayes two shalbe worth an Englishe noble, or in the stead of euery scute, xxx. great 
blaukes whyte or. xv. grotes. Of whiche. CCC. thousand scutes, the one halfe shalbe 
payde to our sayd lord the kyng or to his deputies within the cytie of Roan beforesayd the. 
xxii. day of this present moneth of January, and that other halfe shalbe paide to our sayd 
lord the kyng or to his deputies in the feast of saint Mathew the Apostle next comyng that 
shalbe the. xxiiii. day of February next, without any viler delay. 

6 ALSO it is accorded that all and euery horse, harneys, armures, artileries for shot and all 
other habilimentes of warre longyng to souldiors or other straungers beyng in the sayd cytie 

and 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 87 

and castle, shalbe put together by them in two houses by our sayd lord the kyng to be as- 
signed, & they shalbe deliuered by the capitaine of the sayd cytie to our forsayd lord the 
kyng after the niiddes of the. xix. day of January therupon to be required. 

ALSO it is accorded that all and euery armour, artilleries and all habiliinentes of war of 7 
the sayd castle shalbe put together in one house within the same castle, and they shulbe de- 
liuered to oure sayd lorde the kyng or to his deputies in that partie, the day that the same 
castle shalbe fallen to be deliuered to our sayd lord the kyng. 

ALSO it is accorded that all and euery armures, artilleries & other habilimentes of warre 8 
of thesaid citee or of al maner of citezcns arid of ul other dwellyng therin, by them shalbe 
brought aud put together in one hous or mo houses there by theim to be deliuered to our 
Lord the kyng, & by the capitain of the same citee shalbe deliuered to our forsaid Lorde 
the kyng or to his deputie in what tyme the said capitain by the partie of our moste doubt- 
full lorde the kyng, after the middaie of this present moneth of Januarij thervpon be requi- 
red, out take the armuries that belong to Marchauntes which were wont for to sell theim. 
ceassyng fraude and maleengine. And if it befal any marchauntes any suche armures that 
be not theirs, vnder colour of theirs to colouren or hide in any maner, tho armures so hid 
and coloured and al other what that thei been that diden, to our Lorde the kyng shal been 
forfeted, and the body of thesame marchannt to been punished at the kynges will. 

ALSO it is accorded that in no maner shalbe made, brennyng, hynderyng, harmyng or 9 
appairyng, wastyng or destroiyng of horsse, of armures, of artilleries or of any other ha- 
bilamentes of warre within the forsaied citee and Castle beyng, but that all and euery with- 
out frau'de or maleengiue shalbee kept whole and vnhurt to our Lorde the kyng as it is be- 
foresaied to be deliuered. 

ALSO it is accorded that al & euery chayne that wer wont to be layed ouerthwart the 10 
stretes and lanes of thesaid citee, shall bee put into an hous to be turned to the profile of the 
citezens of ^thesame citee. 

ALSO it is accorded that our forsaid lord the king shal haue place and space of lande, 11 
of the frewil of his highnesse to bee chosen to hym a paleis to be made within thesaied citee 
or within the walles of the same citee where it shal seme moste behouefull. So neuerthelesse 
that if it fall within thesaid place or space to be included any hous or edifice or place of 
ground longyng to any of thesaied citezens or dwellers of thesame citee, or saied lorde the 
kyng to hym whom that suche maner of houses, edifices or places of ground longeth or ap- 
perteineth shal satisfie, & of other houses & edifices or places congruely shal recopence. 

ALSO it is accorded that all and euery subiectes of our said lard the kyng that now be or 13 
wer prisoners to any persone beyng in the said cite or castle and their pledges, shalbee vtterly 
free as aneyntz their persones and the somes that thei are bounde in at the dale of this pre- 
sente date and accorde. 

ALSO it is accorded that all and euery souldier and strager beyng in thesaid citee and 13 
castle shall swere on the Euangeliesof God before their departyng, that thei shall not beare 
armes against our lorde the kyng or his, vntothe first daie of lanuarij next to come, for no 
maner of coinmaundemet that to them or to any of them of any maner of persone in contra- 
ry maie be doen and enioyned. 

ALSO it is accorded that all and euery reliques & other goodes longyng to the Abby of 14 
sainct Katheryn within thesaied citee and castle beyng all holy, shalbeen deliuered to hym 
whom the kyng shall depute them to receiue the deliuerance of thesaid citee. 

ALSO it is accorded that the forsaid nobles, citezes & other within thesaid citee and 15 
Castle beyng, shall cause thesame citee and Castle before thesaied. xix. daie of this pre- 
sent moneth of lanuarij sufficiently and honestly to be made cleane, and also diligently and 
honestly all the ded bodies now ded and to be ded vnto that daie of deliuerance of the said 
citee honestly and diligently shall do to be buried. 

ALSO it is accorded that the forsaid nobles citizens & all beyng in thesaid citee and castte ]Q 
furthwith shall receiue and suftre to entre into thesame citee all and euery poore persone be- 



88 



THE. VI. YERE OF 

yng in the cliches or aboute the diches of thesame cite, whiche for penury did go out of 
thesame cite whom they shalbee bounde to succor vnto the. xix. daieof lanuarij aboue saied, 
as they will aunswere to God and to the kyng, and els thei shall receiue none other person 
into thesame citee or castle vnto the forsaied day without speciall licence of our saied 
Lorde the kyng, but if it happe any messenger or herauld of the party aduersary of the 
kyng to come to the gates or diches of thesaied castle or citee. 

17. WHICHE articles and apointmetes as it is beforsaid, all & euery in maner as it is accord- 
ed, the forsaied capitain, nobles, citezes & other within thesaied castle and citee beyng, 
wel and truly without fraude or malengine to hold, obserue and kepe they behoten, and tho 
to be kept & fulfilled they bynden them. So but if it befall our forsaid moste doubtfull 
lorde the kyng that God forbid, to be ouercome in battaill to hym ymade by Charles his ad- 
nersary of Fraunce or the duke of Burgoyn or any other to come, the siege of our lord the 
kyng to remoue from the forsaid citee, that neither theforsaid capitain ne none of the no- 
bles, citezens, souldiors or other beyng within tiieforsaid cite and Castle shall gone out, ne 
no maner help thei shal deliuer, nor leane to them so again our lorde the kyng commyng in 
no maner wise. 

W' ALSO that all these appoyntmentes, couenauntes and accordes and euery of theim as it 
is beforsaied well and truly and vnbroken bee kepte, and for the more suretie of thesame 
couenauntes and accordes, theforsaid capitain nobles and citezens and other abouesaid shalbe 
taken at the tyme ymediatly into the handes of our lorde the kyng. Ixxx. notable pledges 
wherof. xx. shalbe knightes and esquires and the remnant citezens of thesame citee, at their 
owne costes to be sustained. 

19. ALSO for the partie sothly of our moste doubtfull lorde the Kyng aforsaid, graciously 
and beningly cosidryng the meke submittyng and yeldyng of the same citee and Castle 
abouesaid, hath graunted that all and euery person of what estate or .degree or condicion 
that he be with in thesaid citee and Castle being, except certain persons within expressed 
that will become lieges and subiectes of our lord the kyng, and fro hencefurth will dwell 
ynder his obedience, shall haue their heritages and goodes, moueables and vnmouables 
within the dutchy of Normandy constitute, and whiche before the date of these present let- 
ters by our forsaid lord the kyng to other persons haue not been graunted, except ar- 
murs & artillaries abouesaied, making and doing for their heritages and their vnmouable 
goodes to our forsaied lorde the kyng the seruice therof accustomed, or to other to whom 
suche maner seruices of the graunt of our lorde the kyng owen to long. 

20. ALSO it is graunted on our lorde the kynges behalfe that all the citezens and dwellers of 
the citee of Roau that now been or in tyme to come shall been, shall haue all and euery 
franchises, liberties and priuileges which of worthy mynd the progenitors of our lorde the 
the kyng kynges of Englande dukes of Normandy, to the and to the said citee were graunt- 
ed in possession wherof they weren the first day that our forsaid lorde the kyng came before 
theforsaid citee. And also of our large grace of his benygnitie hath graunted, that the self 
citezens and dwellers of the citee shall haue al their liberties fraunchises and priuileges 
wherof they wcr in possession- theforsaid first daie of the comyng of our lorde the kyng be- 
fore the citee, of the graunt of any of his progenitors kynges of Fraunce whiche were be- 
fore the tyme of Philip de Valoys aduersary to our said lorde the kyng & daily warryng vpo 
his real me. 

21. ALSO it is graunted and accorded on our lorde the kynges behalf that all the straungiers 
souldiours and other in theforsaied citee and castle beyng at this tyme, not willyng to be- 
come lieges of our lord the kyng, theforsaied citee and castle so yeldyng as it is beforsaid, 
frely to departen, leauyng to our saied lord the kyng all their armures, horsse artillaries 
and other thynges and harneis and goodes, except the Normans will not be lieges of our 
lorde the kyng, whiche all & euery shall abide prisoners to our lorde the kyng, and except 
Luca Italico, which also shalbe prisoner of our lorde the kyng, and also other whose names 
be not set in this boke, for it longeth not to clerkes to intermete of the. 

4 ALSO 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 89 

ALSO it is graunted on our lord the kynges' behalf that the warreand also shrewed speches 22. 
that duryng this siege the folke aboue mencioned of what condicion that they been against 
his royall person haue done, or with defamed lippes haue spoken against our niostc derest 
lorde the kyng, cosidrryng the daie of pitie mekely shalbe forgeuen, out take the prisoners 
that abouen in speciall be excepted. 

ALSO it is accorded on our lorde the kynges b^halfe teat theforsaied souldiors and 33. 
straungers by the forme of this present treatie and accorde willyng for to departen, our 
Lorde the kyng shall ordain and make a saueconduite in forme accustomed. 

If And so theforsaied citee was yelden to our souereigne lorde the kyng vpon s. Wolstanes 
daie beyng the. xix. daie of lanuarij. and then afterward he gat many strong tounes and 
Castles, as Depe, Caudebec, Torney & many mo as it shalbe after written. 

WHEN the daie of apoinclment came, which was the daie of. S Wolston, sir Guy de 
Butteler and the Burgesses of the toune in good ordre came to the kynges iodgyng, and 
there deliuered to hym the keyes of the citee and castle, besechyng hym of fauor and co- 
passion. The kyng incontinent appoyncted the duke of Excester with agreate compaignie 
to take possession of the toune, whiche like a valiauntcapitain mounted on a goodly courser 
and entred into the toune and so into the castle, and appoyncted watche and ward in euery 
toure, bulwarke and fortresse, and garnished the walles with banners, slanders and penos 
o the kynges armes, badges and deuises. The nexte daie bcyng Frydaie the kyng in greate 
triumphe like a conqueror, accopaignied with iiii. Dukes, x. Erles. viii. Bishoppes, xvi. 
Barones and a greate multitude of knightes, esquires and men of warre entred into Roan 
where he was reeeiued by the Clergie with. xlii. Crosses which sang diuerse swete soges, 
outwardly reioysyng whatsouer inwardly they thought. Then met him the Senate and the 
burgesses of the toune, offeryng to hym diuerse faire & costly presentes. In this rnaner he 
passed through the citee to our Lady Churche, where with al solempnitie he was reeeiued 
by the bishop and Cannons, and after he had said his Orisons, he caused his chapelaynes 
to syng this Antheme Quis est magnus dominus. Who is so greate a Lorde as is our God. 
&c. And that done he came to the Castle where he continued a good space after, receiuyng 
homages and fealties of the burgesses and tounes men, settyng ordres emogest them and 
reedefied diuerse fortresses and toures. Duryng which time he made proclamacion that all 
men whiche would become his subiectes should enioye their goodes, landes and offices, 
whiche proclamacion caused many tounes to yeld, and many men become English. At 
whiche ceason the duke of Britain seyng that the power of Fraunce began to decaye, came 
to the kyng to Roan and concluded with hym a league of his owne mere mocion : Fearyng 
that ether he should afterward be compelled therunto, or els if he offred to late it would 
not be accepted. 

WHEN the renderyng of Roan was blowen through Normandy and the kynges procla- 
macion diuulged through the countrie, it is in maner incredible to heare how many tounes 
yelded not once desired, and how many fortresses gaue vp without contradicion, wherof I 
wil shewe you a small nombre and the names of theim who were appoyncted capitaines of 
thesame. 

AT Caudebec, sir Loys Robsert. late capitain of Roan, and by the kyng 

At Depe, William lorde Burcher rle of lorde of the same. 

Ewe. At Danuile, sir Christopher Boirrden. 

At Ewe, thesame erle. At Couches, sir Robert Marbury. 

At Aubemerle, therle of Warwick and his At Chierburgh, sir Iho Geddyng. 

deputie there sir Willia Mountford. At Bacquiuile, the lord Rosse, lord therof 

At Bell Encomber, Sir Thomas Ramp- by gift. 

ston lorde by gift. At Gaylard, the same lorde. 

At Logeuile, the capitain of Beffe erle At Dangew, Richarde Wooduile. 

therof by gift. At Arques, sir lames Fines bayly of 

At the Roche Guyon, sir Guy Butteler Caux. 

N At 



90 THE. VIL YERE OP 

Ar Newcastle, sir Philip Leche. At Boncouilliers, Ihon Aburgh Baylife 

At Monceaux, the same sir Philip. of Gysors. 

At Gourney, sir Gilbert Vmfreuile. At Vernon, sir William Porter. 

At Estripagny, Richard Abraham esquire. At Melans, sir Thomas Rampso after hym. 

At Senctere Surgette, Willyam Basset. sir Ihon Fastolfte. 

At Nanffle, therle of Worcester,.. At Homftewe, therle of Salsbury and af- 

At Gysors, the said erle. ter the duke of Clarence by gift. 

j\.t Maunt, therle of Marche. At Brctnell, sir Henry Mortimer baylife 

of Homflew. 

If I should here reherse what tounes wer conquered, what fortresses were yelded, and 
who wer made capitaines of thesame, this Pamphlet would turne to a volume more tedious, 
then pleasaunt, and therfore I ouer passyng small names and muche doyug r will returne 
again to the principall thynges touchyng-.the sequele of this historye. And who so desireth; 
to know all the circumstances of the deliuery, lette hym ouerloke tlie Fnenche. writers,, 
whiche to aduoyde shame confesse and write the veritee. 

f THE SEUENTH YERE. 

.p^ >TiL WHEN the gettyng.of Roan and the deliuery of.theother townes wer- biased and blowen. 
ye. through the whole realme of- Fraunce, wonder it is to tell and more to beleue howe the. 
hertes of the Frenchmen wer sodainly heuy and their courages-sone coled, mournyng and 
lamentyng the iminent mischief whiche they sawe by the diuision of the nobilitee like, 
shortely to fal on their heddes : and the more sorowyng their euil chance because they sawe 
no remedy prepared, nor yet none help at hand thought on. But whosoeuer kicked or 
wynched at this matter, Ihon duke of Burgoyn raged and swelled, ye and so muche freated 
that he wist not what to saie and lesse to dooe : And no meruaill, for he was vexed and 
troubled with a doble disease atone onJv tvme. For he only ruled both kyng Charles and 
his, and did all thynges at his will whether reason agreed or no, and for that cause heknewe 
that IMJ was neither free from disdain nor yet deliuered from the scope of malice.. And ther- 
fore he imagined that ail mischiefes and calamities whiche chaunced in the common- wealth 
should be imputed and assigned to his vnpolitike doyng or to his negligent permission : 
wherfore he vmagined it profitable to the realme and to hyiaself moste auaylable, if he by 
any meanes possible cquld deui.-e, practise or inuent any waie or meane by the which he 
might reconcile and ibyne in amitee the two great and mightie kynges of Englande and of 
Fraunce. Whiche thyng once obUMgned and beyng dtliuered from all feare of exterior hos- 
tilitee, he determined first to reuenge his quarell against Charles the Dolphyn, and after to 
represse all causes of grudge or disdain, and. to recouer again both the fauor of the com- 
monaltee and also to put a\vaie all causes oi' suspicion or imagined infamy against hym and 
his procedynges. And intf-dyng to buyld v.pon this fraile foundacion, sent letters and Am- 
bassadors to the kyng of Englande, aduertisyng hym that if he would personally come to a 
coimnunicacion to bee had betwene hym and Charles the Frenche kyng, he doubted not 
but by his onely meanes, peace should be induced and blouddy battaill clerely exiled. 

KYNG Henry heard gentely the Ambassadors and agreed to their request and desire, 
and so came to Maunte, where at the feast of Pentecost he kept a liberall hous to all com- 
mers, and sat hymself in greate estate. On which daie ether for good seruice before by 
them done, or for good expectacionof thynges to come, he created Gascon de Foys a va- 
liaunt Gascoyn erle of Longeuile, and sir Ihon Grey was likewise made erle of Tankeruile, 
and the Lorde Bui shier Erie of Ewe. After this solempne feast ended, the place of the en- 
teruieue and metyng was apoynted to be beside Meiaus on the riuer of Seyne,, in a faire 
playne euery pane was by comissioners appoyncted to their grounde. The Frenchmen 
diched, trenched, and paled their lodgynges for feare of afterclappes : But the Englishmen 
had their parte only barred and ported. The kyng of Englande had a large teat of blewe 

veluet 



KYXG HENRY THE. V. 

veluet and grene richely cmbrodered with two deuises, the one was an Antlop drawyng in an 
horse mill, the othar was an Antlop sittyng in an high stage with a braunche of Olife in his 
roouthe: And the ten te was replenished and decked with this poysie. After lusie labours 
commetfi victorious reste, and on the top and heigth of thesame was set a greate Egle of 
goldc, whose ives were of suche orient Diamondes that tliey glistered and shone ouer the 
whole felde. 

THE Frenche-kyng likewise had in his parke a faire pauilion of blew veluet richely 
embrodered with flower deluse, on the toppe of the same was set a white Harte flivng, 
made all of fyne siluer with winges enameled. Betwene tliese two Campes or enclosers was 
apoynted a -tent- of purple veluet for the coiisailers to mete in and euery part had an egall 
nombre to watch on the night and to se good ordre on the day. 

WHEN the day of appoinctment approched, the kyng of England accompaignied with 
the Dukes of Clarence and Gloucester his brethren, and the duke of Excester his vncle, and 
Henry Beauford Clerke his other vncle which after was bishop of Winchester and Cardinall 
and the carles of Marche, Salisbury and other to the numbre of a thousand men of warre, 
entered into his parke and toke his lodging. Likewise for the Frenche part, thcther came 
Isabell the Frenche quene because the kyng her husband was fallen into his old frenaticall 
disease hauyng in her compaigny the duke of Burgoyn and therle of Sainct Paule, and she 
had attendyng on her the laire iady Katheryn her doughter and. xxvi. ladies and damoselles, 
and had also for her furniture a thousande men of warre. 

AFTER these estates had reposed themselfes one night in their tentes, the next day all 
such as were appointed repaired toward the pauilion ordained for the consultation. 
Where the kyng of England, like a prince of great stomacke and no lesse good be- 
hauior receioed humbly the Frenche quene and her daughter and them honorably em- 
braced & familierly kissed. The duke of Burgoyn made lowe curtesy and bowed to the 
kyng, whom the kyng louyngly toke by the hand and honorably entertained. After 
salutaciens and embrasynges finished, they fel to counsel within the pauilion assigned, 
whiche was kept with a garde appointed by both the parties that none but comissioners shuld 
once attempt to enter. After the kynges requestes made & his demaundes declared, the 
French quene and her company toke leaue louyngly of the kyng of England and returned 
to Ponthoyse to certifie her husband of her demaundes and claymes. And kvng Henry re- 
turned to Mante. The next day after they assembled againe, & the Frenche part brought 
with them the lady Katherin, only to thentent that the king of England seyng and be- 
holdyng so fayre a lady and so minion a damosel, should so be inflamed and rapte 
in loue, that he to obtayne so beautiful an espouse, should the soner agrc to a gentle 
peace & louyng composicion. This company met together, viij. seueral tymes, some- 
tyme the one party was more and sometynie the other. And notwithstandyng that the En<r- 
Jihmen and Frenchmen were lodged no great distance asunder, yet was there neuer 
fraye nor occasion of tumulte or riot prouoked or stirred of any of both the parties, 
whiche (bothe their natures considered) is somewhat to be marueiled at. 

IN this assemble many wordes were spent and no dedes done, many thin^es re- 
paired and few offered, many arguroentes made and no coclusion taken. Some authors 
write that the dolphyn to let this treatie sent to the duke of Burgoyne sir Tauegny 
du Chastcl, declaryng to him that if he would let this agrement, he would comon with 
him and take suche an ordre, that not only they but the whole realme of France 
should therof be glad and reioyce : But what was the very cause of the breche, no man 
certainly declareth. When no effect ensued of this long consultacion, both parties 
after a princely fashion departed, the Englishmen to Mantes and the Frenchmen to 
Ponthoyse. 

THE kyng of England was nothing pleased nor yet contented that this comunicacion 
came to none ende, wherfore he mistrustyng the duke of Burgoyn to the verv let and 
stop of hie desires and requestes, sayd vnto him before his departing : fayre cosin, 

NS W 



93 THE. VII. YERE OF 

we wil hiue your kynges daughter and al thinges that we demauud with her or we 
wil driue your kyng & you out of his realme. Well sayd' the duke of Burgoyn, 
before you driue the kyng and me out of his realme, you shalbe wel weried, and therof 
we doubt lytle. 

AFTER this departure, the duke of Burgoyn beyng nobly accompanied, roade to the 
toune of Melune wher the dolphyn then soiorned where in the plaine feldes they. ii. 
like frendes comoned together & cpcluded apparantly an open amide & sure frcndship, 
which was written by notaries and signed with their handes and sealed with their 
great scales and armes, but as the sequele sheweth, heart thought not that tong talked, 
nor mind meant not that hand wrote. This treaty was concluded the. vi. day of luly in the 
yere of our lord 1419 and was proclaimed in Paris, Amience and Ponthoyse. 

THIS newe alienee notified shortly to the kyng of England liyng at Maunt, which ther- 
with was sore displeased, and not without cause For he perceiued that the force of these 
two princes were much stronger now beyng vnited in one, then they were before beyng 
seperated & deuided. Yet notwithstanding this great sworne andsealed amitie, he nothyng 
more minded then to set forward his intended enterprise with the ayde of God to performe 
his conquest maugre and euil wyll and puissance of his enemies. Wherfore he sent the 
capitayne of Bueffe brother to the earle of Foys newly created earle of Longuile with. xv. 
C. men secretly to the toune of Ponthoyse, whiche on Trinitie sonday erly in the mornyng 
came to the toune, and so sodainl v- and so shortely set vp their skalyng ladders to the wall, 
that they were entred into the toune or the watche perceiued them, criyng saint George, saint 
George the lord Lisleadam capitain of the toune perceiuyng the walles skaled and the 
market place gained, opened the gate toward Paris, at the whiche he withal his retinue 
and diuers of the tounes men to the norabre of. viij. thousand fled. For the Englishmen 
durst not because their nombre was smal ones deuide them selues or fal to pilferyng, til 
about prime the duke of Clarence came to their ayde with. v. thousand men, and by the 
way he encoutred diuers burgesses of the toune fliyng with al their substance toward 
Beauuoys who he toke prisoners & brought them againe to their olde dwellyng place. 
When the duke was come to Ponthoyse, he muche praised the valiantnes of the assailantes 
and gaue to them the chief spoyle of the toune and marchauntes of the which they had 
great plenty and foyson. Then the duke with a great puissaunce came before Paris and 
lay before the cytie two daiesand two nightes without any proffre either of issue by his ene- 
mies or of defece if he had the same assauted, whiche he could not we! do because it was 
long and ample, and his nobre small, and for so great an enterprise not furnished : Wher- 
fore seyng that his enemies durst not ones loke on him, he returned againe to Ponthoyse, 
for the taking of whiche toune, the countrey of Fraunce, & in especial the Parisiens were 
sore dismayed and astonied, for there was no fortresse hable to resist or withstand. In so 
much the Irishmen ouercame al the Isle of Fraunce and did to the Frenchmen dammages 
innumerable (as their writters affirme) and brought dayly praies to the Englishe armye. 
And beside that, they would robbe houses and lay beddes on the backes of the kine and 
ride vpon them, and cary yong children before them and sell them to the Englishmen for 
slaues : whiche straung doynges so feared the Frenchemen within the territory of Paris and 
the coutrey about, that the rude persons fled out of the villages withal their stuffe to the cytie 
of Paris. 

THE French kyng and the duke of Burgoyn liyng at S. Denise hearyng of all these do- 
ynges, departed in all the hast with the quene and her daughter to Troys in Champaigne, 
there takyng great deliberation what was best to be done, leauyng at Paris the earle of S. 
Paul and the lord Lisleadam with a great puissance to defende the cytie. At the same tyme 
the duke of Clarence toke the strong toune of Gysors, & after that was taken the toune of 
Gayllard: and all the tounes of Normandy shortly after were either taken by force or ren- 
dred, except the Mount saint Michel, which because the gayne therof was very lytle and 

the 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. S3 

the losse in assautyng semed to be very muche, and also it could do small harme or none to 
the countrey adioynyng, was neither assaulted nor besieged. 

AND thus as you haue heard, was the duchy of Normandy reduced agayne into the right 
line and restored to the possession of the right heyre, which had bene fro the tyme of kyng 
Henry the third, in the yere of our lord 1255 wrongfully detained from the kynges of 
England. 

THE wisemen of Fraunce sore lamentyng the chaunce of their coutrey and the misery 
of their people sawe and perceiued that they had puissance ynough to defende their enemies 
if they were at a perfite cocord amongest themselues. For they apparantly sawe that al- 
though there wer a peace openly concluded betwene the dolphyn and the duke of Burgoyn, 
yet they imagined that no good fruit succeded of the same for the duke either for secret 
displeasure that he bara to the dolphyn, or for the doubt that he had of thenglishme, 
neuer assailed by him self the army of kyng Henry, nor^neuer sent ayde or succours 
to the Dolphyn. Wherfore by meanes of frendes a new comunicacion was appointed to 
thentent that the corrupt dregges of their olde malice and inwarde grudges might be clearely 
cast out and extinct. The place of this metyng was appoincted at the toune of Monstrel 
fault Yonne, so called because a small brooke called Yonne runneth there to the riuer of 
Sein ouer which riuer was made a bridge, with diuers barres ouerthwart so that the princes 
openyng the barres might eche embrace and louche other, and kepyng the barres shut, eche 
might se & common with other at their pleasure. The day was appointed when these, ii. 
great princes should mete on this bridge, to thentent that all ciuile discord should by this 
comunicacion be cleare forgotten, or at the least should be suspended tyl the enemies 
were vanquished and driuen out of their coutries and confines. But this mocion worse 
succeded then the entreators deuised, for while euery man was fulfilled with hope of peace 
and concord, crafty imaginacion crepte out of cancard displeasure had almost brought al 
thinges from libertie into bondage. 

WHEN the day and place of the solempne enteruiew was agreed & assigned, Tauagny 
du Chastel, a ma prompt and prone to all mischief, called to his remembraunce the shamefull 
murder of Lewes duks of Orleaunce (vnder whom he had long bene a capitaine) done and 
committed by this duke of Burgoyne as before you haue heard, determined with him selfe to 
reuenge the death of his olde Maister and lorde. .Some say that he was therto stirred pro- 
uoked by the dolphyn (and notvnlike) for the dolphyn whiche bare a continual hatred to the 
duke of Burgoyn, imagined paraduenture by this meanes to represse and subdue the whole 
power and high pride of this duke, without any suspection of frauds or rcproche of vntruth 
or vilany. Wei the day came, which was the. xii. day of August, and euery prince with 
his nombre appointed 'came to this bridge. The duke of Burgoyne beyng warned by his 
frendes to kepe his closure and the barres on his side shut, lytle regarded his frcdes mo- 
nicion as a ma that could not auoide the stroke for him prouided, and so opened the barres 
and closure and carne to the dolphyns presence, whiche was cleane armed, and kneled 
douneon the one kne, shewyng to him great reuerence and humilitie. The dolphyn shewed 
him no louyng countenaunce, but reproued him, laiyng to his charge muche vntruth and 
great dishonor. The duke againe boldly defended his cause. Nowe the duke duryng this 
comunicacion kneled styl and his sworde was at his backe with often turnyng and mouyng 
in answeryng the dolphyn and his counsel, and so he put his had backe to plucke his sworde 
forwarder what quod sir Robert de Loyer, wyll you drawe your sworde against my lorde the 
dolphyn? when Tauagny du Chastel apperceiued that an occasion was geuen to performe his 
enterprise, incontinent he strake him with a hatchet on the head so that he could not speakc, 
other standyng by shortly dispatched him of his life. Diuers of his part, thinkyng him not 
dead, began to draw weapon, amongest whom the lord Nouale was slaine, and the other 
taken. For this murther were condenrfpned (but not apprehended) by Parliament the presi- 
dent of Prouynce, the vicount of Narbone, Guylliam Battelier, Tauagny du Chastel, Ro- 
bert Loyre and. iiij. other. This was the ende of Ihon called the proude duke of Burgoyne, 

4 whiche 



THE. VIII. YE-Rfi OF 

- ', 

nhidie more regarded citrile warre and -intestine dissencion, then his owne life & welfare. 
And this bodein death as I thinke eameto him not without desert for shamefully murtheryng 
1 I. ewes duke of Orleance the .French kings brother. Such is the Justice of God, that hloud 
for the most parte is recompensed with bloud, & vnnatural homicide is requited with 
shameful death or soden destruction. 

AFTER this heynous murder, thus committed, I might rehcrse how the dolphyns ser- 
nauntes despoyled the duke of all his garmentes to his shevte, and coueredliis face with his- 
hosen. I could declare how the dolphyn sent his letters to Paris and other cities and 
tonnes, publishing vntruely diuers opprobious wordes spoken, & diuers great and outragious 
offences done l>y the duke against the kyng and the whole realme. I could further declare 
IJOHC the wiseie of Frauuce detested and abhorred this abhominable act, perceiuyng the 
endc that was like to ensue, and how the contrary side, whiche was the linage of Orleance 
reioysed and laughed at this miserable chaunce and sodain fal: but because thenglish nacion 
was parlie neither to the facte nor to the counsel, I wyll declare what the kyng of Englande 
did after this uotorious dede done and committed, 

f THE. VIII. YERE. 

The. viiu WIfen Philip erle Charoloys sone and hey re to this duke Ihon, and now by this murthcr 
yere. an( j death of his father duke of Burgoyn and erle of Flauders was enformed liyng at Gaunt 
of this misfortune and final ende of his noble parent and louyng father, he toke the matter 
as he had cause, greuously and heauily, insomuche that no ma of his cousel durst ones 
speake to him, and in especial the lady Michel his wife, syster to the dolphyn and daughter 
to the kyng, was in great feare to be forsaken and cast out of his house and fauoure: But 
as all thinges ende, so sorow asswageth. When his doloure was somewhat mitegate he fyrst 
by thaduise of his counseil receitied to his fauor and company the fayre duches his louyng 
wife, and after sent diuers notable ambassadours to the king of England liyng at Roan to 
trcate and conclude a peace betwene them both for a certain space : To which request in 
hope of a better chaunce kyng Henry agreed. After that knot knit, he kept a solempne ob- 
sequy for his father at saint Vaas in Arras wher were, xxiii. prelates with crosses : Duryng 
which tyme the earle of saint Paule and the Parisiens sent to hym ambassadours to know 
what they should do, and how they should defend them selues against the Englishmen. He 
gently answered the messengers, that he trusted shortly by the ayde of God and licence of 
the kyng to conclude a peace and perpetual amitie to their great comfort & relief. When 
these ambassadors were departed to make relacion to the Magistrates and gouernors of the 
cytie of Paris, he after long c5sultacion had aswel with men of the spiritualtie as temporal 
and lay persons, sent the bishop of Arras and two notable persons to the kyng of England 
with certaine articles and clauses which the duke of Burgoyn oftred to him for very loue 
as he sayd. The kyng of England consideryng with him selfe that the duke of Burgoyn was 
a coucnient organe and a necessary instrument to conueigh his desires to his purpose, lou- 
yngly receiued & honorably enterteined the dukes ambassadours, declaryng vnto them that 
lie would without prolongyng of tyme send to hym his Ambassadours, whiche should open 
his lawful requestes & reasonable desires. With this answere, the dukes messengers de- 
parted towarde Arras and incontinent after their departure, kyng Henry sent the erle of 
Warwike and the bishop of Rochestre with many knightes & esquiers to the duke of Bur- 
goyn, whiche to hym declared the effect and purpose of their ambassade and comyng : he 
gently heard their requestes, and some he alowed and some he augmented, and some he 
altred and disalowed, but in coclusion, by often sendyng betwene the kyng & the duke they 
were agreed, so the kyng and his comons would assent. Now was the Erenche kyng and 
the quene and his daughter Katheryn at Troys in Champaigne, gouerned and ordred by 
.;them whiche would rather, x. tymes spurre forward the purpose & ententes of the duke of 

Burgoyn 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 

Burgoyn then once with a bridle to pul backe any one iote preferred by him. What should 
I say, a truce tripertited betwene the. ii. kynges and the duke and their countreys was de- 
termined, so that the kyng of Englad should send in the copany of the duke of Burgoyn his 
Ambassadors to Troy in Chapaigne sufficiently authorised to coclud so great a matter. The 
kyng of England beyng in good hope that all his affaires should prosperously succede and 
go forward, sent to the duke of Burgoyn his vncle the duke of Exceter, the erle of Sals-- 
bury, the bishop of Ely, the lord Fanhope and lord Fitzhugh, sir Ihon Rob.sert and sir 
Philip Hal with diuers doctors to the nombre of. CCCCC. horse, whiche in the copany of 
the duke of Burgoyn came to the cytie of Troys the. xxi. daye of Marche. The kyng, the 
queue and the lady Katherin them receiued and heartcly welcomed, shewyng great signes 
and tokens of loue and amitie. After a fewe daies they fcl to counsel, in the whiche it was 
c5c!uded that kyng Henry of England should come to Troys and mary the lady Katherin, 
and the kyng should make him heyre of his realme, croune and dignitie after his death and 
departure out of this naturall life with many other articles whiche hereafter in a place more 
conuenient you shal heare rehersed. 

WHEN all these thynges were done and concluded, the Ambassadors of England depart- 
ed toward their kyng leauyng behynde them sir Ihon llobsert to geue his attendaunce on the 
lady Katherin. When kyng Henry had heard his Ambassadors reherse the articles and 
pointes of the treatie and amitie concluded, he condiscended & agreed with all diligence to- 
set toward Troys, logyng for the sight of his darlyng the fayre lady Katherin. And al- 
thoughe he reioysed that all thynges succeded more luckely to his purpose then he before 
imagined, yet he trusted not so much to the glosyng wordes and golden promises of the 
Frenche nacion beyng his aunoient enemies, that he would rashely aduenture his person 
without a perfite serch and diligent inquirie of the doynges and attemptes of his doubtful 
and newe reconciled frendes, beyng warned and admonished by the late mischance of Ihon 
duke of Burgoyn yet 'recent in euery mans eye. But when he sawe the sunne- shyne and ayre 
clere on euery syde, he accompanied with the dukes of Clarence and Gloucester his brethren, 
the carles of Warwike, Salsbury, Huntyngdon, Ewe, Tankeruile and Loguile and. xv. thou- 
sand men of wane, departed from Roan to Ponthoyse, and from thence to sainct Denis 
two leagues from Paris, and from thence to Pontcharenton where he left a garison of 
menne to kepe the passage, and from thence by Prouynce, he came toward Troys, where 
the duke of Burgoyn accoinpaignied with many noble men receiued hytn two leagues with- 
out the toune and coueighed hym to his lodgyng and his princes with hym, and all his annie 
M f aS' lodged in small villages theraboute. And after he had reposed himself, he went to 
visete the kyng, the queue and the lady Katheryn, whom-he founde in Sainet Peters Churche, 
where was a iotyous metyng, honorable receiuyng and a louyng embrasyng on bothe partes, 
whiche was the twenty daie of Maie. And ther wer the kyng and the lady Katherin made 
sure together before the high Aultare, and on the third daie of Tune nexte folowyng, thei 
were with all solempnite espoused and maried in the same Churche. At whiche muriate 
the Englishmen made suche triumphes, pompes and pagiauntes as though the kyng of all 
the worlde had' been present. la so muche (as three Frenche writers affinne) that the 
nobles of Fraunce-more merueled at the henor and glory of the Englishmen, then thei d($- 
deigned or maligned at their owne fortune. 

AND when these solempne ceremonies wer honorably finished and the mariageL-consum.-- 
mate, the twoo kynges and their counsaill assembled together diuerse daics, wherirr the for- 
mer league and treatie was in diuerse poyntes altred and brought to a certaintie by the de- 
uice of the kyng of Englande and his brethren. When this great matter was finished, the 
kynges sware for their part to obserue this agrement and league in all poynctes. Likewise 
sware the duke of Burgoyn and a great nombre of princes and nobles whiche .wer presente, 
and that the soner because they marueiled before at his noble Actes dooen by kyna Henry' 
of whom thei had knowledge only by report, and now thei more marueled when thei sawe 
and beheld the honor, estate & wisedome of his personc, But whether thei sware with out- 

warde 



96 THE. VIII. YERE OF 

warde countenaunce and inwardly thought the contrary, let them whiche Icnowe the Frenche 
constancy iudge and tell truthe. But assuredly thei perceiued .hym to bee prudent bothc 
in askyng and geuyng counsaill. Thei sawe hym expert and apt to marciall feates, and 
nymble in all thynges apperteighyng to warre. Thei thought hym strong against all perelles 
and imagined hym fortunate in all chaunces and doynges, wherfore as I saied, thei mire he 
marueled at hym, and more regarded his persone. Then was lie named and proclaimed 
heire & Regent of Fraunce. And as the French kyng sent the copie of this treaty to 
euery toune in France, so the kyng of Englande sent the same in Englishe to euery citec 
and market toune to be published and deuulged, the very copie whereof as it was then writ- 
ten, woorde by woorde ensueth. 

If The Articles and appoynctmentes of the peace betwene the realmes of Englande 

and Fraunce. 

HENRY by the grace of God kyng of Englande, heire and Regent of Fraunce, lorde 
of Irslande, to perpetuall mind to Christen people and all tho that be vnder our obeisance 
we notefie and declare that though there hath been here aforne diuerse treaties betwene the 
moste excellent Prince Charles our father of Fraunce and his progenitors for the peace to 
be had betwene the twoo realmes of Fraunce and Englande the whiche here before haue 
borne no fruite : \Ve consideryng the greate harmes the whiche hath not onely fallen betwene 
these twoo realmes for the great deuision that hath been betwene the, but to all holy churche. 
We haue taken a treaty with our saied father, in whiche treaty betwixt our saied father and 
vs, it is concluded and accorded in the forme after the maner that foloweth. 

1 FIRST it is accorded betwixt oure father and vs, that forasmuche as by the bond of Ma- 
trimony made for the good of the peace betwene vs and our most dere beloued Katheryn 
doughter of our saied father and of our moste dere mother Isabell his wife, thesame Charles 
and Isabell been made father and mother, therfore them as our father and mother we shall 
haue and worship as it sitteth and semeth so a worthy prince and princesse to be worship- 
ped principally before all other temporall persones of the world. 

3 ALSO we shall not distroble, disseason or letten our father aforsaid, but that he holde 
and possede as long as he liueth as he holdeth and possedeth at this tyme the croune and 
the dignitee royall of Fraunce, and rentes and proffites for thesame of the sustenance of 
his estate and charges of the realme. And our forsaid mother also hold aslong as she 
liueth thestate & dignitee of Queue, after the maner of the same realme with conuenable con- 
uenience part of the said rentes and proffites. 

3 ALSO that the forsaid lady Katherin shall take and haue dower in our realme of Eng- 
lande as Quenes of England here afore wer wont for to take and haue, that is to say, to the 
some of. xl. M. Scutes, of the whiche two algate shalbe worth a noble Englishe. 

4 ALSO that by the waies maners and meanes that we male without transgression or offence 
of other made by vs, for to kepe the lawes, customes, vsages and rightes of our saied realme 
of Englande shall doen our labor and pursute that thesaid Katheryn al so sone as it maie 
be doen, be made sure to take and for to haue in our said realme of Englande from the 
tyme of our death thesaied dower of. xl. M. scutes yerely, of the whiche twayne algate be 
worth a noble Englishe. 

5 ALSO if it hap the said Katheryn to ouerliue vs, she shall take and haue the realme of 
Fraunce ymediately, from the tyme of our death, dower to the some of. xx. M. Frankes 
yerely of and vpon the landes, places and lordshippes that held and had Blaunch somtyrne 
wife of Philip Boseele to our saied father. 

6 ALSO that after the death of our father aforsaied, and from thence forwarde, the croune 
and the realme of Fraunce with all the rightes and appurtenaunces shall remain and abide 
to vs and been of vs and of our heires for euermore. 

7 ALSO forasmuche as our saied father is witholden with diaerse sicknes, in suche maner 

as 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 97 

as he maie not intencte in his owne persone for to dispose for the nedes of theforsaied realme 
of Fraunce: therfore duryng the life of our saied father, the faculties and exercise of the 
gouernance and disposicion of the publique and common proffice of the saied realme of 
Fraunce with -counsaiH and nobles and wise men of the same realme" of Fraunce shalbe and 
abide to vs: So that from thencefurthe we maie gouerne the same realme by vs. And also 
to admit to oure cousaill and assistence of thesaid nobles suche as we shall thynke mete the 
which faculties and exercise of gouernance thus being toward vs, we shall labor and pur- 
pose vs spedefully, diligently and truly to that that maie be and ought for to be to the worship 
of God and our saied father and mother, and also to the common good of thesaied realme, 
and that realme with the counsaill and help of the worthy and great nobles of thesame 
realme for to be defended, peased and gouerned after right and equitie. 

ALSO that we of our owne power shall do the courte of the Parliament of Frauce to be 8 
kept & obserued in his authorite and soueraignte and in all that is doen to it in all maner 
of places that now or in tyme commyng is or shalbe subiect to our saied father. 

ALSO wee to oure power shall defende and helpe all and euery of the Peres, nobles, ci- 9 
tees, tounes, commonalties and syngular persons now or in tyme commyng subiectes to our 
father in their rightes, customes, priueleges, fredome and fraunchises longyng or dewe to 
them in all maner of places now or in tyme commyng subiect to our father. 

ALSO we diligently and truly shall trauaile to our power and do that iustice be admi- 10 
nistered and doen in the same realme of Fraunce after the lawes, customes and rightes of 
thesame realme, without personalx excepcion. And that we shall kepe and holde the sub- 
iectes of the same realme in tranquilitie and peace, and to our power we shall defend them 
against all maner of violence and oppression. 

ALSO we to our power shall prouide, and do to our power that able persones and prof- j j 
fitable been taken to the offices aswell of Justices and other offices longyng to the gouern- 
aunce of the demaynes and of other offices of the said realme of Fraunce for the good, right 
and peaceable Iustice of the same, and for thadministration that shalbe comitted vnto theini 
and that they be suche persons that after the lawes and rightes of the same realme and for 
the vtilitee and proffite of our saied father shall minister, and that the forsaied realme shall 
bee taken and deputed to thesame offices. 

ALSO that wee of our power so sone as it maie commodiously bee doen, shall trauaile 12 
for to put into the obedience of our saied father, all maner of cities, tounes and Castles, 
places, countrees and persones within the realme of Fraunce disobedient and rebelles to 
our saied father, holdyng with them whiche been called the Dolphin or Armuiack. 

ALSO that we might the more comodiously, surely and frely doen exercise and fulfill these 1 3 
thynges aforsaid. It is accorded that all worthy nobles and estates of the same realme of 
Fraunce aswel spirituals as temporalles, and also citees notables and commonalties, and cite- 
zens, burgeis of tounes of the realme of Fraunce, that been obcysaunt at this tyme to our 
saied father shall make these othes that folowen. 

FIRST to vs hauyng the facultie, exercise, disposicion and gouernaunce of the forsaied 14 
common proffite to our hestes and commaundementes thei shall mekely and obediently obeye 
and intende in all maner of thyng concernyng the exercise of gouernance of thesame realme. 

ALSO that the worthy greate nobles and estates of the saied realme aswell spirituals as I 5 
temporalles and also citees and notable commonalties and Cittezens and Burgeses of the 
same realme in all maner of thynges well and truly shall kepe and to their power shall do to 
be kept of so muche as to theim belonged) or to any of theim all, those thynges that been 
apoyncted and accorded betwene our forsaid father and mother and vs, with the counsaill of 
them whom vs lust to calle to vs. 

ALSO that continually from the death and after the death of our saied father Charles, 15 
they shalbe our true liegcme and our heires, and they shall receiue and admit vs for their 
liege and soureigne and verie kyng of Fraunce, and for suche to obeye vs without oppo- 
sicio, contradiccion or difficultee, as they be^en to our forsaid father dnryng his life, neuer 

after 



98 THE. VIII. YERE OF 

after this, realmc of Frauce shall obey to man as kyng or regent of Fraunce, but to vs and 
our hcires. Also they shall not be in counsaill belpe or assente that we lese life or lyuime, 
or be take with euill takyng, or that we suft're harme or diminicion in person, estate* worship 
or goodes, but if thei knovve any suche thyng for to be cast orymagined against vs, thei shall 
let it to their power, and they shall doen vs to weten therof as hastely as thei inaie by theim- 
self, by message or by letters. 

1 7 ALSO that all maner of conquestes that should bee made by vs in Fraunce vpon the saied in- 
obedientes out of the Duchie of Normandy shalbe doen to the proffite of our said father, and 
that to our power we shall do that al maner of landes and lordshipes that been in the places 
so for to be conquered longyng to persones obeyng to our saied father, vvhiche shall sweare for 
to kepe this presente accord .shalbee restored to thesame persones to whom they long to. 

18 ALSO that all maner of persones of holy Church beneficed in the Duchy of Normandy 
or any other places in the realme of Frauce subiect to our futher and fauouryng the partie of 
the dukes of Burgoyne whiche shall sweare to kepe this present accord, shall reioyce peace- 
ably their benefices of holy Churche in the Duchy of Normandy, or in any other places next 
aforsaied. 

19 ALSO likewise all maner persones of holy Churche obedient to vs and beneficed in the 
realme of Fraunce and places subiect to our father that shall swere to kepe this presente ac- 
cord, shall enioye peaceably their benefices of holy Churche in places next abouesaied. 

20 ALSO that all maner of Churches, Vniuersitees and studies gcnerall, and all Colleges of 
studies and other Colleges of holy Churche beyng in places now or in tyme commyng sub- 
iecte to our father, or in the Duchy of Normady, or other places in the realme of Fraunce 
subiect to vs, shall enioye their rightes and possessions, rentes, prerogatiues liberties and 
fraunchises longyng or dewe to theim in any maner of wise in the said realme of Fraunce, 
sauyng the right of the croune of Fraunce and euery other persone. 

gl ALSO by Goddes help, when it happeneth vs to come to the croune of Fraunce, the Duchy 
of Normandy and all other places conquered by vs in the realme of Fraunce shall bowe 
vnder the commaundemcnt obeysaunce and Monarchy of the croune of Fraunce. 

22 ALSO that we shall enforce vs and dooe to our power that recompence bee made by our 
said father without diminicion of the croune of Fraunce, to persones obeiyng to hym and 
fauoryng to that partie that is said Burgoyn, to whom longeth landes, lordshippes, rentes 
or possessions in the said Duchy of Normandy or other places in the realme of Fraunce 
conquered by vs hethertoward, geuen by vs in places, and landes gotten or to be gotten and 
ouercome in the name of our said father vpon rebelles and inobedientes to hym. And if it 
so bee that suche maner of recompence bee not made to the saied persones by the life of 
our saied father, we shall make that recompence in suche maner of places and goodes when 
it happeneth by Goddes grace to the croune of Fraunce. And if so be that the landes, lord- 
shippes, rentes or possessios the vvhiche longeth to suche maner of persones in the saied 
Duchy and places be not geuen by vs, thesame persones shalbee restored to theim without 
any delaye. 

23 ALSO duryng the life of our father in all places nowe or in tyme commyng subiect to 
him, letters of common iustice and also grauntes of offices and giftes, pardos or remissions 
and priuileges shalbe written and precede vnder the name and seale of our saied father. And. 
forasmuche as some syngular cace male fall that maye not bee forseen by mannes witte, in 
the whiche it might be necessary and behouefull that we do write our letters, in suche maner 
cace if any hap for the good and surety of our saied father and for the gouernauncc" that? 
longeth to vs as is beforsaied, and for to eschewen perilles that otherwise might fall to the 
prejudice of our saied father to write cure letters, by the whiche we shall commaunde, 
charge and defende after the nature andqualitie of the nede in our fathers behalfe and cures 
as Regent of Fraunce. 

24 ALSO that duryng oure fathers life wee shall not calle ne write vs kyng of Fraunce, but 
vtterly we shall absteyne vs from that name as long as our father liueth. 

1 ALSO 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 1 

ALSO that oursaied father duryng his life shall nempne, call, and write vs in French in 25 
this maner Nostre treschier jils Henry Roy Denglcterre heretere de Fraunce, and in 
latin in this maner. Precharissimus filius noster Henricus Rex Anglian & heres Francis. 

ALSO that we shall put none imposicions or exaccios, or do charge the subiectes of our 25 
said father without cause resonable and necessary, ne otherwise then for common good of 
the realme of Fraunce, and after the saiyng and askyng of the lawes and customes reason- 
able, approued of thesame realme. 

ALSO that we shall trauaile to our power to the effect and intent, that by thassent of the 27 
three estates of either of the realmes of Fraunce and Englande, that all maner of obstacles 
maie be doen awaie, and in this partie that it be ordeigned and prouided that fro the tyme 
that we or any of our heires come to the croune of Fraunce, bothe the crounes that is to 
saie of Fraunce and England perpetually be together in one and in thesame persone, that 
is to saie from our fathers life to vs, and from the terme of our life thence forward in the 
persones of our heires that shalbee one after another. And that bothe realmes shalbee 
gouerned fro that wee or any of our heires come to thesame, not seuerally vnder diuersc 
kynges in one tyme, but vnder that same person whiche for the tyme shalbe kyng of bothe 
the realmes and souereigne lorde as it is beforesaid, kepyng neuerthelesse in all maner of 
other thynges to ether of y same realmes their rightes, liberties, customes, vsages and lawes, 
not makyng subiecte in any maner of wise one of thesame realmes to the rightes, lawes or 
vsages of that other. 

ALSO that henceforwarde, perpetually shalbee still reste, and that in all maner of wise, 28 
discencions, hates, rancoures, enuies, and warres betwene thesame realmes of Fraunce and 
England, and the people of thesame realmes, drawyng to accorde of thesame peace maie 
cease and bee broken. 

ALSO that there shalbe fro hence forwarde for euermore peace and tranquillitee and y 
good accord and common affeccion and stable frendship betwene thesame realmes and their 
subiectes beforesaied : thesame realmes shall kepe theselfes with their counsaill helpes and 
comon assistence against all maner of men that enforce theim for to doen or to ymagine 
wronges, harmes, displeasours or greuaunce to theim or to ether of theim. And thei 
shalbe conuersaunt and Marchandisen frely and surely together paiyng the custome dew 
and accustomed. And thei shalbe conuersaunt also, that al the confederates and alies of 
our said father and the realme of Fraunce aforsaid, and also our confederates, of the realme 
of Englande aforsaied, shall in. viij. monethes from the tyme of this accord of peace as it is 
notified to the, declare by their letters that they wolle draw to this accord and vvoll be com- 
prehended vnder the treaties and accord of this peace, sauyng neuerthelesse ether of the 
same Crounes, and also all maner accions rightes and reuenues that longen to our sayd fa- 
ther and his subiectes and to vs and to our subiectes againe such maner of allies and con- 
federacies. 

ALSO neither our father neither our brother the duke of Burgoyn shall bcgynne ne make 30 
with Charles clepyng himselfe the dolphyn of Vyennes any treaty or peace or accorde but 
bv counsel and assent of all and eche of vs thre or of other thre estates of either of the sayd 
realmes aboue named. 

Also that we with assent of our sayd brother of Burgoyn & other of the nobles of the -^1 
realmes of Fraiice the whiche therto owen to be called shal ordaine for the gouernance of 
our sayd father sekyrly, louyngly and honestly after the askyng of his royal estate and dig-' 
nitie by the maner that shalbe to the worship of God and of our father and of the realme of 
Fraunce. 

ALSO all maner of persons that shalbe about our father to do him personal seruice, not 32 
onely in office but in all other seruices aswell the nobles and gentles as "other shalbe suche 
as hath bene borne in the realme of Fraunce or in places longyng to Fraunce, good, wise, 
true and able to that foresayd seruice. And our sayd father shall dwell in places notable of his 
obedience and nowhere els. Wherfore we charge & comaunde our savd liege subiectes and" 

O 2 other 



100 THE. VIII. YERE OF 

other beyng vnder our obedience that they kepe and do to be kept in all thatlongeth to them 
this accord and peace after the forme and maner as it is accorded. And that they atternpte 
in no maner wyse any thyng that may be prejudice or cotrary to the same accorde and 
peace vpon paine of life,and lymme and all that they may forfaite against vs. Youen at 
Troys the. xxx. day of May 1420 and proclaimed in London the. xx. day of lune. 
33 ALSO that we for the thinges aforesayd and euery one of the shall geue our assent by our 
letters patentes sealed with our scale vnto oure sayd father with all approbacion & confirma- 
cion of vs and all other of our bloud royal and all other of the cities and tounes to vs obedient 
sealed with their scales accustomed. And further oure sayd father beside his letters patentes 
sealed vnder his great scale shall make or cause to be made letters approbatory and confirrna- 
cions of the peres of his realme and of the lordes, citezens and burgesses of the same vnder 
his obedience, all which articles we haue sworne to kep* vpon the holy Euangefistes. 

HERE I ought not to forget howe. ii. men named learned in bothe the lawes, the one 
called master Ihon Bouchet the Aquitanical writer & Archedeacon of Terbe, & the other 
Master de Prato a solempne prothonotary his pratyng gloser wrote of this treaty and com- 
posicio, and make therof so a great matter as by the makyng of this peace it shuld appeare 
that England had no right to Frauce, nor by this graunt nothyng to England was geuen-. 
Fyrst Ihon Bouchet saieth that this treaty was the worst cotract that euer was made for the 
kynges of England, for by this saith he it is apparant that the kyng of Englvid hath neither 
tytle nor right to the croune of Fraunce but by this coposicion, for if they had right, why did 
they take it by coposicion ? vpon this text Master gloser saieth, that this composicion geueth 
a new right, and if there wer any old it taketh it away and geueth a new, whiche new gift 
was of litle value and lesse efficacie in the law because the issue female may not en- 
herite accordyng to the lawe Salique, & therfore he cannot make his doughter heyre to the 
croune of Fraunce. If I might be so bold I wold axe Maister Ihon Bouchet this ques- 
tion : if a ma wrongfully kepe me out of the possession of my true and lawful inheri- 
taunce (with whom lam neither able with purse neither with power to prosecute my 
cause before a competent iudge by proces of the lawe) wyll of his owne mere mocion 
(moued paraduenture with conscience) render to me my right, so I wyl suffre him to 
enioy my lande duryng his life, or that I wyl mary his daughter, haue I this land by his gift 
or as a thyng to me iustly by law and equitie rendred and receiued. Likewise if a riche man 
owe to a poore man an hundreth poundes, whiche is not able in substance or for feare of 
displeasure dare not attempt any suyte or quarel against his detter, if he wyl offer to pay his- 
money at dayes, to the whiche request the poore man agreeth, is this a newe gift of the money 
or a payment of the del. In the fyrst question if the demaudant had no tytle, how could he 
graunt to him the accion of the land duryng his life, and in the second, if the plaintiffe had 
none interest how could he geue him daies of payment and yet in both the cases if the one 
part had no right why would the other make an offre or copound, for all coposicions haue 
respect to a right precedent. But in this matter, who would iudge that a kyng of so great & 
puissant a realme with the asset of his own counsel would dishenerite his onely sonne & sur- 
rendre his title without an apparant right and open tytle knowen and shewed by the partie,. 
for the olde prouerbe sayeth, long sufferaunce is no acquittance, nor prolongyng of tyme 
tlerogacion to right, also restitucion is no graut, nor payment of duetie is no gift. Doctors 
write and clerkes afferme that these treaties, arLitrementes and composicions be bothe godly, 
charitable and honest, both' to restore the one partie to his auncient right (whether it be in 
landes or goodes) and to dispence & releue the other with the takyng of the profiles of the 
land and vsyng in mai chandies the occupacion of the money. Now to Master gloser whiche 
affirmeth that a composicion taketh away an old right & geueth a new and that this coposicion 
is of no value: surely Master Ihon de Prato I would haue suche a peuyshe proctor reteined 
against me for you say that euery coposicion geueth a new right and taketh away the auaciet 
title, yet you sayd before y this coposicion neither geueth nor can geue any right, whiche 
coclusion is manifestly repugnant to the antecedent therfore you must be answered thus, if 

nothyng 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 101 

nothyng be geuen nothyng is taken away, & so consequently no coposicion, & if there be no 
coposicion then remaineth styl the olde and auncient tytle in the state that it was. Parad- 
uenture Master gloser wyl say and allege the tytle of England to be abrogated because the 
bouse of Valoys may lawfully prescribe against the kynges of England and haue had the 
possession fortie yeres and more, & so by this nieane kyng Hery had no tytle to clayme or 
chalenge any part of the realme of Fraunce. Then 1 pray you remember the yeres & ac- 
compt the doynges and you shall euidently perceiue that kyng Edward the third the very 
indubitate heyre general to the croune of Fraunce kyng Richard the second, kyng Henry 
the fourth and this noble kyng Henry the fift neuer desisted, vi. or. viii. yeres at the moost 
either by battaile or treatie to chalenge and clayme their aucient right and old enheritaunce 
to the by quene Isabel discended,so the title was euer in strife and neuer quiet tyll nowe the 
right lyne is restored : And as for your law Salique put it in your boget among lyes & fayned 
fables. Thus you may se the affections of Frenchemen, that an Arche foole cannot forge a 
lye for his pleasure, but a prothodawe wyll faine a glose to mainteine his folish fatasie. Let 
vs now leue these wylful writers and returne to the kyng of England, which after al these 
articles of the treaty beyng concluded and sworne, made the Frenche kyng the duke of 
Burgoyn and other the Frenche lordes a solempne and sumptuous supper and banket, and 
before their departyng he sadly and soberly sayd to them these wordes. 

All my thought care & study is (you noble princes & men of high honor) to inuent the 
meane, study & way, how both my kyngdomes by the benefite of almightie God enlarged &. 
amplified, by the conexyng & ioynyng the one to the other may be left to my posteritie clene 
& pure without domestical dissecion or ciuile discorde, to thentent that as no prince nor 
potestate hath at this day in all Europe a greater gouernance, a richer regiment nor a more 
puissant empire : So I trust to leue it that hereafter ther shal no power or dominion be able 
to be to it copared orequyolent. Wherfore I entende fyrst to extirpate & plucke away the 
rotes & leuynges of the ciuile discecion in this realme lately begon which ly in the brest of 
Charles the kynges sone, by your decre, Judgement and assent, of the newe state and dig- 
nitie of the Dolphyn vtterly depriued and disgraded, against whom it is couenient and decent 
that you beare armure not so muche to destroy &' confound him, as to bring him to do obay- 
sance and reasonable coformitie. What maner a prince thinke you he would proue, when, 
he should obtaine & possesse a kyngdome, which beyng but a lusty yong striplyng not 
fearyng God nor regardyng his honor contrary to his promise & against all humaine honestie, 
was not ashamed to polute & staine him selfe with the bloud and homicide of the valeaunt 
duke of Burgoyn, O cancard stomacke in the brest of a yong prince, oh tyrannical, heart in 
the body of a gentle man, O vntrue long in the mouth of a Christen man; a. Christian, no 
aPagane, whiche neglecting his honor, violatyng his promise and dispisyng honestie, would 
procure or cosent to so abhominable a fact and sedicious a murder. Wherfore these thynges 
well pondered and iustly considered I require you to ioyne, stand, and eleue with-me as the 
very heyre & successor of my dere & welbeloued father in lawe kyng Charles in this realme 
& kyngdome, fyrst to my noble auncesters, & after to me by right title and iust clayine law- 
fully discended. Grudge not I pray you because I that am an Englishman shall succede in. 
the croune of France: I assure you, I am not nor. wil not be noted to be to you. a mere alien 
and straunger, was not my great grandfather kyng Edward the third sone to quene 
Isabel daughter to Philip the fayre and sister and heyre to. iii. kynges of this relme dead 
without issue? was not my great graundmother quene Philip discended of the noble house 
of Valoys? if the old & trite prouerbe be true that the womans side is the surer side and 
that the childe foloweth the wombe, although the one part be Englishe yet the surer part is 
Frenche, and of the Frenche flou re budded & brought furth. And therfore remembre not 
that I am an English ma put out of your mindes in what coutrey I was borne: and cosider. 
that I am a christen man & an anoyn fed. kyng, to who by both the professions it aperteineth, 
not onely to defend &. protect their people & subiectes from foreign powers & outward inua- 
sions, but also to minister to them indifferent Justice, to conserue them in polliiike ordre & 

moderate 



102 THE. VIII. YERE OF 

moderate quietnes: & finally accordyng to their desert and merites, the to promote auance, 
& prefer to riches, honors and estates : which thinges if I would not do to you my trusty 
frendes whose louyng heartes and beneuolent myndes I shall neuer forgette nor put in obli- 
uion, I should not do my dutie to God I shuld not do the office of a kyng nor I shuld not 
do that whiche by the lawesof nature and reason I ought to do, which is to rendre kyndnes 
for kyndnes, goodnes for desert, and honor for merite. Therforc to coclude I humbly re- 
quire you to stande strong with kyng Charles my father in lawe (who in the stede of myne 
ovvne parent I worship, loue and honor) in this concord and agrement whiche I both call & 
trust to be a peace final, and after his mortal ende to loue, serue & be true to me and ray 
posteritie, and I assure you for my part that the Occean sea shall sonerleue his flowyng and 
the bright sunne sh.al soner leue his shiny ng, then I shall ceasse to do that whiche becommeth 
a prince to do to his subiecte. or that a father ougiit to do to his natural child. 

WHEN he had thus persuaded the nobilitie, he with all his army, hauyng with him the 
Frenche kyng and the duke of Burgoyn came before the toune of Sene in Burgoyn 
whiche toke part with the dolphyn : and after that he had destroied the countrey about it, 
at the. xv. day the toune was yelded and there he made capitain the lorde lenuale. And 
from thence he remoued to Monstreau fault yone, where the duke of Burgoyn was slain 
nsyou haue heard, whiche toune was taken by assault and many of the dolphyns parte appre- 
hended before they could get to the cartel. After the gettyngof the toune, the castle whiche 
\vas newly replenished with men and vitayle, denied toredre, and soil was strongly besieged: 
tluryng whiche assault the duke of Burgoyn was enformed by diuers in what place the duke 
his father was buried, whose corps he caused to be taken vp & sered and so coueighed it 
to Diron in high Burgoyn and buried it by duke Philip his father. 

THE kyng of England sent certaine of the prisoners that he had taken in this toune to 
aduise the capitaine of the castle to yeld the same, but they obstinatly denied the request, 
gcuyng opprobrious wordes to the kynges Herault, wherfore the kyng of Englad caused a 
gybbet to be setvp before the castle, on the whiche were hanged, xii. prisoners all gentlemen 
and frendes to the capilaine. When the lord of Guytry lieftenant of the castle perceiued 
that by no m^anes he could be succoured, and fearyng to be taken by force, he beganne to 
treat with tlfi> kyng of Englad, whiche in. viij. daies would take none of his offers, but in 
coclusion he and his rendred them seines simply, their Hues onely saued, and after, vi. wekes 
siege the castle was dcliuered, & the earle of Warwike was made capitain of the toune and 
castle, whiche fortefied the same with men, ordinance and artillerie. From thence the king 
of England departed to Molyn vpon Seyne and besieged it round aboule in whose company 
were the Frenche kyng, theyong kyng of Scottes, the dukes of Burgoyn, Clarence, Bed- 
ford, and Gloucester. 

The duke of Barre. Therle of Ewe. 

The prince of Oreng. -Therle ot'Tankeruile. 

The earle of Niche in Auerne. Therle oi'Longuile. 

Therle of Huntyngdon. Therle of saint^Paule. 

. Therle of Stafford. Therle of Brayne, 

Therle of Sommerset. Therle of Ligny. 

Therle Marshal. ,> Therle of Vatedcuontur. 

Therle of Warwike. Therle of loiuigny. 

Therle of Worcester. The Lord llosse. 

Therle of Suffolke. The Lord Matrauers. 

The archbishop of Britayne earle of Yury. The Lord Gray of Codnor. 

The lord Charles ofNauer. The Lord Bourchier. 

-Therle of Perche.* s The Lord Andely. 

Therle of Mortciine. The Lord Wylloughby. 

Therle of Onnond. The Lord Clynton. 

Therle of Desmond. The Lord Deyncost. 

The 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 103 

The Lord Clyffbrd. The Lord Vergeer. 

The Lord Ferreys Groby. The Lord of Crony. 

The Lord Ferreys of Chartley. The Lord sent George: 

The Lord Talbot. The Lord Pesunes. 

The Lord Fitzwaren. The Lord Daugien. 

The Baron Dudley. The Lord Tremoyle. 

The Lord Mouerancy. The Lord lenuale. 

The lord Aubemond of Normady. Sir Ihon de Lawuoy. 

The lord Beauchape of Normady. Sir Ihon Courselles. 

-The Lord Furniuale. The lord of Barenbon. 

The Lord Fitzhugh. The lord of lalous. 

-The Lord Fanhope. The lord Bonuile. 

The Lord Scrope of Balos. Syr Guy de Bar. 

The Lord Scrope of Vpsabe. Syr Ihon Fastolf. 

The Lord Canneys. Syr Philip Halle. 

The Lord Bardolf. -Syr Philip Leche. 

The Lord Scales. Syr Ihon Rodney. 

The Baron of Care. Syr Morice Bro\vne. 

The Lord Duras of Gascon. Syr Piers Tempest. 

The Lord de la Laund Gascoy. Syr Robert Tempest 

The Lord Montferrant. Syr Guy Moyle. 

The Lord Louel. Syr Ihon Stanley. 

The Lord Botras of Burge. Syr Lewes Mohu, 

The Lord of Chastelon. and. xv. Maister souldiers. 

The Lord Lisleadam. 

THESE valeaunt princes & noble men besieged the strong tonne by the space almost of. 
vii. monethes, they without made mynes, cast trenches and shotgunnes dayly at the wallesy 
they within wherof the lord Barbason was chief capitaine manfully defended the same, 
this euery day was skyrmishing, scalyng, & assautyng, to the losse of bothe parties, but 
most of all to the losse of the within. Duryng whiche siege the Frenche quene and the quene 
of England, and the duches of Burgoyn came diuers times to visite their husbandes and se 
their fredes, whom the kyng of England so highly feasted, so louyngly entertained and with, 
so pleasant pastymes comforted them, that tuery creature of him reported honor, liberalitie, 
and gentlenes. This sieg3 so long cotinued that vitayles within the toune began to fayle, 
and pestilence began to growe, so that the capitaine began to treat, and in coclusion the' 
toune was deliuered vpon certain condicions, wherof one was that all that were concentyng 
to the death of the duke of Burgoyn should be deliuered to the kyng, wherof the lorde Bar- 
bason was suspected to be one, and so they were deliuered to the kyng of England, whiche 
sent the vnder the conduyte of the duke of Clarence his brother to the cytie of Paris wherof 
:he Frenche kyng made him capitaine and he toke possession of the bastyl of saint An- 
;hony, the Louure, the house of Neele, and the place of Boys de Vynannes: 

WHEN this toune was thus yelded, the kyng of England made capitaine thcr therle of 
Suntyngdon. Fro thence he departed with his army to Corbeil, where the Frenche kyng 
und the two quenes then soiorned, and from thence the. ii. kynges accompanied with the 
dukes of Bedford, Burgoyn, Gloucester and Exceter, and therles of Warwike Salisbury 
and a greate numbre of noble men and knightes set furthe toward Paris, whom the citezens 
in good ordre met without the gates and the Clergy also with solempne processio, al the 
ftretes wer hanged with riche clothes the people in the stretes shouted and clapped handes 
lor ioye, the tvvoo kynges rode together, the kyng of Englande geuyng the vpper hande to 
1 is father inlawe through the greate citee of Paris to our Lady Churche, where after they, 
said there deuocions they departed to their lodgynges, the Frenche kyng to the hous of. 
f 1 ainct Paule, & the kyng of Englande to the Castle of Louure. The next day the twoo, 

Quenes 



THE. VIII. YERE OF 

Queries made their entree into Paris and wer receiued with like solempnite as their hus- 
bandes were the day before. If I should declare to you the greate giftes, the costly pre- 
sentes, the plenty of vitaile that was geuen to the kyng of Englande : or reherse how the 
conduites abundantly spouted out wine of diuers colours, or describe the costly pagiantes, 
the plesant songes or swete armony that wer shewed song and played at diuers places of tie 
citie, or shewe the greate gladnes, the hertie reioysing and the greate delight that the comen 
people had at this concorde and peace finall, I should reherse many thynges that yeu 
would be weried both with the readyng and hearyng. 

DVRYNG the season that these, ii. kynges thus lay in Paris, there was a greate asseble 
called, aswell of the spiritualtie as of the nobilitie in the which the two kynges sat as iudges, 
before whom the Duches of Burgoyn by her proctor appeled the Dolphin and. vii. other for 
the murdre of duke.Ihon her husband. To the whiche appele the cousaill of the other 
part made diuers offers of amendes, aswel of foundaciosof priestes to praie for the solle, as 
recompence of money to the widowe and children, for the finall determinacio wherof the 
kynges toke a farther deliberacion and appoincted a farther day. To the citee of Paris at 
this tyme resorted the three estates of the realme, where euery persone seuerally sware vpd 
the holy Euangelistes to kepe, support, maintein, and defende the treaty and peace finall 
which was concluded betwene the two princes and their counsailes and therto euery noble 
man, spirituall gouernor, and teporall rulers set to their seales, whiche instrumentes wer sent to 
the kynges treasury of his Exchequer at Westminster, sauely to be kept wher they yet remain. 
These two kynges soiornecl in Paris all the feaste of Christmas. The Frenche kyng liyng at 
the hous of S. Paule kept no estate nor open court to no man except his houshold seruauntes 
and men of base estate frequented his hous. But the kyng of Englande and his Quene, 
kepte suche solempne estate, so plentifull a hous, so princely pastyme, and gaue so many 
gyftes that from all partes of Fraunce, noblemen and other resorted to his palice to se his es- 
tate and do hyrn honor. 

THEN the kyng of England toke vpon hym as Regent of Frauce to redresse causes, 
remoue officers, reforme thynges that were a misse, and caused a new coyne to be made 
called the Salute, wherin wer the Armes of Fraunce and the Armes of England and 
Frauce quarterly. And to set all thynges in a quietnes, he constituted sir Gilbert Vmfreuile 
capitain of Melun with a good riumbre of valiant souldiers, and the erle of Huntyngdon 
his cosyn germain was deputed capitain at Boys de Vincens, and the duke of Excester with. 
v.C. menne of warre was assigned to kepe the citee and toune of Paris. When he had thus 
ordered his affaires according to his deuice & ordre, he with the quene his wife his princes 
and nobles departed from Paris and came to the citie of Roan. But before his remouyng, 
he caused proces to be made against Charles called the Dolphyn, comaundyng hym to ap- 
pere at the table of Marble at Paris, where for lacke of aperance he was with all solempnitie 
in suche a cause requisite denounced giltie of the murther and homicide of Ihon late Duke of 
Burgoyue, and by the sentence of the court of parliament he was exiled and banished the 
realme and territories of Fraunce, and depriued of all honores, names, dignities and pre- 
heminences which lie then had or herafter might haue. Wherefore the Dolphyn went into 
Languedoc and after to Poyctiers gettyng to hym suche frendes as he could, and in especiall 
he obteigned so highly the fauor of therle of Arminack that he not onely toke his part, but 
also releued hyni with money, aided hym with men and in his own persone continually 
serued hym against his foes and enemies. 

WHILE Kyng Henry soiorned in the citee of Roan, he receiued homage of all the nobles 
of Normandy: eroogest whom therle of Stafford did homage for thecountie of Perche, and 
Arthur of Britayu did homage for the countie of Ynry, whiche the kyng before had geuen 
to them. He also ordeined 1 his liuetenaunt generall both of Fraunce , and Normandy his 
brother Thomas duke of Clarence, and his deputie in Normandy was the erle of Salisbury. 
When the feast of Christmas (whiche he kepte with all triumphe andsolemptie in his castle 
of Roan) was passed, he with the quene his wife departed from Roan to Amies and so 

came 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 105 

came to Caleis where he toke ship the morow after Candlemas day and landed at Douer, 
and came to Eltham and so through Londo to Westminster. Meruel it is to write but more 
meruel it was to se, with what ioy, what triumphe, what solace and what reioisyng he was 
receiued of all his subiectes, but in especiall of the Lodoners, which for tediousnesse I ouer 
passe. And no doubt Englande had greate cause to reioyce at the coming of suche a noble 
capitain, so valiant a prince and so mightie a conqueror, whiche in so small space and so 
briefe tyme had brought vnder his obeysance the greate & puissant realtne & dominion of 
Fraurice. And first to rendreto God his creator tnoste huble & hertie thankes, he caused 
solempne processions to be obserued & kept. v. daies together in euery citee and toune : 
After that done he made greate purueighance of all thynges necessary for the coronacion of 
his Quene & spouse the faire lady Katheryn, whiche was doen the daie of. s. Mathy the. 
xxiiij. daie of February, on whiche solepne feast she was coueighed on fote betwene. ii. 
bishops vnder a riche canapie fro the greate halle at Westminster to. S. Peters churche, & 
there she was anointed & crouned with al y ceremonies to so great an estate aperteinyng or 
requisite. After which solepnitie ended, she was again with great pope coueighed in to 
Westminster hall & ther set in y throne at the table of marble at the vpper end of the hall : 
whose seruice and solepnite who so list to rede let him ioke on the Chronicle of Robert Fa- 
bia which declareth it at large. 

^ THE NYNTH YERE. 

WHile these thynges were thus dooyng in Englande, the due of Clarence brother to the The - ! - 
kyng and his lieuetenat generall in Fraunce and Normandy, assembled together all the garri- 
sons of Normandy at the toune of Bernay, and from thece departed into the countrie of 
Mayne, and at Fount degene he passed the riuer of Youe and rode through all the Countrie 
to Lucie where he passed the Riuer of Loyre and entered into Aniowe, & came before the 
citee of Angiers where he made many knightes, that is to sale, sir William Rosse, sir Henry 
Godard, sir Rowlad Rider, sir Thomas Beaufforde called the bastard of Clarence and di- 
uerse other, and after that he had forraid, brent, and spoyled the coutrie he returned with 
praie and pillage to the toune of Beaufford in the valey, where he was aduertised that a 
greate numbre of his enemies wer assembled together at a place called Bangle, that is tosaie, 
the duke of Alanson callyng hymself leuetenant generall for the Dolphyn 

Therle of Marche in Auerne. The Lorde Buell. 

Therle of Merle. The Lorde Gaules. 

Therle of Ponthiure. The Lorde of Graueney. 

The Vicount Thomars. The Lorde dela Brete. 

The Vicount Chasteaulerat. The Lorde de la Faiet Marshall io the 

The Vicount Damboyse. Dolphyn. 

The Lorde of Egle. The Baron of Coluces. 

The Bastard of Alanson. The Lorde Danzebost. 

The Bastard de la Marche. The Lorde Vipond Diagosales, capitain 

The Bastard of Vandosme. of the Spaniardes 

The Lorde Champaine. And of the Scotles whiche were late come 

Sir Anthony of Champayne. out of Scotlande to seme the Dolphyn. 

The Lorde of Fountayes. Ihon erle of Boghan and Robert his bio 

The Lorde of Bellay. ther, sonnes to the gouernor of Scot- 

The Lorde Dauerton. lande. 

The Lorde Rarnbures. Archibald Dowglas erle of wigto. 

The Lorde Tanagny de Chastell. Alexader Lynsay brother to theile of 

Sir Ihon Turmyn. Crayford. 

The Lorde Dasse. Sir Thomas Swynton, 

P Sir 



106 ; THE. IX. YERE OF 

Sir William Stuard. Sir Ihon Haliburton. 

Sir Willyam Doglas. Sir Ihon Crawforth. , 

Sir Ihon Turnebull. Sir William Candey. 

Sir Robert Lisle. Sir Ihon Grey. 

Sir William Conningham. ^ Sir Ihon Commyn. 

Sir Alexander Meldryne. Sir Rober Boence. 

Sir Alexander Hume. Sir Archibalt Forbosse. 

Sir Ihon Balglauie. Sir Ducane Comine & many other. 

Sir Willyam Lisle. 

THE duke of Clarence had a Lomberd resorting to hym called Andrewe Forgusa was re- 
tained with the part aduerse, of whom the duke inquired the nubre of his enemies, to who 
he reported that their numbre was but small and of no strength and far vnmete to compare 
with halfe the power of his puissaunt armie, entisyng and prouokyng hym to set on the 
Frenchmen, warratyng hym a famous victory and a faire daie. The duke geuen to muche 
credite to this traytor, like a valiant and coragious prince assembled together all the horsse- 
men of his army and lefte the Archers behynde hym vnder the ordre of the Bastarde of 
Clarence and two Portyngales capitaines of Fresnye le Vicount, saiyng that he onely and 
the nobles would haue the honor of that iorney. When the duke was past a straight and a 
narowe passage, he espied his enemies ranged in good ordre of battaill by the monicion of the 
Lombard w niche had sold hym to his enemies, and thesaid aduersaies had laied suche bushe- 
mentes at the straightes that the duke by no wayes without battaill could ether retire or flie. 
The Englishemen seyng no remedy valiauntly set on their enemies whiche wer foure to one, 
the battail was fierce and the fight dedly, neuer wer so fewe men seen more coragiously to de- 
fend theimselfes then did the Englishemen that daie they fought and defeded, the slewe and 
felled, but it auailed not, for they wer repressed with a multitude and brought to confusion. 
There were slain the duke of Clarence, therle of Tankeruile, the Lorde Rosse, Sir Gilbert 
Vmffreuile erle of Kent, and sir Ihon Lumley, sir Robert Verend and almoste two thou- 
sand Englishemen, and therles of Somerset Suffblke and Perche, the Lorde Fitzwater, sir 
Ihon Barkely, sir Rauffe Neuell, sir Henry luglos, sir Willyam Bowes, sir Willyam Long- 
ton, sir Thomas a Borough and diuerse other taken prisoners, and of the Frenchemen wer 
slain aboue. xij.C. of the best men of warre so that they gained not much. The Bastard of 
Clarence whiche taried at Beauford was enformed of the numbre of the Frenchmen, wherfore 
he with all the Archers made hast to succor the Duke, but they came to late, for the French- 
men, hearyng of the approchyng of the Archers fled with their prisoners with all the hast they 
could, leuyng behynde theim the bodie of thesaid duke and the ded carions. When the ar- 
chers came and sawe their enemies gone : Lorde howe they mourned & lamented the euell 
chance of the deceiued duke, but seyng no remedy, thei tooke the ded bodies and buried 
theim all sauyng the dukes corps, whiche with great solempnitie was sent into Englande and 
buried at Canterbury beside his father. After this the Englishemen brente and spoyled the 
countrie of Mayne and so returned to Alaunson and there departed euery man to his Garrison. 
This battail was fought at Bawgy in Aniow on Easter euen in the yere of our Lorde a thou- 
sande. CCCC. xxij. 

I lament the foly and foolishenes of this duke and I maruell at his vnwitty doyng and 
rashe enterprise, that he would aducnture his life and hazard his compaignie leuyng be- 
hynde hym the Archers whiche should haue been his shilde and defence : What maie be 
said, he desired honor and loste his life, he coueted victory and was ouercome, thus is the 
old prouerbe verified which saieth : If shepe ronne wilfully emongest Wolues they shall lese 
ether life or fell. 

KYNG Henry beyng aduertised of this infortunate chance and deceatfull losse of his 
louyng brother, sent without delaie Edmond erle of Mortaigne and brother to therle 
of Somerset into Normandy, geuyng to hym like authoritee & preheminence as his bro- 
ther the late deceassed duke of Clarence had or enioyed. After that he called his highe 

courte 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 107 

courte of Parliamente, in the which he declared so wisely, so seriously and with so greate 
a grauitie the actes that wer done in the real me of Frauce, the estate of the tyme presente 
and what thynges wer necessary for the tyme to come (if they would looke to haue that 
lewell and high kyngdo for the whiche they had so long laboured and sought for) that the 
comonaltie gladly graunted a fiftene, and the Clergy beniuolently offred adoble dis.me, and 
because no delay should be in the kynges affaires for lacke of paiment, the bishoppe of 
Winchester his vncle lent to hym. xx. M. pounde, to be receiued of the same dismes. When 
all thynges necessary for this voyage wer ready and prepared, he sent his brother Ihon duke 
of Bedford with all his armie (whiche the Frenchmen write to be. iiii. M. men of Armes 
and. xx. M. Archers and other) before hym to Caleis. And he himself shortly after in the 
middle of May passed the seas and arriued there in greate triuphe, where to hym was 
shewed that the Dolphyn with. vii. M. men had besieged the toune of Chartiers whiche was 
manfully defended by the Bastarde of Thyan and other set and apoynted there by the 
duke of Excester. Kyng Henry not myndyng to lose so faire a toune, with all his Armie de- 
parted in good ordre of battaill toward Paris, and at Mostreull there receiued hyrn the duke 
of Burgoin, whiche fro that place attended on the kyng to Dowast in Ponthiew and so came 
to Abbeuile, and after the kyng tooke a toune of sir laques of Harecort called la Ferte, 
and there the duke departed from the kyng for a sixe daies prornisyng on his honour by that 
daie to returne, the kyng of Englande passed forwarde by Beauuoys Gisors, and from 
thence came to Boys de Vincens where he founde the Frenche kyng and his Quene, whom 
he louyngly saluted and they him again honorably receiued and highly feasted, and thel'her 
came accordyng to his appoyntment Philip duke of Burgoyn, where was daily consultyng 
and he wisely deuisyng howe to subdue and represse the haultnes and force of the Dol- 
phyn, hauyng perfight knowledge that as long as he ether liued or wandered vnbrideled so 
long should neuer the treaty and finall peace be obserued, wherefore he and the duke of 
Burgoyn apoynted in all the haste to fight with the Dolphyn and to reise the siege before 
Charters. The kyng of Englande with all his puyssaunce came to the toune of Naunte, 
and thether repaired the duke of Burgoyn with. iiii. M. men, of whose commyng the king 
was not a litle reioysed,. but or they from thence departed, they had knowledge arid true 
instruccion that the Dolphyn heryng of the puissant army of the kyng, approchyng to geue 
hym battail, was reculed with his people toward Towers in Towrayne. Wherfore the kyng 
of England incontinent, not onely sent the duke of Burgoyn into Picardy to resist the 
malice of sir laques Harcort whiche daily inferred war and caused wast & destruccio in 
the same coutrie, but also apointed lames kyng of Scottes to lay siege to the toune of 
Driex, whiche so sore by sworde and engins enforced the inhabitantes that after sixe wekes 
passed, they deliuered thesame to the kyng of Scottes, to the behofe of kyng Henry his 
souereigne Lorde whiche made there of capitain the erle of Worcester and baily there, sir 
Henry Mortimer. The king himself remoued from Naut and passed ouer the riuer of 
Leyre, folowyng the Dolphyn toward Tours: but he mistrustyng his power and puttyng dif- 
fidece in some of his owne flocke fled to Burges in Berrie, and chosyng that place as his 
chiefe refuge and surest fortresse bothe for the situacion of the place and also for the fideli- 
tie and constancie of the people, determined there to tary till fortune would turne her whele 
and loke on hym with some gracious looke or louyng countenaunce, and therfore in a lest 
he was comonly called the kyng of Burges and of Berries. The kyng of England with all 
his puissance so fast folowed the fliyng Dolphyn, that vitail began to faile, and horssemen 
waxed scante: so that he consideryng that Burges beeyng the Dolphyns onely succoure and 
refuge, beeyng well vitailed and well manned was more profitable and auailable to the de- 
fender, then to hym that should make the assaute, wherfore he willyng to sane his people 
from famyne whom he knewe to be from the dente of the Frenche sworde clerely exempt 
and vntouched, returned ouer the riuer of Leyre and gat Gasconeis vpon Youne, and a 
toune called the kynges Newe toune, and diuerse other whose names nowe to reherce were 
more tedious then pleasaunt. But he seyng the toune of Meaux in Brye not to bee a toune 

P2 re- 



108 THE. X. YERE OF 

replenished with enemies, in the middest of his new gotten subiectes determined to take 
away the open scruple whiche might poyson and infecte the membres dwellyng hard by, 
wherfore he with these nobles folowyng besieged the said citeeof Meaux. 

Therle of Worcester. The Lorde Ferreis of Chartley. 

Therle of Yury. Tlie Lorde Botreux. 

Therle of Bravon. The Lorde Clynton. 

The Lorde Clifford. The Lorde Harryngton. 

The Lorde Forniuall. The Lorde Willoughby. 

The Lorde Louell. . The Lorde Fitzhewe, the kynges Cham- 

The Lorde Awdely. berlaine. 

The Lorde Seynt Mawre. Sir Ihon Germayne. 

The Lorde Deyncort. Sir Ihon Fastolffe. 

The Lorde Zouche. Sir Lewes Robsert. 

The Lorde Morley. Sir Willyam Gascoyn. 

The Lorde Fanhope and his sonne whiche Sir Robert Harlyng. 

died there. Sir Willia Philip & diuerse other. 

THIS toune was no lesse vitailed then manned, and no better manned then fortified, so 
that the kyng of Englande could nether haue it to hym deliuered at his pleasure, nor he 
could not gayne it by assaut without his greate losse and detriment Wherfore he determi- 
ned not to depart til he had ether gained or subuerted the toune. Duryng this siege was 
borne at Wynsore on the dale of. S. Nicholas in Nouember the kynges sonne called Henry, 
whose Godfathers were Ihon duke of Bedford and Henry bishop of Wynchester, and 
laquet Duches of Holad was Godmother, wherof the kyng of England was certefied liyng 
at this siege of Meaux. Whe he was aduertised of this good fortune and happie chaunce 
that God had sent him a sonne, he gaue thankes to his Creator or redemer for the geuyng to 
hym so goodly an ympe which should succede in his croune & scepter. But when he heard 
reported the place of his natiuitie, whether he fantasied some old blind prophesy, or had 
some foreknowledge, or els Judged of his sones fortune, he sayd to the lord Fitzheugh his 
trusty Chamberlein these wordes. My lorde, I Henry borne at Monmoth shall small tyme 
reigne & much get, & Hery borne at Wyndsore shall long reigne and al lese, but as God 
will so be it. After the quene of England was thus deliuered of her faire sonne she re- 
turned into Fraunce firste to her husbande, and after to her father and mother where she was 
on all partes so honorably receiued, so louyngly entertained and so highly feasted that she 
appeared to be no lesse loued of her noble husbande then of her naturall parentes. 

f THE TENTH YERE. 

xhc. x. DVYyng the tyme of this siege, sir Oliuer Manye a valiant man of warre of the Dol- 
phyns part, whiche before was capitain of the Castle of Faloys and yeldyng it by composi*- 
cion, sware neuer to bere Armure against the kyng of England, assembled a great nuna- 
bre of men of warre aswell of Britons as Frenchemen, that is to saie : The lorde Mount- 
burchicr, the lorde of Coynon, the lorde of Chastelgiron, the lorde Tyntignace, the 
lorde Dela Howssay and diuerse other whiche entered into the coutree of Constantino 
in Normandy, and robbed and killed the Englishmen where thei might ether espie or 
take theim at their auauntage: but therle of Suffolk keper of those Marches hearyng of 
their doynges, sent for the lorde Scales, sir Ihon Aston bayly of Constantine, Sir Wil- 
lyam Halle, t>ir Ihon Banaster and many other out of the Garrisons within that terri- 
tory, whiche encountered with their enemies at a place called It Parke Leuecgue in 
English the bishops Parke, ther was a sore and a long fight, many a propre feate of 
Armes was done that daie and many a man was in that place ouerthrowen, the Englishmen 
onely desired victory, and the Frenchmen desired a safe returne, but in cdclusion the French- 
men beyng not able to withstand the charge that was laied to them began to flic, in which 
conflict and flight wer slain, the lorde Coynon, the lorde of Castell Giron, and three hun- 
dred 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 105 

dred other and there wer taken prisoners, the lorde Dela Howsay and sir Oliuer Manny 
and. Ix. other. The kyng being aduertised of this good chance and happy iorney, sent sir 
Oliuer Manny to hym liyng before Meux, to whom he saied, faire father you haue sworne 
and promised vnto vs that you would neuer make war nor beare armure against vs nor our 
subiectes, ye are an ancient knight and ought to haue kept your faith and promise, whiche 
you haue vntruly and vnhonestly broken and violate, and yet we wolle not (although by the 
lawe of armes we might lawfully so dooe) put you to death but graunt to you your life, but 
we wolle sende you into Englande to lerne you to speake Englishe, and so shortly after he 
was sent to London where for very shame & mere Malyncoly he died and was buried in the 
White Friers. 

THE Scottes write (beleue theim if ye will) that the kyng of England hearyng that the 
Dolphyn had sent for aide into Scotland and that he had retained theim in wages (for of 
their owneabilitie they bee nether able to send an army ouer the sea, nor yet of substaunce 
to beare a continual! warre, for this all their owne histories declare and their Chronicles 
make mencion, and yet the countrie is not so poore but the people be as proude) sent one 
daie for lames the Scottishe kyng and in the presence of his cofisaill declared to hym .vhat 
humanite, what fauor and what synguler affection kyng Henry his father bare duryng his 
naturall life toward thesaid kyng of Scottes: Puttyng hym in remembraunce of the great 
loue and manifold gratuites which he himself sithe the beginnyng of his reigne had exhi- 
ted and shewed to the same kyng lames, that neither he nor his father had any thyng neg- 
ligently omitted whiche ether might apperteigne to the office of a frcnd or to the dutie 
of a tutor whiche should loue and cherishe his Orphane or pupile, promisyng hynt 
libertie with a greate rewarde if he would cause the Scottes whiche wer adherentes to the 
Dolphin to returne again into their countree and natiue region. To the whiche request the 
kyng of Scottes with a veryfreshe herte answered saiynjr: what your noble father hath done 
to me & what fauor & benefite I haue receiued at your handes, I shall not nor will not 
when I maie (I assure you) forget, and when my power shall serue I shall not faile to re- 
compence your dooynges with like kyndnes. But of your request I maruell not alitle, first 
consideryng that I am a prisoner and haue no possession of my realme, secodairely that I 
am as yet nether sworne to my subiectes, nor they by no oth of allegeance are bofid to 
obey my comaundemetes: wherfore I desyrc you no more to moue me in this thyng which 
BOW I canot do, & yet if I might I would fyrst forese whether it wer to me honorable oc 
to my realme honest to leue our old frend in his extreme necessitie without ayd or cofojt. 
With this answer the kyng of England was not cotent (as the Scottes say), but after kinw- 
lames departing fro his presence, kyng Henry saied, happy shall they bee whiche shalbe sub- 
iectes to suche a kyng that is endued with suche wit and wisedome at these yongycres of a^e.. 

THE kyng of England liyng styl before the toune of Meux in Brye as you haue heard 
sore bet the walles with ordinance & cast dounebulwarkes and rampeyres on euery syde of 
the toune, and sore oppressed them within the toune, wherof hearyng the lord of Ofiemond, 
with a copany of chosen persons set by the dolphyn, came priuely in the night to the walles- 
anS set vp a ladder and diuers of his company mounted vp and entred into the toune, and as 
he passed ouer a plancketo come to the walles he fell into a deepe ditche, the Englishemen. 
hearyng this noyse ranne to the ditche where they toke the lord of Ofmount & sle\ve diuers- 
of his company whiche stode at defence. The capitaine within the toune perceiuymr 
that their succours were taken, playnely iudged that the toune could not long continue, 
wherfore they caused all the goodes of the toune to be conueighed into the market place, 
which was strong and well fortefied. The kyng of England beyng therof aduertised, co- 
maunded in all hast to geue an assault to the toune, whiche was quickly done, so that the 
toune by fine force was within thre houres taken & spoyled. And the same day the kyng, 
besieged round about the sayd Marketplace, and toke the mylle adioynyng to" the same*? 
The capitaines perceiuyng in what case they were, fearyng to be taken by assault, began to- 
treat with the kyng of Englande, whiche appointed the earle of Warwike and the lord Hun- 
ger ford; 



MO THE. X. YERE OF 

.gerford to comen with them & in conclusicion a treaty was taken, and so the toune and Mar- 
ketplace with all the goocies, were deliuered into the kyng of Englandes handes the. x. day 
<of May, in the yere of our lord M.CCCC.xxii. 

WHEN the deliuery of the strong toune of Meaux was puhlished thorough the coun- 
trey, al the tounes and fortresses in the Isle of Fraunce, in Lannoys, in Brye, and in Cham- 
paine yelded them selues to the kyng of England, which appointed in them valeant capi- 
taines and hardy souldiours. 

AFTER that kyng Henry had thus taken and possessed the toune of Meaux and other 
fortresses at his pleasure, he returned againe to Boys de Vyncennes where he founde the 
French kyng & the queue & his wife which with all ioye him receiued, and so the. xxx. 
day of May beyng the vigile of Pentecost, the. ii. kynges and the quenes returned to Paris, 
wher the kyng of Englad lodged in the castle of Loure, and the Frenche kyng in the house of 
sainctPaule. These two kynges kept great estate with their quenes at this high feast of Pen- 
ticost, but the kyng of England (as Enguerant both confesseth & diuers other sayth) kept 
such a glorious estate and so costly a court that he with his quene sat at diner in Paris 
richly adorned in vestures and with dyademes of gold garnished with precious stones & decked 
with luelx bothe radiant & pleasant: beside this his princes & estates, barons, chief capitaines, 
& valiant men of warre wer set in solempne estate plenteously serued and aboundantly 
feasted, that the people of Paris whiche thither resorted to behold his magnificat estate, 
Judged him to be more like an emperor, then their kyng (which sat ^solitary alone) to be like 
a duke or a poore Marques. But Enguerant (as I sayd) although he confessed the truth, 
yet goeth he about to blemishe the glory of king Henry, allegyng that Englishemen were 
feasted and the Parisians were not once bid drinke, whiche was not the custome of the 
Frenche kinges court in so solempne and triumphant daies. I am somwhat sory that kyng He- 
ries seruantes of the seller made not master Enguerant drinke, which then was skoler in Pa- 
ris, but I more lament y vntrue saiyng & no lesse variable writyng of so famous a clerke 
whiche to darken the honor of kyng Henry hath clearely defased the princely estate of his 
owne kyng & soueraigne lorde, for he confesseth that kyng Charles with his quene kept a so- 
lemne house within his court of saint Paul, to whose palice no man in maner resorted, 
but euery French creature was ioyus to view and se the estate and magnificence of kyna 
Henry. If he haue written true, then must this nedes folow that no subiect reioysyng or 
hauyng comfort of their owne prince and natural lord wyll leue him desolate & alone, and 
folowe a straung potestatand seke relief at a forein princes house and table. If the French- 
men came to wonder at the estate of the kyng of England, then was their princes estate 
base and not worthy to be regarded : if the Parisiens came to se the princely ordre of his hous- 
hold, then was it manifest that their soueraigne lord kept but a mean family: if the poore 
peisantes came thither for vitaile and fragmentes it appeareth that their soueraigne lord had 
a cold kychyn: if they did not all drinke in the kyng of Englandes house, either they were 
to euil ruled or to vile & lothsome to haue any gentle entertainment in so honorable a court 
and noble a family, and therefore Enguerat because he drankenot, euill reported the estate 
of the English court as he comonly doth in al other matters. 

THE dolphyn knowyng by his espials wher the kyng of Englad & his power lay, came 
with al his puissance ouer the riuer of Leyre and besieged the toune of Cosney or Conny 
and sent parte of his arm to waste and destroye the confines of the duchy of Burgoyne, to 
the entent to deuide the power of the kyng of Englande from the strength and force of the 
duke of Burgoyn, and as he purposed, so it happened for the duke of Burgoyn with his pow- 
er to set forwarde to defend his owne lande & dominion and wrote to the kyng of England 
to send ayd to the of Cosney or Conney, whiche had promised to rendre their toune to the 
dolphyn, if they wer not rescued by the kyng of England within, x. daies. Kyng Henry 
hearyng this newes answered that he would not send one creature, but he would go before 
him selfe. And so withal diligence came to the toune of Corbel and so to Senlys, where, 
whither it were with the heate of the ayre, or that he with his daily labor were febled or 

6 weakened, 



.KYNG HENRY THE. V. ill. 

weakened, he began to wax sick.e, ye and so sicke that he was constrained to tary and to send 
his brother the duke of Bedford to perfonne his iorney and enterprise. 

THE duke like a valiant capitayne set forwarde to reskue the toune besieged, wherof hear- 
yng the dolphyn with al his capitaines & hardy souldiours departed thence into Barrey to his 
great dishonor and lesse gaine, & so was the cytie of Cosney or Coney reskued to the 
great honor of the Englishe nacion. In the meane season kyng Henry wexed sicker and. 
sicker and so was layd in a horselitter and conueighed to Boys de Vyncens to whom shortly 
after repaired the dukes of Bedforde and Gloucester his vncles, and the erles of Salsbury 
and Warwike, who the kyng louyngly entertained and embrased: and whe they seyng him. 
in so great an agony and excedyng payne began to wepe and bewaile his paineful paines 
and greuous malady, He with a constant inynde without any outward shewe either of 
sadde countenaunce or sorowe comforted and encouraged them to be mery and ioyous. 
But when the crisis of his sicknes was past and that he perceiued that hellh was ouercome 
and had lost the victory, he rendred to God his most heartie thankes, for that chiefly that 
he called him out of this miserable life at suche tyme when he was of most perfite remem- 
braunce bothe towarde God and the world and also in the time of his florishyng coquest, 
in the whiche he had neuer receiued misfortune, euil chance, or spot of dishonor : And 1 
turning him self to his brethren and other noble personages sayd to them. My natural 
brethren and trusty fredes, I se you lament, I perceiue you bewaile my death approchyng 
and fatall ende at hand of the whiche I am both glad and reidyce, for this short tyme and 
smal tract of my mortal life, shal be a testimony of my strength, a declaracio of my lus- ' rc '"' 
tice, and a settyng furth of all myne actes and procedynges, and shall be the cause that I 
by death shal obteine fame, glorye and renoume, and escape the reprehension of coward- . 
nes, and the mote of all infamy, whiche I might haue chaunsed to falle into if nature had j 
lenger prolonged my life or daies: for it is commonly sayd, that as tyme chaungeth, condi- ' 
cions alter, and in long time al thinges continue not in one estate. But as eternitie is the 
triumpher vpo tyme, so do- 1 trust after this short life to haue an eternal beyng, and after 
this miserable pilgrimage, mine hope is to enioy the celestial kyugdome, and to come to 
the place of rest and palice of quietnes. 

NOWE as touchyng you (no doubt but this my sodaine chaunce molesteth your heartes 
and disquieteth your senses, and not without a cause, you lament the calamitie mid mis- 
chaunce that is like to fall on your countrey because that 1 in this troublous worlde and 
tempestious season Icue you destitute of a gouernour and ruler whiche chance is the lesse 
to be moned and regarded, because in all worldly thynges some thing euer lacketh and 
nothing long endureth: wherfore because the olde saiyng is, that in tyme of necessitie wit 
and wysedome be proued, I require you to consult, study and take paine to come to the 
ende of the iorney whiche I in my tyme haue begon and entered in, & chiefly because I 
haue euer loued and trusted you aboue all other persons, I require and desire you nowe- 
to shewe like loue and be as trusty to my sone that shalbe your soueraigne lord, so that 
whatiioeuer duty, allegiance or fauor for my liberalitie or kindnes to you shewed, was to* 
me either of honestie or ciuilitie due or owyng : let the same for rny sake be extended, shew- 
ed and recompensed to mine heyre & successor litle prince Henry. Some persons haue 
hated the father & yet haue loued the child and some haue loued the father and numbered 
the child, of which sort I neither reken nor accompt you, but this I say, if you loue me, 
you ought to loue my child, not for his desert, but for myne, and sith now I shalbe taken, 
from you before satisfactio or recompence made to me for my manyfolde goodnes and ample 
benefites to you shewed in my life I say & affirme that after my death (excepte you be noted; 
with the blot of ingratitude, I will not say vntrueth) you ought to render the same to my 
child your nephue or kynsman, I pray God that you do not defraud me^ of the good e*- 
pectacion that I haue euer had of you. And because I will not charge you, I wyl frendly 
exhort you to bryng vp my lytle infant in vertuous liuyng, moral doctrine, and prudentv 
pollicye to thentent that by your paine he may proue wise, by your, instruction, he may. 

prou* 



1!2 THE. X. YERE OF 

prone pollitike and by your ethicacion he may be able to rule a kingdome, and not to be 
ruled of other: by the which deuoier you shall not onely do your dutie to your prince and 
soueraigne lorde, but also meriteand deserue thankes of your natiuecountrey to the which 
you be both bound and obliged. Beside this my peticion is not onely to cofort my most 
Herest and welbeloued quene and espouse now beyng (as I thinke, the most dolorus and 
pensiue woma liuyng) but also to loue her and honor her as I haue both loued and honored 
you. 

AND as touching the estate of my realmes, Fyrst I c5maund you to loue and ioyne 
-together in one leage or concord and in one vnfained ainitie, kepyng continual peace and 
ainitie with Philip duke of Burgoyn. And neuer make treatie with Charles that calleth 
him selfe dolphyn of Vyen, by the whiche any part either of the croune of Fraunce or of 
the duchies of Normandy or Guyan may be appaired or diminished. Let the duke of Or- 
leance and the other princes styl remaync prisoners til my sone come to his lawful age, lest his 
returning home again may kindle more fier in one day then may be well quenched in thre. 
If you thinke it necessary I would my brother Vmfrey should be Protector of England 
duryng the minoritie of my child, prohibiting him once to passe out of the realme. And my 
brother of Bedford with the helpe of the duke of Burgoyne I wyll shall rule and be regent 
of the realme of Fraunce, comaundyng him with fyre and sworde to persecute Charles call- 
yng him selfe dolphyn, to thentent either to bryng him to reason & obeysaunce, or to dryue 
and expel him out of the realme of Fraunce admonishyng you to lese no tyme, nor to spare 
ilo cost in recoueryng that whiche to you is now offered. And what thynges either I haue 
gotten or you shal obtaine, I charge you kepe it, I comaund you to defend it, and I desire 
you to norishe it : for experience teacheth that there is no lesse praise to be geue to the ke- 
per then to the getter, for verely gettyng is a chaunce and kepyng a wit. Wei I fele that 
cLath draweth neare & I shal not long tary, therfore, I comit my solle to God, my loue 
to my frendes, my sinnes to the deuil and my body to the earth. 

THE noblemen present promised to obserue his preceptes and performe his desires, but 
their heartes were so pensiue & replenished with doloure that one without wepyng could 
not beholdc the other. Then he sayd the seuen Psalmes and receiued the blessed Sacra- 
ment, and in saying the Psalmes of the passion completed his dayes and ended his life the 
last day of August, in the yere of our lord. M.CCCC.xxii. 
Thcdiscrip- Til IS Henry was a kynjr whose life was immaculate & his liuyng without spot. This kymj 

tionotkvng . J , ii n i i o e i- j M-L- 

Hemythe. w ^s a prince whom all men loued ot none disdained. Ihis prince was a capitame against 
*' whom fortune neuer frowned nor mischance once spurned. This capitaine was a shepherde 

whom his flocke loued and louyngly obeyed. This shepherd was such a Justiciary that no 
offece was vnpunished nor friendship vnrewardecl. This iusticiary was so feared, that all 
rebellion was banished and sedicion suppressed, His vertues were nomore notable then his 
qualities were worthy of place, for in strength and agilitieof bodye fr5 his youth fewe were 
to him coparable : for which cause in wrestlyng, leapyng and runnyng no man almoste 
durst with him presume, in castyng of great yron barres and heuy stones, he excelled co- 
monly all men. No coldemade him slouthfull, 'nor heat caused him to loyter, and when he 
most labored his head was vncouered. He was no more wery of harnesthen of alight cloke. 
Hunger and thirst were not to him noysome. He was neuer aferde of a wounde nor 
neuer sorowed for the paine. He neither turned his nose from euill sauoure, nor fro smoke 
or dust he would not close his eyes. No man could be founde more temperate in eatyng and 
drinkyng, whose diete was not to delicate, but rather mete for men of warre than for vir- 
gyns Enery honest person was permitted to come to him sittyng at his mele, and either secretly 
or openly to declare his mynd and intent. High and weightie causes aswel betwene men of 
warre & other he wold gladly hear, and either determined the him selfe or comitted the to 
other to geue sentence. He slept very lytle and that onely by reason of bodely labour & 
vnquietncs of mynde, fro the whiche no small noyse could awake him, insomuche that when 
his soukliers either sang in the nightes or their minstreles played that all the campe sodded of 

1 their 



KYNG HENRY THE. V. 113 

their noyse, he then slept most solidly. His courage was so constant and his heart so vnnut- 
tuble that lie cast away al feare, and dread fro him was banished. If any alarum wer made 
by his enemies, he was fyrst in arm n re and the fyrst that would set forward. In the time of 
war he gat knowledge, not onely what his enemies did, but what they sayd and entended, so 
that al thynges to him were knowcn, & of his deuices few persons before the thing was at the 
point to be done should he made priuie. He had such knowledge in orderyng and guyd- 
yng an armve and suche a grace in encouragyng his people, that the Frenchmen sayd he 
could not be vaquishcd in battel. lie had suche wit suche prudence and suche pollicie that he 
neuer enterprised any thyng before he had fully debated it and foresene al the mayne chaunccs 
that might happen : and when the end was concluded, he with all diligence and courage set his 
purpose forward. Marueilcit is to heare howe he beyng a prince of honor, a prince of youth, 
a prince of riches, did continually abstain fro lasciuious liuyng & blynd auarice, yea, & in the 
time of losse he was no more sad then in the tyme of victory, which constacy few men haue 
or can vse: Suche a stable stornacke had he and such a grauitie was geuen in the bottc-rne of 
his heart. What pollicy he had in findyng sodaine remedies for present mischiefes, and what 
practice he vsed in sauyng him selfe and his people in sodaine distresses excepte by his actes 
they did plainly appeare, I thinke it were almost a thyng incredible. What should I speakc 
of his bountefulnes and liberalitie no man could be more gentle, more liberal nor more free 
in geuyng rewardes to al persones according to their desertes: Saiyng that he had leuer dye 
the to be subiect to au^-ice, and that he neuer desired to haue money to kepe, but to geue 
and spend. He was mercyful to offenders, charitable to the nedy, indifferent to al men, 
faithful to his fredes, and fierce to his enemies, toward God most deuout, toward the world 
moderate, and to his realme a very father. What should I say, he was the blasyng comete ' 
and apparent lanterne in his daies, he was the mirror of Christendome & the glory of his 
conntrey, he was the floure of kynges passed, and a glasse to them that should succede. No 
Emperor in magnanimitie euer him excelled. No potentate was more piteous nor lordc more 
bounteous. No prince had lesse of this subiectes and neuer kyng coquered more : whose lame 
by his death as liuely florisheth as his actes in his life wer sene and rcmembred. When his death 
was published among the comen people, incotinet their heartes wer appaulled and their cou- 
rages abated, their dolor so tnuche encreased & their wittes were so muche troubled that they 
like mad men rent their garmentes and tare their heere, accusyng and blamyng fortune which 
had taken away from them so precious aiewel, so noble an ornament & so sure a defence: for 
no doubt as much hope as was taken awaye fro the Englishmen, for the gettyng of Fraunce by 
his sodain death, so much trust was encreased in the stomackes of the Frenche nacion, hopyng 
to recouer their aucientlibertieahd old parentage. For whiche cause some say that he was 
poysoned, the Scottes write that he died of the disease of s. Fiacre, whiche is a palsey & a 
crape. Enguerant sayeth that he died of S. Anthonies Fier, but al these be but fables as 
many mo write. For Peter Basset esquire which at the time of his death was hisrhriberlaiu 
affirmeth that he died of a Plurisis whiche at that tyme was so rare a sickenes and so straug a 
disease that the name was to the most part of men vnknowen & phisicions wer acquainted as 
lytle with any remedy for the same, and therfore euery ma iudged as he thought, and named 
a sickenes that he knew, shotyng not nere the pricke nor vnderstandyng the nature of the- 
- disease. This kyng reigned, ix. yeres. v. moncthes and. xxiii. dayes & lined not ful. xxxviii. 
yeres : he was of stature more then the comen sort, of body lene, wel mebred & strogly 
made a face beautiful somwhat long necked, black heered, stout of stomake, eloquent of 
tong, in rnarcial affaires a very doctor, & of al chiualry the very Paragone, His body was 
enbautned & closed in lede & layde in a charet royal richely apparelled with cloth of gold, 
vpon the corps was layd a representacion of his person adorned with robes, diademe, scep- 
ter & bal like a kyng, the which charet was drawe with. vi. horses richely trapped with se- 
ueral armes, the fyrst with the armes of S. George, the. ii. with tharmes of Normandy, the. 
iii. with the armes of kyng Arthur, the. iiii. with the armes of S. Edward, the fift with the 
armes of Fraimce enely, and the sixt with the armes cf England and Fraunce, On this Charet 

Q gaue 



114 THE. I. YERE OF 

gaue attendance lames kyng of Scottesthe principal morner, the duke of Exceter Thomas his 
vncle, therle of Warwike Richard, therle of Marche Edmond, therle of Stafford Humfrey, the 
earle of Mortaine EdmondeBeauft'ord, the lord Fitzhugh Henry, the lord Hungerford Water, 
sir Lewes Robsert Burchier, sir Ihon Cornewale lord Fahope, and the lord Crumwel wer the 
other morners. The lord Louel, the lord Audcly, the lord Morly, the lord Souche bars the 
baners of sainctesand the Baron of Dudley bare the standerd&c therle of Longuile bare the baner. 
The Hatchementes \ver borne onely by capitaines to the nobre of. xii. and roud about the 
charet rode. CCCCC. me of armes al in blacke harnes their horses barded blacke with 
the but of their speres vpward. The coduit & ordre of al this dolorous dole was comaiided 
to sir Willia. Philip treasorer of the kynges houshold and to sir Wyllia Porter his chief car- 
uer and other. Beside this, on euery syde of the charet went. CCC, persons holdyng long 
torches, and lordes bearyng baners, banerols & penons. With this funeral pompe he was 
conueighcd from Boys de Vyncens to Paris and so to Roan, to Abbeuile, to Caleys, to Do- 
ucr and so thorough London to Westminster, where he was buried with suche solernpne ce- 
remonies, suche mournyng of lordes, such praier of priestes, suche lamentyng of com- 
mons as neuer was before that day sene in the realme of Englande. 

Shortly after this solempnitie, his sorowful quene returned into England and kept her es- 
tate with the yong kyng her sone. Thus ended this noble and puissant prince his most noble 
& fortunate reigne ouer the realme of England: whose life although cruel Atropos before his 
tyme abbreuiated, yet neither fyre, rust, nor frettyng tynne shal amongest Englishmen ether 
appall his honoure or obliterate his glorye whiche in so fewe yeres and brief dayes achiued so 
bighaduentures and made so great a conquest. 

If The ende of the victorious actes of kyng Henry the fift. 



THE TROBLEOUS SEASON OF KYNG 
HENRY THE SIXT. 

The,i.yK. TTVEath the determinate end of mannesh'fe, and of all yearthly thynges the finall poynfr 
JLJ and pricke, whiche fauoureth nether Emperour nor spareth kyng, but at his plesure 
confoundeth riche and slaieth poore, rnbodiyng the solle of this godly prince this marcial 
capitain and renoumed flower, not onely dismaied and appalled the hertes and corages of 
the Englishe nacion, but also pufte vp and encoraged the myndes and stomackes of the 
Dolphyn and his proude people: The one parte thynkyng, the kepyng of Normandy and 
other dominions to hym gayned to bee vry dangerus, The other part trustyng the farther 
coquest in Frauce not onely to be doubtful), but to their iudgementes apparantly impos- 
sible : Yet the politike Princes and sage Magestrates of the realme of England well remem- 
bryng thynges that vver passed, and sagely ponderyng the tyme present, but moste of all 
prudently iorseyng chaunces iminent and perels at hand, to thentent to set the membres of 
the body stedfast vnder the hedde, -Whiche as shepe without a sheperd far from the folde 
might wandre and straie at large, caused yong prince Henry, the sole orphane of his noble 
parent kyng Henry the fifth, beyng of the age of. ix. moaethes o there about with the 

sound 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 115 

f*- *' 

sound of trumpettes openly to be proclaimed kyng of Englande and of Fraunce the. xxx. 
daie of August, in the yere of our lorde. M. cccc. xxii. by the name of kyng Ilcry the 
sixt, to the great reioysyng and comfort of all the Englishe nacion. 

AND the custody of this young prince was apoyncted to Thomas duke of Excester, and 
to Henry Beaufforcl bishopp of Wynchester: the duke of Bedford was deputed to be Re- 
gent of Fraunce, and the duke of Gloucester was assigned Protector of Englande. Whiche 
takyng vpon hym that office, least paraduenture he might herafler repent his actes and 
doynges, as a man remembryng other and forgettyng hymself, called to hym wise andgraue 
counsailers, by whose aduise he prouided and ordeined for all thynges whiche ether re- 
dounded to the honor of the realme, or seined profitable to the publique welth of the same. 
And when he had set in an ordre al matters concernyng the inward affaires of the realme 
of Englande, he prouided farther all thynges necessary and conuenicnt for war re and far- 
ther conquest in Fraunce, and appoyncted valiant expert capitaines whiche should be 
ready when oportunitie of tyme required. Beside this, he gathered great somes of money 
to maintein the men of warre, and left nothyng forgotten that might let or hynder his pur- 
posed enterprise. 

WHILE these thynges were thus deuised within the realme of Englande, the duke of 
Bedforde Regent of Fraunce, no Icsse studied then toke payne, not onely to kepe and or- 
dre the countrees and regions by kyng Henry late coquered and gained, but also deter- 
mined not to leue of from daily warre and continuall trauaille till the tyme that Charles the 
Dolphyn (whiche was now a flote, because kyng Charles his father in the moneth of Octobre 
this present yere, was departed to God,) wer ether subdued or brought to dewe obeysance. 
And surely the deth of this kyng Charles caused many alterations & chaunges in the realme 
of Fraunce, fora greate parte of the nobilitee whiche ether for feare of the puissance of the 
Englishemen, or for to please and folowe the mynde and appetite of Charles the Frenche 
kyng, toke parte with kyng Henry against the Dolphyn: Heryng now of the French kynges 
death, returned from the English part and adioyned themsclfes to the companie of the Dol- 
phyn, and diligently studied how to vanquishe and dryue awaie the Englishe nacion out of 
the territory of Fraunce. 

THE Duke of Bedford beeyng greatly moued with these sodaine chaunges, fortified his 
tonnes bothe with Garrisons and municions, and assembled together a great armie bothe of 
Englishmen and Normans, to whom he made a long oracion, admonishyng them to obserue 
and kepe their othe & faith (whiche thei had made to the late kyng Henry and his heires) 
inuiolatc and vnbroken, willyng them in no wise to be the occasioners or counsaiiers that 
young kyng Henry should be depriued from his fathers lawful inheritance, by the hatred of 
certayne traitors Frenchemen which had renewed the old hatred byyng of late extinct betwene 
the realmes of Englande and of Fraunce, and studied to set all thynges again in a broylc: 
requiryng them also to call to their memory how that the realmes of Englande and of 
Fraunce, thetwoo moste famous regios of all Europe, by the benifite of almightie God, wer 
of late so vnited connexed & ioyned together in an eternall league and composicion, and .so 
strogly established that no worldly power wer able or of puissaunce sufficient, to resist or 
withstande the malice of the same: And although sometymes by chauncc of warre the losse 
n)ighte turne on their part, yet in conclusion the detriment should be recouered and a sur- 
plusage gayned. And if (according to their bounden duties) they would honor seruo and 
loue young kyng Henry their soneraigne lorde, and would diligently persecute & set on hi* 
enemies, thei should not onely shewe thcselfes true and faithful'l subiectes to their true and 
vndoubted kyng: But also should for their fidelitie and good seruice receiue of hym condigne 
rewardes, ouer and beside immortall fame and renoune. 

THIS exhortacion staled the hertes of many of the Frenche capitaines, whiche wiilyngly 
sware to Kyng Henry feaultie and obedience by whose example the comonaltie did thesame. 
Thus all the people set in an ordre in the realrne of Fraunce, nothyng was rnynded but 
warre and nothyng was spoken of but of conquest. The Dolphyn whiche lay at this tyme in 

Q 2 tint 



116' THE. II. YERE OF 

the citee of Poytiers heryng of the death of his parent had his herte mixed bothe with ioye 
and sorowe: for notwithstandyng that he was sorowfull as a naturall child which lamented 
the death of his father, yet he wasioyous that power & princely estate was now to hyin hap- 
pened by the whiche he iudged that he should be the nflore able to defend his enemies and re- 
couer more frendes: socallyng together the Princes of his faccion, caused hymself to bee 
proclamed Kyng of France by the name of Charles the. vij. And the beyng in good hope of 
recoueryng his patrimony & expellyng his emnies, with a haut corage prepared war & as- 
sembled together a great armie, and first the war began by light skirmishes, but after it pro- 
ceded into main battailes. 

THE Dolphyn thynkyng not to make long delayes in so greate a cause, lest the power of 
his enemies might daily be augmented, sent the lorcle Grauile to the toune of Fount Me- 
lance stadyng on the riuer of Seyne, whiche so sodainiy came, to thcsame that he was on the 
walles or the souldiors within heard of his approche, and so he toke the toune and si ewe a 
greate nombre of the Englishe souldiors. When the Reget of Fraunce was aduertised of 
this sodain enterprise, he apoyncted the Lorde Thomas Montaculc erle of Salisbury, a 
nmnne bothe for his greate pollicie and haute corage more to be compared to the old valiant 
Romans then to men of his daies, accoropaignied with the erle of Suffolke, the lorde Scales, 
the yong lorde Pounynges, sir Ihon Fastolffe master of the houshold with thesaid lorde Re- 
gent, and diuerse other to besiege the toune of Pont Melance, which after two monetheswas 
rendered to thesaid erle, and the lorde of Grauile sware to be trew to the Kyng of Englandc 
euer after that dale, but shortly after he forgettyng his othe returned to his old master again. 
The erle of Salisbury apoynted sir Henry Mortimer and sir Richard Vernoti to be capitaines 
of that toune. And from thence departed into Champaignie and ther besieged the toune of 
Sens and toke sir Guillam Maryn the capitain and slewe all the souldiors within the toune, 
and made there capitains sir Hugh Geddyng and sir Richard awbemond. 

THE Parisians whiche euer like the Wethercockebe variable and inconstant, perceiuyng 
that the Dolphyn daily began to haue more aide and power then he was before accustomed, 
trustyng to returne again vnder his obeysance and subieccio (whiche they bothe wished and 
desired) to the 1 intent that it should not apere to come of their desire and that their faith and 
fidelite should not be put in the balance of diffidence with the Englishe nacion, sent diuerse 
Senators of their citee as Ambassadors to the kyng of Englad, desiryng hym of aide and suc- 
cor, to whom not onely greate thankes were rendered for dooyng their dutie of subieccio, but 
also hih feastes wer made, and promises declared that if they stil continued in clue obeysance, 
and wcr not adherent to the kyngss enemies, y neither succour should want, nor cost should 
be spared for their comencofort and publike vtilite. With whiche answer the copaigny out- 
wardly pleased (whatsoeuer they inwardly imagined) departed to Paris. In this season 
Humfrey duke of Gloucester either blynded with ambicion or dotyng for loue, married the 
lady laquet or lacomin doughter and sole heire to William of 1/atiier duke of Holland, 
which was lawfnll wife to Ihon duke of Brabant then liuyng, whiche mariage was not onely 
woundered at of the comon people, but also detested of the nobilite, abhorred of the 
Clergie. But suerly the swete last, of this pleasant mariage, brought after a sower sauce v 
bothe to the amorous housbande, and to the wanton wife. For Ihon duke of Brabant, 
what with force, and what with spirituall compulsaries, neuer left of, till he had recouered 
his Lady out of the Duke of Gloucesters possession, as after you shall here. 

If THE SECONDE YERE. 

The. n. THese chauces thus happenyng as you haue heard, Ihon duke of Bedford, Philip duke 

y ere> of Burgoyn, Ihon duke of Britayn, made an assemble frendly enteruiewe in the citee 

of Avnias, where they renewed the olde league and auncient amitie made betwene the noble 

prince kyng Hery the fifth, and them, before concluded: addyng tlierto these codicious and 

agrementes, eche of them to be to other bothe 1'rend and aider, and the enemy of the one 

to 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 117 

to bee enemy to the other, and a!l they to bee bothe frendes and aiders to the kyng of En- 
glande, and well wyllyng to his wehvillers, and auengers of his aduersaries. And because 
that affinitie is an em bracer of amitie, there was concluded a mariage betwcne the duke of 
Bedford and the lady Anne sister to the duke of Burgoyn. When tiiese agrementes wer fi- 
nished, the Regent departed to Troys in Chapain, whether with high pompe was conueighcd 
the lady Anne of Burgoyn, whicbe in the presence of her brother and her Vncle duke of 
Brabant, and of therles of Salisbury and Suffolk'e, and of. ix.C. Lordcs knightes and 
esquires, she was maried to Ihon duke of Bedford with suche solempnitie, feste and triiiphe, 
as before that tyrne had not been seen of the Burgonions. 

DVRYNG this triumphe, the Parisias thin kyng to blind the iyes of the duke of Bedford 
wrote to hym, how diuerse Castles & fortresses liyng rounde about their territory, wer re- 
plenished with his enemies, daily stoppyng their passages, and robbyng their marchantes, to 
their vtter vndoyng, if they by his helpe wer not relieued: fraudulently meanyng, and falsely 
entisyng hym to absent hymself from theim, till their craftie conueighed purpose wer compassed 
and achiued. For diuerse of them stubbernly bcryng the yoke and subieccion of the En- 
glish nacion perceiuyng the duke of Bedforde and the principal! capitaines of the Englishmen 
to be farre from Paris, emploiyng themselfes to ioy and solace for the honor of this high ma- 
riage, conspired to bryng into the citee Charles the Dolphyn callyng hymself Frenche kyng 1 , 
duryng the tyme of his absence. And to thentent that their inueted purpose should succede, 
they therof aduertised the Dolphyn and his counsaill appoyntyng the daie of his comyng 
and the post of his entre. But no treason is commonly hiclen nor no sedicion long vnreueled, 
for Pies will chatter and Mice will pepe, but by whom I cannot declare: The Regente was 
informed of all the secrete confederacy and sedicious faccio, wherfore he meanyng not to 
lose in short tyme, that whiche in no small space was gaynedj put epurres to the horsse, and 
n-ith a great power entred into Paris one daie before the faire was appoinced, and two 
nightes before the iokyng for of his enemies, who boyng vnprouided he sodainly caused to 
be apprehended and taken, and openly put to execution. After this Jeopardy thus escaped, 
he putle diffidence in all the Parisians trustyng litle the nobles and geuyng lesse crtditc to the 
comons, determined to fortific the Garrisons of his owne nacion and all the Castles nere 
and adioyning to the citee, whiche within small tyme were habundauntly furnished. And to 
auoyde all nighte watchers adioynyng to Paris and the confines of thesame, he first toko 
into his possession ether by as?aule or cornposicion the toune of Traynel and Bray vpon 
Seyne, and because two Castles the one called Pacy and the other called Cursay were also 
euill neighbors to the Parisians, he sent sir Ihon Fastolffe great Master of his houshold, 
with a notable army to besiege the Castle of Pacy, whiche takyng vpon him that enterprise 
so handled his enemies that the capitain named (iuyliam Reymon esquire & all the garrison 
yelded them simply to his mercy and discrecio whom he sent as prisoners to the citee of Pa- 
ris, and after besieged the Castle of Coursay whiche to hym was shortly rendered vpon like 
appoyntmer, and so with praie and prisoners he returned to the lord Regent his master. In 
this very season the Dolphin sent lorde Willyam Sluard Constable of Scotland, and therle 
of Vcntadore in Auergnc and many other nobles of his part to laie siege to the toune of 
Crauat in the coutie of Anxerre within thepartesof Burgoyn, wherof heryng the lorde Re- 
gent and (.he duke of Burgoyn thei assembled a greale arrnie, wherof was ordeined capitaine 
the erle of Salisbury, accompanycd with these valeant parsonages. 

The lorde Willoughby. Sir Ihon Grey. 

The lorde Pownynges. Sir Reignold Grey. 

The lorde Molyns. Sir Ihon Arthur. 

Sir Thomas R,ampston. Sir Henry Bisset. 

Sir William Oldhaule. Sir William Hey tow. 

( Sir Ihon Passheley. Sir Richard Leke. 

Sir Thomas Flemyng. Sir Gilbert Halsall. 

Sir Edmond Heron. Sir Lancelot Lisle. 

Thomas 



118 THE. II. YERE OF 

Thomas Aborough. Didon Amore. 

William Glasdale. Richard Ap Madocke. 

Mathew Gough. Dauy Loyd. 

And of the Burgonions. 

The lorde Sent George. The lorde of Crouy. 

The erle of lonignye. The lorde Lisle Adam. 

The erle of Brayne. The lorde of Pesines. 

The lord of Castelyn .Marshal of Bur- The Bastard of Thyan. 

goyne. Sir Frances le Arragonoys. 

The lorde of Vergier his bastard. Ihon de Gyngie. 

The lorde of Chastelon. 

AND many other to the numbre (aswel of Englishemen as Burgonions) of. xv. M. men 
of warre, which came in good array to geue battaill to the besiegers of the toune of Cra- 
uant, and because the liiuer of Youne which renneth by thesaid toune was betwene the 
Englishe army and their aduersaries, they could not wel assaile their enemies which de- 
fended the bankes and passages very strongly, yet notwithstandyng bolhe horsmen at.d fote- 
inen of the Englishe part coragiously put tiiemself into the riuer and with fyne force re- 
couered the banke, whom the Burgonions incontinent folowed. When they wer all gotten 
into the plain, the Archers shot and the bilruen strake, & long was the fight in indifferent 
judgement, but in conclusion the Frenchmen not able to resist the force and abyde the 
puissance of the English nacion, wer take ether slain or discomfited, for in the morlall bat- 
taill were slain and taken to the numbre of. viii. M. men, where of the names of the chief 
capitaines here shall apere. 

Frenchemen slain. Scottes slain. 

Therle of Lestrake. The lorde of sent Ihons toune. 

Therle of Comygen?. Sir Ihon of Balgrarie. 

Therle of Tunier. Sir Ihon Turnebull. 

The iorde Coquartde Cameron. Sir Ihon Holiburton. 

The Bastard of Annynacke. Sir Robert Lile. 

The Vicont of Towraye. Sir William Conyngham. 

The Bastard of Forest. Sir William Douglas. 

The lorde de Port. Sir Alexander Hune. 

The lorde Memoriicie. And xviii. hun- Sir Willyain Lisle, 
dred knightes and esquiers beside co- Sir Ihon Rocherforde. 
mons. Sir William Cawford. 

Taken prisoners. Sir Thomas Seton. 

The Constable of Scotland whiche lost Sir William Hamolton and his sonne Ihon 

his iye. Pillot. 

Therle of Vantadore. And. iii. M.. Scottes slain. 

Sir Alexander Meldryne. Of Englishemen. 

Sir Lewes Ferigny. Sir Ihon Grey. 

And. xxii. C. gentlemen of the Frenche Sir Wylliam Halle, 
nacion taken. Sir Gilbert Halsel. 

Richard ap Madocke. 

and. xx i. C. other slaine. 

AFTER this fortunate victory obteined, the Englishemen fyrst gaue great laudes and 
thankes to almightie God and after entered into the toune of Crauant muche pi aisyng the 
tloynges of the capitaines and the fidelitie of the citezens, and when they had set all thynges 
in an ordre they returned to Paris where of the regent they wereioyously receiued, whiche 
there constituted therle of Salsbury (as he was wel worthy) vicegerent and lieftenaunt for 
the king & him in the countries of Fraunce, Bry and Chapaigne, & sir Ihon Fastolf he 
substituted deputie vnder him in the duchy of Normady on this syde the riuer of Seyne, & 

capitaines 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 1 19 

with that he deputed him gouernour of the coutreys of Aniow & Mayne, and assigned able 
capitaines in euery holde & fortresse. Therle of Salsbury whichc could not slepe in his 
great office of trust, layd siege to the toune & castle of Moutaguillon in Dry, wherof were 
capitaines Pregent of Cotyny & Guille Bourgoys Britons vvhiche valiantly defeded the castle 
by y space of v. monethes, but incoclusion the assailantes wer so fierse that they within for 
sufegard of their Hues rendred the hold, & the capitaines sv.-arc neuer to here armure 
against the Englishmen on this, side theriuer of Leyre: duryng which siege the erle of Suf- 
folke toke by force the castle of Coucy : and the strong castle de la roche he gat by appoint- 
ment in Mosconoys. 

NOWE must I go backe to put you in memorye howe lames kyng of Scottes beyng bothe 
prisoner in the tyme of kyng Henry the fourth and also as subiect to kyng Henry the fift 
his sone, seruyng him in his warres in Fraunce tyl he departed out of this transsitory life at 
Boys de Vyncens and so as chief morner attended on the corps of the sayd deceassed vnto 
his burial, and after at Westminster was released of his captiuitie and restored to hisreahne 
and possession. For the true knowledge therof you shal vnderstande that Englande de- 
maunded a small raunsome for so great a prince as the Scottes accompte their kyng : (and 
the Scottes were neither able nor offered no summe conuenient) wherfore the coiisel of the 
realme of England grauously pondtrsd and wisely considered that if by coniunction of 
manage, England and Scotland were perfectly knit in one, that the indissoluble band of 
amide betwene the Frenche and Scottishe nations should be shortly broken and dissolued. 
Wherfore the protector of the realme of Englad by the consent of the whole baronage of 
the same gaue to him in mariage the Lady lane doughler to Ihon earle of Sommerset des- 
ceased, not onely sister to Ihon then duke of Sommerset but alsocosyn germayne remoued 
to the kyng and nece to the cardinal of Wynchester and the duke of Exceter. 

THE kyng of Scottes hauyng great affection to this i'ayre Lady, but rnuche more desiryng 
his deliuerance and libertie, put in hostages for the residue of his raunsome because a great 
part therof was deminished and abated for the money allowed to hym for his mariage, & so 
was deliuered to depart at his pleasure. Alacke, the olde prouerbes bee to true : an Ape 
although she bee clothed in purple, will be but an Ape, and a Scotte neuer so gentely en- 
terteined of an Englishe prince will be but a dissimulyng Scotte. What kyndnes could be 
more shewed to a prisoner then to bryng hym vp in good litterature. What loue maie bee 
more declared to a captiue, then to instructe hym in marciall feafes and warlike affaires: 
What fauor can be more ascribed to a high and renoumed prince, then to geue in mariage; 
to his vnderlyng and vassall his cosyn and kinswoman of his royal parentage lawfully dis- 
ecnded. All these kynd-nesses suffised not, nor all these gratuities auailed not to make this- 
kyng lames frendly to the realme of Englande. For he notwithstandyng his homage doen- 
to the young Henry kyng of Englande and of Fraunce at his Castle of Wynsore this pre- 
sent yere, before three Dukes, twoo Archebishoppes, xii. erles. x. bishoppes. xx. barons,. 
and twoo hundred knightes and esquires and mo, accordyng to the tenor here after lbloyn<*. 

" I lames Stuart kyng of Scottes, shalbe true and faithfull vnto you lorde Henry by the 
grace of God kyng of Englande and Fraunce the noble and superior lorde of the kyngdome 
of Scotlande, and vnto you I make my fidelitie for the same kyngdome of Scotlande, whiche- 
I holde and claime to hold of you, and I shall beare you my faithe and fidelitie of life 
and lymme and worldly honor against al men, and faithfully I shall knowledge and shall 
do to you seruice due of the kyngdo of Scotland aforesaid. So God help me and these 
holy Euangelistes." 

NETHER regardyng,his othe, nor estemyng the great abundance of plate and- riche 
Clothes of Arras, to hym by the mother and vncles of his wifc liberally gcuen and frendly 
deliuered (of which sorte of riches fewe-or none before that daie wer euer seen in the 
coutrey of Scotlande) like a dogge vvhiche hath cast vp his stomacke and retnrneth to his 
vomet, or like a snake whiche after his engenderyng with a Lampray taketh again his old; 
poyson: After ha had once taken the ayre and snielled the sent of the Scottishe soyle be- 

1 came 



loo THE. III. YERE OF 

-,'' x 

came like his falce fraudulct forfatbers, an vntrue prince and like his proude pratyng pro- 
genitors toko llie y mage of a braggyng and bostyng Scot, newly alicd hy nisei f with the 
Frenche nacion. And yet what soeuer he did, his nacion botiic write and testitie, that by 
the learnyng whiche he by the greate benetke of the kynges of Englimde duryng liis cap- 
tiuitee in this rcalme had obteigned, replenished his countrey with good litterature, and by 
tlie nurture the whiche he was brought vp in Englnd, he brought iiis people to ciuilitee: So 
That hiscaptiuitee was to his nacion the greatest hbertie thatcucr thei could haue, dcliuering 
them from blyncle ignorance to Angelicke knowledge, reducyng theirn from bestiall inaners to 
honest behauor, and in conclusion causyng theim to knowe vertue fro in. vice, pollicic from 
rudenes, and humain honestie from sauage liuyng. Thrs was the deliueranceand the doynges 
of- lames the fyrst of that name k'yng of Scottes, whiche neither reigned verye quietly, nor 
yet euer fauored Englishemen before the Frenche people : sauyng that he hauyng with him 
into his countrev a yong gentleman of Northumberland called Andrew Gray (whiche du- 
ryng his captiuitie was his companion) promoted him to the manage of the heyre of the 
lorde of Foulcs in Anguis, of the whiche the lord Gray of Scotland at this day do des- 
cend. 

1f THE. III. YERE. 

The. iii. NOw leue I the doynges of Scotland, and returne to the affaires of England. The duke 
y " e> of Gloucester beyng protector and gouernor of the realme, cosideryng that wood must be 
rninistred to kepe fyre, and men ought to be set to set forwarde war, called to him the 
pieres and nobilitie of the realme, and by their agrements & deuises, sent into France to 
the regent his brother, x. M. men of warre, whiche were of the same regent in the coutrey 
of Paris louyngly receiued, & according to their degres honestly entertained. Duryng their 
liyng in Paris, diuers chaunces happened in Fraunce, for euen as Englishmen valiantly 
wonne, and victoriously coquered tounes and castles with open warre and apparant con- 
quest: so the Frenchmen fraudulently stale & couertely obtained diuers fortresses and 
holdes appcrtainyng to thcnglish faccion, in especial the fayre toune of Compaigne, & 
the prety toune of Crotoy. 

WHEN the duke of Bedford was aduertised of these craftye trickes and sodaine inuent- 
ed traines, he sent furth an army, fyrst to Compaigne, wherof was capitaine the erle of 
Suftblke accompanied with therle of Liguy, & diuers other capitaines of the Englishmen, 
whiche lay on the one side of the riuer of Sohame, & on the other side lave the lord Lisle 
Adam, sir Thomas Raupstone, & the prouost of Paris. The Erechmen beyng strongly fur- 
nished and well vitailed, coragiously defended the toune against the assailates. The Eng- 
lishmen perceitiyng that Guyllifi Remond otherwise called Mariolayn, had bene the leder 
of the souldiers within the toune, which before at Pacy was take prisoner by sir Ihon Fas- 
tolf, caused him to be sent for to Paris, and so brought him to the seige, and set him in a 
chariot with a halter aboute his necke, and coueighed him to the gibbet without the toune, 
sending worde to the garrison within the toune, that if they would not without delay redre 
the toune & fortresse, they would incotinent stragle their old capitaine and chief conduc- 
tor. The souldiors within the touue perceiuyng that if Guyllia Raymond the onely trust 
of their relefe, and the aucient frend in their necessitie, should suffre death, that then their 
hope of al ayde were extinguished, the sure nutriment of their liuyng was from them 
secluded: for the deliuerance of him and sauegarde of them selues, yelded the toune: so 
that both he & they might depart with horse and harnes onely, in sure conduite and safetye: 
yet long or the toune of Compaigne was deliuered, sir Philip Hall whiche was sent to Cro- 
toy by the lorde regent with. viii. C. men to besiege the toune, gat it by assault sodainly, or 
the Frenchmen had either desposed their garrison, or appointed their lodgynges and toke all 
the men of warre and put them to raunsome. And so these, ii. tounes cowardly stollen, 
were manfully recouered, but yet the writers of Frenche fables to deface the glorye of the 

4- Englishmen) 

* 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 121 

Englishmen, write and say that these tounes were yelded to the Burgonyon , whiche nei- 
ther had the kepyng of them nor were souldiers to any other person but to the kyng of 
Kngland. While these thinges were thus doyng in Fraunce, sir Ilion de la Pole brother to 
therle of Suffolke capitaine of Auranches in Normandy, assembled all tlie garrisons of the 
base Marches of the coiitrey of Aniow, & came before the cytie of Angiers and brent the 
subbarbes, spoyled and destroyed the whole countrey, and hauyng as many prayes anxl pri- 
soners as his men might cary, he was eacountred by the earle of Aubemerle, the vicount 
Karbone and. vi. thousand Frenchmen: \\hiclie findyng the Englishmen out of arraye be- 
cause of the cariage of their great spoyle, sodainly set on the and slewe. CCC. persons and 
toke prisoners the said sir Ihon Delapole, sir Ihon Basset, Ihon Aut'ord luetenaunt of Fa- 
loys, Ihon Clyfton, Henry Mortymer and. vi. C. other. Although the Frenchmen gat this 
day in one place, yet they wet not victorious away in another, for the bastard de la Baulme 
and the lorde Craignar capitaines of Courallon with a great band, made a roade into Mas- 
connoys, with whom by chance met Mathew Gough and other Englishemen whiche were 
scouryng the countrey to se and hearenewes of their enemies, there was a sore conflict and 
an hard encountre, the partes in maner beyng of corage & noinbre cgal, but after long 
fight, the Frenchmen almost al wer slaine & taken, and the bastard beyng wel horsed fled 
after whom folowed with the tiersneS of his spurres Mathew Gougli and chased him to his 
castle gate and there toke him as he would haue hid him in the diche & preseted him to 
the earle of Salsbury, returnyng from Compaigne to Paris, whiche not onely gaue to him 
the rightes beloging to the prisoner, but also rewarded him with a goodly courser and highly 
exalted his name and manhode. 

ABO VTE this season, Arthur brother to Ihon duke of Britaine comonly called the earle 
of Kicheinond, hauyng neither profile of the name nor of the countrey, notwithstadyng 
that king Henry the. v. had created him earle of Yury in Normandy & gaue him not onely 
a great pencion but thesame tonne of Yury; yet because his brother the duke of Brytaine 
fearyng the Englishmen nowe hauyng Normandye would srncl and desire to last the swete 
soyle of Britaine, was late (contrary to his leage and othe) returned to the part of Charles 
the dolphyn, he likewise returned and craftly without cause fled into Flaunders & so came to 
the dolphyn to Poytiers, which was more g'ad of his comyng then if he had gained a C.M. 
crounes, for the Britons which kept the toune and castle of Yury hearyng that their master 
was ioyned witii the dolphyn bothe kepte the castle against the duke of Bedford, furnishyng 
it dayly with new people municions, and also infested, spoyled and robbed the countrey 
adioynyng, doyng to the Englishmen the most hurt & damage that either could be deuised or 
imagined. 

THE lord Regent beyng aduertised of all these troubles & calamities, assebled a great 
army both of Englishmen and Normans, entendyng to serche the dolphin in euery part, to 
theient to geue him battail in a pitched feld and so to make a final ende of his entended con- 
quest. So hauing in his companye therle of Salsbury, therle of Suffolke, the lord Scales, 
the lord Willoughby, the lord pounyng, sir Reynold Grae, sir Ihon Fastolf, sir Ihon Salu- 
ayne, Lanslot Lisle, sir PJn'Jlp Halle, sir Ihon Pashely, sir Ihon Gray, sir Thomas Blunt, 
sir Robert Harlyng, sir William Oldhal and many other valiant knightes and esquiers to the 
nombre (as the Frenche writers testifie) of xviii.C. men of armes and. viii.M. archers and 
other, came before the toune of Yury whiche was well defended: but the Englishemen 
began to vndermine the walles, so that they within wer glad to rendre the toune vpo condicion, 
whiche was taken. Howbeit the capitaines of the castle promised to yeld if their fortresse 
wer not rescued at a day assigned by the dolphyn with a nomber sufficiet to raise the siege, 
& vpon this promise hostage^ wer deliuered into the possession of the lord regent. By his 
licence an herault was sent to the dolphyn to aduertise him of the tyme determined, the 
whiche hearyng of the destresse that his people & frendes wer in, sent incontinent Ihon duke 
of Alanson his lieftenant general, therle Doglas whom at that settyng furth he made duke of 
Toraine, and therle Boughan, whom then in hope of good spede he made Constable of 

R Fraunce 



128 THE. III. YERE OF 

Fraunce (whiche office he enioyed not fully an hundreth houres) and therles of Aumarle, 
Vatadoure, Tonnerre, Maulieuricr Forest, the vicountesof Narbonand Thouars, the lordes 
ofGraiiile, Gaules, Malycorne, Manny, Ball ay, Fountaines, Mountfort, & many other noble 
knightes and esquiers to the nombre of. xv.M. Freche men & Britons and. v.M. Scottes whom 
the erle Doglas had transported late out of Scotland more for nedc then for loue. 

THIS army royal approched within, ii. miles of Yury and sent. xl. light horsmen to view 
and espy both the nornbcr and coduit of the Englishmen. These spyes came very nere to the 
siege and \ver espied and chased to their copanions againe, and declared all what they had 
seen and perceiued. The duke of Alanson seyng that he could not gette any auantage of the 
Englishemen (although the Dolphyn had geiien hym in straight comaundement to fight with 
the-regent) whether his heart fayled or he thought to wayte a more fortunate season for his 
purpose and enterprise, retired backe with his whole arruy to the toune of Vernoyle in 
Perche whiche belonged to the kyng of England, & sent word to the garison of that toune 
that they had discofited & slaine al the Englishe army and that the regent with a small nober 
by swyftnes of his horse had saued him selfe. The inhabitantes of Vernoyle geuyng to light 
credit to the Frenche fablers, receiued the duke of AlFison with al his army into the toune & 
submitted theselues to him, Whiche toune he desyred to haue of the gift of thedolphynas 
his owne inheritance & lawful patrimony. Now approched the day of rescous of Yury, 
which was the day of our Lady the Assumption, at which day no rescous appeared to sir 
Gerrard de la Pallier captain of the castle, whiche beyng in dispayre of all ayde and corn- 
forte, presented the keys to the duke of Bedford & shewed him a letter signed & sealed with 
the hades of. xviii. great lordes which the day before promised to geue the duke battaile and 
to dissolue the siege and raise the assault: Well sayd the duke, if their heartes would haue 
serued, their puissaunce was sufficient ones to haue profered or to haue performed this faith- 
ful promise. But syth they disdaine to seke me, God and saint George willyng I shal not 
desist to folowe the tractes of their horses tyl one part of vsbe by battail ouerthrowen: and 
so he gaue a safe conduyte to the capitaine and other which wold depart, but many of the 
Britons within the castle of Yury seyng the faint heartes and the false promises of the flatter- 
yng Frenchmen submitted them selues to the lorde regent and sware to be true to the kyng 
and him, whom he gentely accepted and put them in wages. Then he furnished the castle 
and toune with a newe garrison, and incotinent he sent the earle of Suffolke with. vi.C. 
horses to espy wher the Frenchemen were lodged, whiche passed by Dampeuile, and came 
to Bretnel wher he beared newes that the Frenchmen had taken Vernoile in Perche & were 
there yet abidyng, wherof with all diligent celerite he sent worde to the duke of Bedford, 
which not mindyng to lese his long desired pray set forward in great hast toward his enemies. 
The FrF'chtnen hearyng of his comyng set their people in array and made all one maine bat- 
taile without forwarder rereward, & appointed certaine Lubardes and horsmen to breake 
the array of the Englishemen either behynd or at the sides, wherof was capitaine sir Stephyn 
Venoylcs called the hire. The duke of Bedford not ignorant howe to ordre his men, made 
likewise oneentier battaile & suffered no man to be on horsebacke, and set the archers (euery 
one hauyng a sharpe stake) bothe in the front of the battaile and on the sydes like wynges, 
and behvnd the battaile were the pages with the charlottes andcariages, and all the horses 
were tyed together either with the reines of their bridles or by the tayles, to thentent that 
their enemies should not sodainely surprise or disturbe them on the backe behynd : and for 
to defend the carriages wer appointed two thousand archers. The Frenchmen at the fyrst 
sight remembryng how often times in piched feldes they had bene ouercome and vanquished 
of the Englishe nacion, b.egan somewhat to feare, but when they sawe no remedy but to 
fight, they toke good courage to the and set softely forwarde. In whiche marchyng the Duke 
of Alaunson, sittyng on horsebacke saied to his capitaines. 

Oradon of LOVYNG companions, and hardy souldiers, call to your remembraunce, how the Eng- 
. lishemen haue not onely gotten from vs the noble isle of Fraunce, the duchies of Normandy 
and Aniovv, but also sith their enterprise and cenquest hath bothe slain our parentes and 

I killed 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 1*3 

killed our frendes, yea, and hath dritien our naturall Prince, and very soueraignc Lorde 
from his chief habitation and surest chaumber, the faire citee of Paris: which act neuer 
Pagan durst attept or euer any prince was able to acheue. Besides this, you se that the 
duke of Bedford Regent here for the kyng of Englande, entendyng n-othyng more then the 
deposicion or the destruccion of our kyng and his nobilitie, and in tinall coclusion to bryng 
to extreme bondage all vs ourwiues and children, and all the people of this so long renoum- 
ed region, by many hundred yeres called the reahne of Fraunce, which is as muche to 
saie as a fre countrey, or a franke lande. Alas, shal your kyng now be made a subiecte, 
shall your peres and nobiliteebee made vassals, and you also slaues & bondmen to a foraiu 
nacion r Where is the liberty of Frauce and where is the auncient fredome? When you 
defended your fraunchises, and when your hartes seruedyou: your kyng ruled kynges your 
prioeis possessed the empire, and your nacion subdued Germany, conquered Italy, and 
ouercame the proude Spanyardes. Shall wee now, fallyng out of kynd from our fathers, 
feare the puissaunce of the arrogant Englishemen, beyng men of no forecast, nor of 
no excellcnte wit, long in gettyng and shortly lesyng? AVill you now sufifre the olde glory of 
Fraunce to be put in obliuion? will you haue an Englishe infant, whiche liueth with pappe 
to bee your kyng and gouernor? Will you liue in seruitude of a barbarous nacion in whom 
is neither bountifulnes nor honor? Clerckes saie, that the greatest plague, that euer God 
scourged with the Israelites, was, when he permitted them to be caried from their natiue 
countrey to the bondage of Babilon, where they liued in captiuitie by the space of many 
yeres. What can bee a more greater scourge, then to haue a forrein ruler in a free region ? 
What dishonor can there be more to a countrey, then to haue the nobilitie put backc from 
rule and to be gouerned by strangers. Beleue me, beleue me, it is to vs all one blot, to bee a 
slaue in Turkeye, vnder theTurkishe bondage, and to be a free man in France vnder the Eng- 
lishe libertie. Of this point you be sure: if they gain this battaill, thei be not vnlike to obtain 
the whole region: whiche if thei get, then is the enheritaunce theirs: then be all the riches 
theirs, and then all the people bee their subiectes. If they be rulers, fare well the franke and 
Frenche libertie: If they be lordes, welcome English seruitude. So that now we stand 
al on this poynt, either to be free or bondmen. Whiche terme of bondage is so detested of 
all nacions, that there can be no more reproch to a man then to call hym a villain or a 
bondman. Therfore manly defence must onely withstand this mischief, and hartie corage 
must driue back this imminct plage. This is the daie either of our deliueraunce out of vile 
seruitud-e, or the daie of our entry into the vale of bondage. The conclusion of this battaill 
is very doubtfull, for if we bee vanquished, the gain for our side is almost without recouery, 
cosidryng, that here be the best men, & wisest capitaines vnder our kyng: And if we get 
the vppcr hancle, our heddes shalbc free and out of the Englishe yoke. And although the 
duke of Bedford hath here with him, all the power that he can gather on this side the sea, 
yet I assure you, (God willyng) I will not turne one fote backward for fear of hym, or his 
picked armie. Therfore I exhorte you to reuiembre, your wifes, your children and your 
selfes. Figtft manfully and sticke eche to other for the libertie of our countrey: I doubt not 
but the victory shalbee ours, and the honor shalbe our kynges. For if this daie we vanquishe 
hym and sparcle his armie, we shall so diligently folowe Fortunes good grace, that not onely 
Fraunce to vsshall'yeld, and Normandy bowe, but we shall recouer again al our citees and 
tounes, whiche out of our possession wer gained, before any aide can come to rescue out of 
the poore isle of Englande. Now consideryng, that we hang in the ballaunce betwene honor 
and shame, libertie and bondage, gaineor losse, leteuery man take harte and corage to hym, 
litle regardyng, or caryng, eit.ier for death, or the force of his enemies, and with a manly 
countenaunce marche furth toward our foes. 

THE Englishemen perceiuyng their greate nornbre, and knowyng that the chief strength 
consisted in the Scottes, began somwhat to stay and consult, what was mosle expedient to 
bee done. The duke of Bedford sittyng on a baye courser in the iniddes of the battaill vnder 



124 THE. III. YERE OF 

a baner curiously beten with his Armes, not content with their whisperyngcs and protract- 
yng of tyme, saied vnto theirn with an audible voyce. 

Y"OV valiaunt capitaines and hardie souldiers, my louyng compaynions in artnes, and 
frcndly felowes. If you cosidre with your self what daie this is: What honor and what 
profile wee shall get by our trauaile and pain, I doubt not but where you now stand stil 
musyng, you would runne furth a galloppe, and where you run on your fete, you would, 
if you had winges, flieas faste, as euer did llauke to his praie. For greate is the honor that 
is gotten with paine, and swete is the lucre, that is gayned with trauaile, for you muste re- 
membre, that nothyng is wel done, if it growe not to a good conclusion: and a thyng were 
as good neuer to be begon, as neuer ended. My brother our late soueraigue lord, (whose 
soule God pardon) hath entred into this countrey, as into his awne lawfull inheritaunce: 
and first conquered Normandy, and after by agremet of kyng Charles the vsurper, he was 
by assent of the nobilitee, agrement of the Clergie, & speciall request of the cornmonaltie, 
restored to his rightfull inheritaunce, and lawful patrimony, whiche by his death is returned 
and come to my nephewe our rnoste redoubted souereigne. The beginning of this conquest 
was good, and the sequele better, yet resteth the finall knot to be knitte, and the last locke 
to be shut vp. For if we sutlre Charles the Dolpbyn, whiche now vsurpeth the name, and 
estate royall of this real me of France, to proceade farther in his purpose, or to gather more 
puyssance, or allure more people, I cannot tell then what feates flatteryng fortune will worke: 
and of this I am sure that if we suffre his fier still to flame, as it hath begon, we shall haue 
skant water to quenche out the same. Here he hath assembled all the Frenche men that he 
can get and for lacke of aide, he hath retained the Scottes : croppe hym now at the beginnyng 
and he shall growe no more: let hym grow farther and he will passe our reache: discomfite 
hym now and bryng our conquest to a conclusion: let hym alone now and we shalbe new 
to begin. Therfore I say, it is wisdome to take occasion, when the hery side and not the 
balde side is profered. If we feare the multitude, rememhre our awne victories, which 
we haue euer obteined by lesse nombre, and not by the greater. If we feare death, remem- 
bre the glory and immortall fame, that shall succeade of our valiaunt actes, if we sell our 
lifes so dere. If we shalbe slain, considre I haue a kyng to my nephew, and a duke to 
my brother, and twoo noble vncles, and you haue frendes, kynsemen and children, whiche 
wil reuege our death, to the vttermost poynt: therfore I saie let euery man this day do 
his best. For this is the daie of thed of our great trauaile, the daie of our greate victory, 
and the daie of our euerlastyng fame : Therfore good felowes, put your onely trust in God, 
call to hym for aide boldly, and marche forward hurdly, for our enemies be at had. 

HE had skace ended his exhortacion, but the Englishmen beyng incouraged with his pru- 
dent persuasion, sette on their enemies, criyng, Sainct George, Bedford. And the Frenche- 
men likewise cried, Moutioye, sainct Denise. Then the arrowes flewe out of the long bowes 
on the one parte, the quarrelles out of the crosse bowes on the other parte. After thei came 
to hande strokes: greate was the fight, & terrible was the batfaill, with so indifferent Judge- 
ment of victory that no heraulde could determyne to whiche parte Fortune moste shewed 
her louyng countenaunce. For on bothe sides men wer slain and wounded, and on bothe 
partes some wer felled and recouered, thus stil in a doubtful Judgement, the battaill conti- 
nued about three houres. The duke of Alauson in the meane season neuer ceased to ex- 
horte and praie his people manly to fight, and not to suff're their enemies, (whiche wer at the 
very point to be ouercome) by their faint hartes to be victors, and ouercommers. Likewise 
the duke of Bedford rode about his annie, refreshing the weake with freshe men, and enco- 
ragyng his people with moste plesaunt wordes: But at the last when he perceiued the Frenche- 
men, what with heate, and with trauaill, to waxe wery and faint, and- not to bee so freshe as 
thei wer before (for surely 'the nature of the Frenchmen, is not to labor long in fightyng, 
and muche more braggeth then fighteth) he with al his strengtli set incontinent on them with 
tuche a violence, that they bare theim. doune to the grounde by fine force. The French 

horsemen 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 125 

horsemen that dale did litle seruice: for the archers so galled their horses, that they desired not 
mticiie to approche their presence. This battaill was fought the. xxvij. day of August, in the 
yere of our Lorde. M. CCCC. xxv. in the vvhiche battaill wer slain. 

Of Frenchemen. of the murtherars, of the duke of Bur- 

The erle of Aumerle. goyne. 

The erle of Ventadore. Of Scottes also wer slain. 

The erle of Forestes. Archibald erle Douglas made duke of 

The erle of Mary. Toroyne. 

The lorde Granite, lames Douglas his sonne erle of Nigton. 

The lorde Gaules. Ihon the erle of Boughein newly made 

The lorde Fountaynes. Constable of Fraunce. 

The lorde of Amboys. Sir Alexander Meldryne. 

The Vicount Thouars. Sir Henry Balglauie. 

The lorde Mountcney. Sir liion Sterlyng. 

The lorde of Combreste. Sir William of Homelsdone. 

The lorde of Brunell. Sir larnes Graye. 

The lorde Tumblet. Sir Robert Kanden. 

The lorde of Poysy. And thre hundred Sir Alexander Lynsaie. 
knightes beside. Sir Robert Stewarde. 

The, Vicouut Nerbon whose body was Sir Robert Swinton, and. xxvij. hundred 
haged on a gibbet, because he was one Scottes of name and armes, besides 

other. 

IN this battaill wer slain by the report of Montioye kyng at armes in Fraunce, and the 
Englishe herauldes there prcsente, of Frenciiemen and Scoltes. ix. thousand and seuen hun- 
dred, and of the Englishmen, xxj. hundred, but no man of name, sauyng. v. yong es- 
quiers. And there wer taken prisoners, Ihon duke of Alaunson, the bastard of Alaun- 
son the Lorde of Fayect, the lorde of Hormit, sir Piers Harison, sir Loys de Vancort, 
Sir Robert Brusset, sir Ihon Turnebull a Scot, and two hundred gentlemen besides 
common soldiours. 

AFTER that the duke of Bedforde had thus obteined the vpper hand of his enemies, and 
discomfited the onely strength of the dolphin he vpon his knees rendred to almightie God his 
hartie thankcs, not without effusion of teares. Then he commaundcd all the Frenchmen 
within the toune of Vernoile, to go out and depart, or els to abide their adueture. They 
perceiuyng the euil successe of their bostyng enterprise, and seyng no meane, wherby in so 
lowe an ebbe, they might bee ayded, deliuered vp the toune, and went furthe out of thesame, 
their lifes saued. Of which toune the lorde Regent constituted capitain, sir Philip Hall, 
and so departed from thence to the citee of Roan, where with triumph (and not vnworthy) 
he was Joyously receiued and honorably feasted. And after all thynges there set in an ordre, 
he remoued to Paris. 

HERE you maie see what succeded of the spirite of false Prophecie. For the duke of 
Alaunson thinkyngit to be predestinate by the bodies aboue, that he should ouercorne, and 
conquere the duke of Bedford, hosted (as you haue heard) to the Burgesses of Vernoile, that 
he had discofited the Regent of Fraunce with his whole armie, before the toune of Yury : 
Not knowyng, that Mars the God of battaill beyng angry with his liyng, appoyntedj not 
onely all his puyssaunce to be vanquished before Vernoile, but also hymself, and his bastarde 
vncle, there to bee taken, and brought into bondage. So it is often seen that he, whiche 
rekeneth without his hoste, muste reken twise, and he that fisheth before the net, rnaic lese 
but nothyng gain. When this victory was published through Fraunce, how the common 
people lamented their miserable destiny, how the nobilitie mistrusted their awne estate, and 
how the Dolphyn was abashed, yea, more than abashed, woderfull it were to write, but more 
merueilous for to heare. For he was driuen out of all the countreis apperteinyng to the 
croune of Fraunce and might resort to no coutreis, excepte to Burbonoys, Aluerne, Berry, 

Poyctou, 



126 THE. III. YERE OF 

"Poyctou, Towrayn, a part of Aniow and Barrayn, & Languedoc. And because diuerse 
of his frendes whiche were aduocates in Paris exiled theselfes fro the parliament of Paris, 
which was with all rightes, and iurisdiccions there vnto belongyng, kcple, and holden in the 
name of kyng Henry the sixte, as lawfull heire and very kyng of the realme of Fraunce: he 
therefore to shewe hymself as a kyng, erected his courte of Parliament, his Chauncery, and 
all other courtes in the citee of Poytiers, and there established his greate scale, with all due 
circumstaunces thervnto aperteinyng, whiche there continued by the space of. xiiij. yeres, as 
you shall after heare declared. The duke of Bedford liyng at Paris, entendyng there to bryng 
to obeisaunce Charles the dolphyn, or els to driue hym out of his litle cony holdes, and small 
countries, set the lorde Scales, sir Ihon Montgomery, sir Ihon Fastolfe, with two thousand 
men, to conquere the countries of Aniow and Mayn, whiche without assaulte hud rendred 
to the the strong castles of Beamount le Vicot, Teune, Silly, Oste, Courceriers, Rcussy, 
Vasse, Couetemenfit and twenty other, which for pfolixitie of tynie, I thynke necessary to 
be omitted. For surely the Englishe puyssaunce was so tried, proue'l, assaied, and spred 
abrode throughout all Fraunce, that the Frenche me thought that in conclusion the Eng- 
lishe men would haue, or should haue al thynges, which they either wished or enterpriscd. 
The duke of Bedford yet thirstyng after more good fortune, sent the erle of Salisbury, with 
a great armie accompanied with the Lorde Scales, and other approued capitaines, (whose 
names you haue heard before) into the countrees of Aniow & Mayn, which w'er euil neigh- 
bours to the duchy of Normandy: in whiche army wer. x. M. men of war or ther about. 
These lusty capitaines entered iirste into the countrey of Mayne, and beseged the richeand 
strong citee of Mauns, the chief toune emperie of all that country and region. And al- 
though the citezens, aswel for the sodain accesse of their enemies, as for the feare of the 
name of therle of Salisbury (whiche was both dread of his enemies, and honored of his 
frendes,) wer somewhat amased and astonied: Yet their capitaines named sir Baldwyn of 
Champaigne lord of Toisse, sir Guilliam de Marignie, and sir Hugh tie Goos, studied and 
inucuted all waies possible how to defend themselfes, and do damage and harrne to their 
enenves: and surely, they had within the toune a creive and a compainei of warlike and prac- 
tised s juldiors. The Englishmen approched as nigli to the walles as they might without their 
losse and detriment, and shot against their walles great stones out of great gonnes (which 
kynd of engines before y time, was very litle seen or heard of in Fraunce,) the strokes wherof 
so shaked, crushed and riued y walles, that within fewe daies, the citee was dispoyled of all 
her toures and outward defences. The citezens of Mauns muche merueilyng at these newe 
i orgayncs, bothe seyng their destruccio iminent, and desperate of all aide and succor, offered 
-! the toune vpon this condicion : that all persones whiche would tary within the toune might 
Abide, and all that would depart with horsse and harnesse onely, should be permitted: 
which offers were accepted, and the toune rendred, wherof the erle made capitain therle 
of Stiffolke, and his lieutenant sir Ihon Fastolfe. After this the said erle of Salisbury besieged 
the fa ire toune of sainct Susan, whereof was capitain, Ambrose de Lore, a ma of no lesse au- 
dacitie then pollicy, accompainied with a greate nombre of hardy men of warre. When the 
erle of Salisbury had bothe viewed and seen the siluacion and nature of the place, he de- 
termined to assault it in that place whiche was moste weake and worne: and so the trom- 
pettes blew to the assault and scalyng ladders were raised to the walles, and the Englishemen 
with grcatc noyse began to clime and ascende. The soukliors whiche durste not come out of 
the toune to encountre with the Englishe armie, manfully raune to the walles to resiste and 
delende the assaylantes. And so all that daie the assault with many aduentures still continued, 
and although the inhabitauntes and citezens were sore wounded, they neuer lefte of bothe to 
defende theimselfes, and to anoye and hurte their enemies. When therle perceiued that bv 
this light assault and slight skirmishe he lost somewhat, and gained nothyng, he made a waft 
.and cast a trenche round about y toune: & caused his great ordynance to be shotte at that 
part of the wall whiche was most feble and slender, and so daily and nightly he neuer ceassed 
to beate and breke doune the wall and toures: so that within twoo daies the moste part of 

the 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 127 

the wal was persed and cast doune to the ground. When the capitain perceiued these newe 
feateshe began toentreate, and offered for hymselfand his souldiors, twoo thousand crounes, 
so that they might departein their doublettes onely: so their Hues wer saued, whjche some 
because winter aproched, was taken and the toune yelded. Of the whiche toune he made 
eapitain, sir Ihon Popham, a valiaunt and a circuspect knight. After that the said erle be- 
sieged the toune and castle of Mayon la luhez, wherin was capitain the lorde of Escotaiz: 
whiche toune after the space of fiue wekes was yelded (the lifes of the defenders onely saued.) 
To the kepyng wherof he appointed sir Ihon Montgomery knight. And after the feast of 
the purificacion of our lady, he besieged the caslle de lafort Barnard: during which siege,. 
a sale was made of the toune of Ahinso, beyng in the Englishmens possession by a Gascoyn 
one of the gariso there, for. iiii.C. crounes, to Charles de Villiefs, Peter le Beuffe, and 
other Frenche capitaines. When the dale was apointed of the deliueraunce both of the 
toune and the money, the Gascoigne opened and discouered the whole agrement to the erle 
of Salisbury : which ordeined the lorde Willoughby and "eir Ihcn Fastolfe with two thou- 
sande Englishmen to encountre with the byers of the kyngcs toune of Alvison. At the daie 
apointed and tyme assigned, Charles de Villiers chief marchaunt of this riche enterprise, early 
in the mornyng with two. C. horssemen, and three hundred footemen approched nere the 
toune, and abidyng for the Gascoyne, he there displaied his banner, thynkyng triumphant- 
ly to entre into the toune: but it hapened otherwise. For or they wer ware, or suspected 
any rescues, they wer enuironed with the English armie, and slain & taken euery creature, 
sane Peter Danthenazy and. xxv. other, which by the swiftnes of their horsses saued the 
selfes. 

AFTER this conflict ended, the lorde Willoughby with his cdpany returned to therle of 
Salisbury, before the tonne le Fort Barnard: the capitaines wherof consideryng, that there 
was no hope of succor to be sente to theim, and that their vitaill diminished, and that they 
were not long able to abide the harde assaultes of the English nacion, rendered the tounc 
and castle, reseruyng to them their horsse and harneis onely, which toune tlierle receiued 
to the vse of the kyng: But the regent for the valiaunt seruice done by the erle, gaue the 
same toune to hym and to his heires for euer. Beside this therle partcly by assault, partely 
by composicion, toke diuerse other tounes, as sainct Kales, wher he made capitain, Richard 
Gethyne Esquier, Thanceaux Lennitage, where he made gouernor, Matthewe Gough, 
Guerlande, of the whiche he assigned ruler, lohn Eanaster, Malicprne, wherof he made 
capitain, William Glasdale esquier, Lisle soubz Boulto, wherof was made capitain, sir 
Lancelot Lisle knight, Lowpellande, whereof was made capitain, Henry Braunche, Mount- 
seur, of the whiche was made Cpnstable, sir WilliFi Oldhall knight, la Susze, was assigned 
to the kepyng of Iho Suffolk esquier, and beside this, aboue. xl. castles and piles wer ouer- 
throwen and destroyed. When the fame and report of these newcs wer blowen through 
Fraunce, some freated, some feared, and some raged for angre: But the veritie of al thynges 
beyng by the duke of Bedford declared into Englande, all men reioysed and wer very glad: 
not onely for the conquest of so many tounes, but also that God had sentc theim victcry in a 
pitched felde, and in a mortall battaill. Wherfore generall processions wer commaunded, 
to rendre to God almighty humble and harty thankes, by whose onely gift, and not by power 
of man, these notable victories wer gotten and achiued. 

IT is not couenient, that I should talke somuche of Fraunce, & omit al thynges clone in 
England. Wherfore you shall vnderstand, y about caster this yere, $ kyng called his high' 
court of parliamet, at his toune of Westminster, & comyng to the parliament hous he was 
coueighed through the citec vpon a great courser with great triiiph, which child was Judged 
of all men, not only to haue the very ymage, y liuely portrature, and louelv countenaunce of 
his noble parent and famous father, but also like to succede, and be his heire in all morall 
vertues, marcial Policies, and Princely feates, as he was vndoubted inheritor to his realmes, 
seigniories & dominions. In whiche parliament was graunted to the kyng a subsidy of. xii. . 
d. of the pound, towardes the mainteinauuce of the warres, of all m arc haun disc commyng 

iutc* i 



123 THE. III. YERE OF 

into this realme, or goyng out of thesame, besides other somes sette on euery tonne of li- 
quor and on cucrysacke of woolle, aswel of Englishe men, as of strangers Duryng wniche 
Parliamente came to London, Peter Duke of Quymber, sonne 10 the kyng of Ponvngale, 
and cosin germain remouedto the kyng, which of the Duke of Exeester and the bishop of 
Winchester his vncles, was highly i'estcd, and liberally rewarded, and was elected into the 
noble ordre of the Garter. Duryng whiche season, Edinonde Mortimer, the last Erie of 
Marche of that name (whiche long tyme had been restrained from his liberty, and finally 
waxed lame) disceased without issue, whose inheritaunce discended to lorde Uicharde Plan- 
tagenet, sonnc and heire ;to Richard erle of Cambridge, belicded. as you haue heard be- 
fore, at the toune of Southhapton. Whiche Richard within lesse then. xxx. yeres, as heire 
to this erle Edmond, in ope parliament claimed the croune and scepter ot this realme, as 
herafter shal more manifestly appere. In the tyme of which Parliament also, whether it 
were, either for, deserte or malice, or to auoyde thynges that might chaunce, accordyng to a 
prouerbe, whiche sailh, a dead man doth no harme: Sir Ihon Mortimer cosin to the said erle 
was attainted of treason and put to execution: of whose death no small slaunder arose 
emongest the common people. 

AFTER all these actes done in Englande, and in Fraunce, Humfrey duke of Gloucester, 
with the lady laquet his supposed wife, passed the sea and came to Mons in Henawde, 
and there by force tokeall suche landes, as Ihon duke of Brabant her first husband hud in 
possession of the said lady laquet, which doyng, Philippe duke of Burgoyne, bevng grcate 
frende to the duke of Brabant, muche disdained and more frouned at, and thought for the 
olde loue and familiaritie, that he bare to the duke of Gloucester, that he would by frendly 
monicion, turne hym fiom his vnhonest and vngodly life, to a reasonable reformation, and 
brotherly conforrnitie. Wherfore he wrote louyugly to hym, that he should vtterly leaue of 
any further Lo folowe thatnewe attempted enterprise, aduerlisyng hym, and protesting open- 
ly, that the vsurpyng and wrongfully withholdyng of another marines possession, was not so 
vile and slaunderous, as the deh'lyng of a pure & cleane bedde, and adulteriously kepyng the 
wife of his christe brother. The duke of Gloucester beyng in this case very wilful), either 
blinded with dotage, or inflamed with coueteousnesse of his wifes possessions, regardyng 
neither the admonishement of the duke of Brabant, nor yet the godly aduertisement of the 
duke of Burgoyn, sware that he would not leaue of to make farther war, till he had ex- 
pulsed the duke of Brabant, out of his wifes seigniories, territories & dominions. Wher- 
fore, the duke of Burgoyn assembled together V*;teat armie to make war on the duke of 
Gloucester, in the cause & quarel of the duke of Brabant his (Vend and cosyn. The duke, 
of Gloucester, partly for great affaires, that then were imminent in the realme of England, 
and partly to assemble more people, to resist and withstad the power of the dukes of Bur- 
goyn and Braban', left his wife at Mons in Henaude, with the lordes of the toune, whicho 
sware to hym, to defend and kepe her against all men, till the tyme of his returne. Wher- 
fore he leauyng with her twoo thousand Englishmen, departed to Calice, and so into En- 
glande. 

WHEN he was gone, the duke of Burgoyn so threatened, so vexed, yea, and almost so 
famished them within the toune of Mons, that they deliucred into his possession the lady 
laquet or lacomyne: whiche incotinent sent her to Gaunt, wher she disguised her self in a 
nianncs apparel, and so escaped into a toune of her awne in Zelande, called Zirice, and fro 
thence she was conueigcd to a toune in Holland called Tregowe, where she was honorably re- 
ceiucd, & there made herself strong to witlnlande her enemies : And for her succor the Duke 
of Gloucester sent to her fiue hundred mg. The dukes of Burgoyn and Brabant left her not 
all in quiet, but brent her tonnes in Holland, and slewe her people in Zelande to her greate 
detriment and displeasure. But inconclusion, this matter was brought before Martyn the. v. 
bishop of Home: whiche adiudged the first matrimony with duke Ihon of Brabant, to be 
good and effectuall, and the seconde espousals celebrated with duke Humfrey of Gloucester, 
to bee of no value, force nor effecte: and that if the duke of Brabant died, it should not be 

4 lawfull 



KYNG HENRY THE. VL 129 

lawfull to the duke of Gloucester, to niary again with the lady laquet. The duke of Glouces- 
ter, obeiyng to this sentence, beganne to waxe lothe of his supposed wife, by who he neuer 
had profile butlosse : for whose cause his frendes became hisenemies, & for whose sake he was 
openly slaundered. Wherfore he, by wanton affeccion blinded, toke to his wife Elianor Cob- 
ham doughter to the lord Cobham, of Sterberow, whiche before (as the fame wet) was hia 
soueraigne lady and paramour, to his great slaunder and reproche. And if he wer vnquiet- 
ed with his other pretensed wife, truly he was tenne tymes more vexed, by occasion of this 
woman, as you shall herafcer plainly perceiue: so that he began his manage with euiil, and 
ended it with worse. The Lady laquet after the death of Ihon duke of Brabant, maried a 
gentleman of meane estate, called Frake of Bursellen, for the whiche cause the duke of 
Burgoyn imprisoned her hou'sbande, and left her in greate trouble: suche was the ende of 
these twoo manages. 

/ 

5f THE FOURTH YERE. 

A litle before this tyme, sir Thomas Rampstone, sir Philip Branche, sir Nicholas Bur- The, iiii. 
deit, and other Englisheiuen to the n ombre of. v. hundred men, repaired and fortified the ^ re - 
toune of sainct lames de Leitron, on the frontiers of Normandy, adioynyng to Britayn. Ar- 
thure erle of Richemondand Jury brother to the duke of Britayn, whiche like an vntrue gen- 
tleman, sworne and foisworne to the king of England, sodainly fled to Charles the Dolphin: 
whiche mnche reioysyng of his fauor and amity, gaue to hym the Constableship of Fraiice 
whiche therle of Boughan slain before at Vernoyl, a small tyme occupied, and lesse space en- 
ioyed. This newe Constable not a litle ioyful of his high office, thought to do some pleasure 
to y dolphyn his master, & lo aduuuce his name at the first entry into his authoritie, he ima- 
gined no enterprise to be to him more honorable, nor to his prince more acceptable, then to 
auoyde and driue out of the toune of sainct lames de Beueon, al the Englishe nacion. So 
in hope of victory gathered together a boue. xl.M. men, of Britons, Frenchmen and Scottes, 
and enuironed the toune of sainct lames, or sainct laques de Beuron, with a strong siege. 
The Englishmen within, whiche in nombre passed not vi.C. men, manfully defended the 
daily assaultes of the fierce Frenchmen. The Englishemen consulted together what waie 
was best to bee taken : and after long debatyng, thei determined to issue out of y toune and 
to fight with their enemies. So on a daie, when the Britons were weried with a long assulte, 
towardes the euenyng the Englishmen came out of the toune, one part by the posterne of 
the Castle, and another part by the gate of the toune, criyng sainct George, Salisbury: 
and set on their enemies bothe before and behind. The Frenchmen scyng the corage of 
the Englishmen, and hearyng their crie, thyokyng that therle of Salisbury was come to 
raise the siege, ramie awaie like shepe, and there wer taken, slain and drouned in the water, 
of them. iiii. thousand men and mo. Beskles this, these ioly galhuUes left behyndc theim 
for hast, all their tentes. xiiii. greate gonnes, and. xl. barrelles of pourier. CCC. pipes of 
wine, CC. pipes of bisket and fioure, CC. frailes of Figges and resons, and. v.C. barrelles 
of heryng. 

THE Frenchmen (beyng thus vanquished) fel in diuision emongest theunselfes : the one 
laiyng to the charge of the other, the losse of their men and the. cause of their fliyng. 
Sucheis euer the chauce of the war, that when victorie is obteined, the moste coward and faint 
harted boy will boste and bragge, and when the battaill is loste, the faulte is assigned to the 
beste, and not to the wourste. The newe Constabte was sore dismaied & muche ashamed of 
this discomfiture and shamefull flight, but there was no remedy but pacience : But to the 
entent to blotte out and deface this shatnfull fliyng with a notable victory, he with a great 
armie entered into the countrey of Aniowe, and brente, spoyled and destroyed two or thre 
at the moste, litle poore thetched villages: Whiche smal acte done, his malice was queched, 
his old grief (as he thought) victoriously reuenged. 

S IN 



130 THE. IIIJ. YFJIE OF 

IN this season fell a greate diuision in the realiue of England, which, of a sparcle was; 
like to growe to a Create flame : For whether the bishop of Winchester called Henry Beau- 
fort, sonne to Ihon Duke of Lancastre, by his third wife, cnuied tlie authoritee of Hum- 
freyduke of Gloucester Protector of the realmc, or whether the duke had taken disdain at 
the riches and pompous estate of the bishop, sure it is that the whole realm was troubled 
with them and their partakers: so that the eitezens of London fearvng that that should in- 
sue vpon the matter, wer faine to kepe daily and nightly, watches, as though their enemies 
were at hande, to besiege and destroye them: In so inuchc that all the shoppes within the 
citie of London wer shut in for feare of the fauorers of those two greate personages, for 
eche parte had assembled no small n ombre of peoj)le. For paciliyng whereof, tiie Arche- 
bishop of Cantorbury, and the duke of Quymbcr called the prince of Portyngalc, rode 
eight tymes in one daie betwene the twoo aduersaries, and so the matter was staied for that 
tyme. The bishoppe of Winchester not content with his nephewe the lorde Protector, 
sente a letter to the Kegente of Fraunce, the tenor wherof insueth. 

" RIGHT high and mighty prince, and my right noble and after one, leuest lord, I 
recommend me vnto you with all my harte. And as you desire the welfare of the kyng our 
souereigne lord, and of his realmes of England and Fraunce, and your a\vne health and 
ours also, so hast yon hether. For by my trouth if you tary, we shall put tin's lande in ad- 
uenture, with a felde, suchc a brother you haue here, God make hym a good man. For 
your wiscdom knouclh, that the profile of Fraunce stiideth in the welfare of England, &c. 
Written in great hast on Alhallow euen. By your true seruant to my lifes ende. Henry 
Wynchester." 

THE duke of Bedford beyng sore greued and vnquieted with these newes, constituted the 
erleof Warwicke, whiche was lately come into Fraunce, with sixe thousande men his lieuete* 
minute in the Frenche dominions and in the duchy of Normandy, and so with a small company, 
he with the duches his wife, returned again ouer the seas into Englad and the tenth day of 
lanuary, he was with all solemnitie receiued into London, to whom the eitezens gaue a 
paire of basynnes, and a thousande marke in money, and from London he rode to West- 
minster, and was lodged in the kynges palaice. The. xxv. daie of Marche after his comyng 
to London, a parliamet began at the toune of Leicester, where the Duke of Bedford open- 
ly rebuked the Lordes in generall, because thit they in the tyme of warre, through their 
prkiie malice and inward grudge, had almostc meued the people to warre and coinmocion, 
in which tyme all men, ought or should be of one mynde, harte and consent: requiryng 
them to defend, serue and drede their soueraigne lorde kyng Henry, in perfourmyng his 
conquest in Fraunce, whiche was in maner brought to conclusion, in this parliament the 
Duke of Gloucester, laied certain articles to the bishop of Winchesters charge, the 
whiche with the aasweres herafter do ensue. 

f The articles of accusation, and accord, betwene my Lord of Gloucester!, and my 

lorde of Wynchester. 

HEre insueth the articles, as the kynges counsaill hath conceiued, the which the high 
and mighty prince, my lord of Gloucester, hath surmised vpon my Lord of Wynchester 
Chancellour of Englande, with the ansvrere to thesame. 

1 FIRST, where as he beyng protector and defender of this lande, desired the toure to be 

opened to him, and to lodge him therein, Richard Woodeuile esquire, hauyng at that 
jyme the charge of the kepyng of the toure, refused his desire, and kepte the same toure 
against hym, vnduly and against reason, by the commaundement of my saied Lord of 
Winchester : and afterward in approuyng of thesaid refuse, he receiued thesaid Wodeuile, 
and cherished hym against the state and worship of the kyng, and of my saied lorde of 
Gloucester. 

ITEM 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 131 

ITEM my said lorde of Winchester, without the aduise and assent of my said lorde of 2 
Gloucester, or of the kynges counsail, purposed and disposed hym to set liande on the 
kynges persone, and to haue remoucd hym from Eltham, the place that he was in to Wind- 
sore, to the entent to put him in suchegouernaunce as him list. 

ITEM, that where my said lord of Gloucester, to whom of al persones or that should 3 
be in the lande, by the waie of nature and birthe, it belongeth to se the gouernaunce of 
the kynges person, informed of the said vndue purpose of my saied lord of Winchester, 
declared in the articles nexte aboue saied. And in lettyng thereof, determinyng to haue 
gone to EltbFi vnto the king, to haue prouided as the cause required. My saied lorde of 
Winchester, vntruly and against the kynges peace, to the entent to trouble my said lord 
of Gloucester goyng to the kyng purposyng his death in case that he had gone that way, 
set men of armes and archers, at thende of London bridge next Southwerke : and in for- 
barryng of the kynges high way, let drawe the cheineof the stulpes there and set vp pipes 
and hardelles, in maner and forme of Bulwarkes: and set men in chambers, sellers and 
windowes, with bowes and arrowes and other weapons, to thentent to bryng to final de- 
struccion my saied lorde of Gloucesters persone, aswcll us of those that then should come 
with hym. 

ITEM my saied lorde of Gloucester saith and affirmeth, that our souereignc lorde his 4 
brother, that was kyng Henry the fifth, told hym on a time, when our said souereigne 
lorde beyng prince, was lodged in the palaice of Westminster in the greate chambre, by the 
noyse of a spanyell there was on a night a man espied and taken behynd a t.ipet of the said 
chambre, the whiche man was deliuered to therle of Arundell to be examined vpon the 
cause of his beyng there at that tyme. The which so examined at that time, confessed that 
he was there by the steryng vp and procuryng of my saied Lorde of Winchester, ordained 
to haue slain thesaied prince there in his bedde: Wherfore thesaid erle of Arrudell let 
sacke hym forthwith, and drouned hym in the Thamise. 

ITEM our souereigne lorde that was, kyng Henry the fifth, said vnto my said lorde of ^ 
Gloucester, that his father kyng Henry the fourth lining, and visited then greatly with sickc- 
nes of the hande of God, my saied lorde of Winchester saied vnto the kyng (Henry the fifth 
then beyng prince) that the kyng his father, so visited with sickcnessc was not personable: 
and therfore not disposed to come in conuersacion and gouernaunce of the people, and for 
so uuichc couasailed hym to take the gouernaunce and croune of this lande vpon hym. 

f The answere of the bishop. 

HEre enfiueth the answeresand excusacions made by my lord of Wynchester Chauncel- 
lour of Englande, vnto the causes and matters of heuinesse, declared in articles against 
hym, by my lorde of Gloucester. 

FIRST, as of the refuse made vnto my Lord of Gloucester, of opcnyng the toure to 
hym, of his lodgyng therin, by the coinanndement of my saied lorde of Wynchester, he 
answercth : that in the presence of my said lorde of Gloucester, before his commyng out of 
his countey of Henawd, for causes such as wer thought reasonable, it seineth lefull that the 
toure should haue been notably stuft'ed and kept with vitaile, how belt, it was not forthwith 
executed, and that in likewise after, that my saied lorde of Gloucester was gone into his saied 
countrey of Henawd for scdicious and odious billes & language, cast and vsed in the cite of 
London, sounyng of insurreccion & rebellion against the kinges peace, and destruccion 
aswel of diuerse estates of this land, as straungers beyng vnder the defence, in so muche 
that in doubt therof, straungers in great nombre fled the land-- & for the more sure kepyng of 
thesaid toure, Richard Wooduile squire, so trusted with y kyng our souereigne lorde that 
dead is, (as wel ye knowe) and also chamberlain & counsauer vnto my lord of Bedford, 
with a certain nombre of defensible persones assigned vnto him, was made deputie ther, by 
thassent of J kynges cousail being that tyme at London, for to abide therin forsafe<*ard ther- 

f,o 



132 THE. IIIJ. YERE OF 

of, and straightly charged by thesaied counsaill, that duryng that tyme of his saied charge, he 
should not suffreany man to bee in the toure stronger then hymself, without especial charge 
or cominaundement of the kyng by thaduise of his counsaill. 

ITEM that after, sone vpon the comyng of my saied lorde of Gloucester into this lande 
from his countrey of Henawd, the saied lordes of the kynges counsaill were enformed, that 
my saied lorde of Gloucester, grudged with thesaid maner of enforcyng the toure, and let 
sale to the of London, that he had wel vnderstand, that they had been heuyly thretened for 
the tyme of his absence, and otherwise then they should haue bcne if he had be in this land. 
Wherfore he was right euil contented, & especial of the said forcyng of the toure, set vpon 
the in maner of a chast vilain. Consideryng the good equitie and trouthe that thei had al- 
wayes kept vnto the kyng, offeryng them therupon remedy if they would. 

3 ITEM that after this, Richard Scot liuetenaunt of the toure, by the coinmaundemet of 
my said lorde of Gloucester, brought vnto hym Frier Randolfe, the whiche had long before 
confessed treason, doen by hym against the kynges person that dead is, for the whiche know- 
ledge he was put to be kepte in the saied toure, and straightly commaunded vnder great 
paingeuen vnto the saied Scotte, to kepe hym straightly and surely, and not to let hym out 
of the saied toure, without commaudement of the kyng, by thaduise of his counsail. The 
which saied Frier Randolf, my said of lorde Gloucester kept then with hymself (not wittyng 
the said Scot) as he declared vnto my said lorde of Winchester. Sone after that he had 
brought the said Frier Randolf vnto my lorde of Gloucestre, saiyng vnto my saied lorde of 
Winchester, that he was vndone but he helped hym, and expressed as for cause of the saied 
withholdyng of Frier Randolf: And saying more ouer, that when he desired of my said 
lorde of Gloucestre, the deliueraunce of the said Frier Randolfe, to leade hym again vnto 
the toure, or sufficient warraunt for his discharge, my said Lorde of Gloucestre aunswered 
hym, that his cominaundement was sufficient warraunt and discharge for hym. In the 
whiche thyng aboue saied, it was thought to my Lorde of Wynchester, that my saied lorde 
of Gloucester, toke vpon hym further then his authoritie stretched vnto, and caused hym 
for to doubte & dreade, leaste that he would haue proceaded further. And atsuche tyme as 
the saied Woodeuile came vnto him to aske his aduise and counsaill, of lodgyng of my saied 
lorde of Gloucester into the toure : he aduised and charged him, that before he suffered my said 
lorde of Gloucester or any person lodge therin stronger then hymself, he should purvey 
hym a sufficient warraunt therof, of the kyng by thaduise of his counsaill. 

4 ITEM as to the saied article of the foresaied causes of heuinesse, my saied Lorde the 
Chaunccllor answereth, that he neuer purposed to set hande on the kynges person, nor to 
remoue hym, or that he shoulde bee remoued, or put in any maner of gouernaunce, but by 
thaduise of the kynges counsaill. For he could not conceiue any maner of goodnes or of 
aduauntage that might haue growen vnto hym therof: But rather grcate perill and charge, and 
hereof my saied Lorde of Winchester is redy to make profe in tyme and place conuenient. 

5 ITEM, as to the third article of the farsaid causes and heuinesse, my said lorde Chaan- 
cellor answereth, that he was ofte and diuerse tymes warned by diuerse credible persones, 
aswell at the tyme of the kynges laste Parliament, holden at Westminster, as before and 
cithe, that my said lorde of Gloucester, purposed him bodely harme, and was warned 
therof, and counsailed by the saied persones, and that diuerse tymes to abstain hym fro 
commyng to Westminster, as my said Lorde of Winchester declared vnto my saied lorde of 
Gloucester. 

6 ITEM, that in the tyme of thesaied Parliament diuerse persones of lowe estate, of the 
citee of London in great nobre, assembled on a daie vpon the Wharffe, at the Crane of the 
Vintry, wished and desired that they had there the persone of my Lord of Winchester, 
saiyng: that they would haue throwen hym into the Thamise, to haue taught hym to swymme 
with winges. For whiche bilies and language of slander and threatenynges, cast & spoken 
in the said cite, by my said lord the Chancellor, caused hym to suppose, that they had so 
saied and did, willed and desired his destruceion, although they had no cause. 

ITEM 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. U'3 

ITEM, that after the comyng to London of sir Raufc Botiller and master Lewes, sent 7 
fro my Lorde of Bedford, to the rest of the lordes of the counsaill, they beyng in- 
formed that my saied Lorde of Gloucester, did beare displeasure to rny saied Lorde of Win- 
chester: They catne to my saied lorde of Gloucester to his Ynne, the second Sondaie next 
before Alballowen daie, and there opened vnto him, that they had knowledge and vnder- 
derstandyng of thesaied displeasure, praiyng hym to lette theim knowe if he -bare suche 
displeasure against my saied Lorde of Winchester, and also the causes thereof. At the 
whiche tyme (as my said lorde of Winchester was afterward informed) that my sated lorde 
of Gloucester, affirmed that he was heuy towarde hym, and not withoutten causes that par- 
aduenture he would put in vvrityng. 

ITEM, that after the Modaie next before Alhallowen daie last past in the night, the 8 
people of thesaid citee of London, by the commaundement of my said lorde of Glouces- 
ter, as it was said: For what cause my lorde the Chancellor wist not, assembled in the 
citee, armed and arraied and so continued all that night. Emongest diuerse of the whiche, 
(the same night by what excitacion, my said lorde the Chauncellor wist not) seclicious and 
heuie language was vsed, and in especiall against the persone of my saied lorde the Chauti- 
cellor. And so the same Mondaie at night, my saied Lorde of Gloucester, sent vnto the- 
Ynnes of Courte at London, chargyng them of the Court dwellyng in thesame to be with 
hym vpon the morowe, at eight of the clocke in their best arraie. 

ITEM that on the morowe, beyng Tewesday next folowyng early, my saied lorde of 9 
Gloucester, sent vnto the Maire and Aldermen of the saied citee of London, to ordain hyrn 
vnto the nombre of three hundred persones on horssebaeke, to accompany hym to suche 
place as he disposed hym to ride, which (as it was saied) was vnto the kyng, to thentent to 
haue his persone, and to remoue hym from the place that he was in, without assent or 
aduise of the kynges counsail, the whiche thyng was thought vnto- my saied lorde the Chaun- 
cellor, that he ought in nowise to haue doen, nor had not been sene so before. 

ITEM that mv saied lorde the chauncellor, consideryng the thynges aboue said, and 10 
doubtyng therfore of perelles that might haue insued thereof, intendyng to purueye there 
against, and namely for his awne suretie and defence, accordyng to the lawe of nature, or- 
dained to let that no force of people, should come on the bridge of London towarde hym, 
by the whiche he or his might haue been indaungered or noyed, not intendyng in any wise, 
bodely harme vnto my saied lorde of Gloucester, nor to any other person, but ouely his 
awne defence end eschcwyng the perell abouesaied. 

ITEM as toward the fourth and iifth of the saied articles, my loide the Chauncellor an- j j 
swereth, that he was eucr true, to al those that wer his soueraigne Lordes, and reigned 
vpon hym, and that he neuer purposed treason nor vntrouth against any of their persones, 
and in especiall against the persone of our saied soueraigne lorde kyng Henry the fifth. 
The whiche consideryng the greate wisedome, trouthe and manhod, that al men knewe in 
hym, ne would not for the tyme that he was kyng, haue set on my said lorde the Chauncel- 
lor so greate truste as he did, if he had founde, or thought in hym suche vntrouthe. The 
whiche thyng tny saied Lorde the Chauncellor, olfred to declare and shewe, as it belogeth 
to a man of his estate to do, requiryng thervpon my lord of Bedford, and all the lordes 
spiritual! and temporal in this parliamet, that it might be sene, that there wer judges co- 
uenient in this case, that they would do hym right, or els that he might haue leaue of the 
kyng by their aduise, to go sue his right, before hym y ought to be his iudge. 

AND as towarde the letter sent by my lord of Winchester, vnto my lord of Bedford, jg 
of the whiche the tenor is before rehersed, of the which my lorde of Gloucestre complain- 
ed hym of the malicious and vntrue purpose of my said lord of Winchester, as toward 
the assernblyng of the people and gatheryng of a feld in the kynges lade in troublyng there-f, 
and against thelcinges peace: My said lorde of Winchester answereth, that of his said let- 
ters duely vnderstande, & in suche wise as he vnderstod and meant in the writyng of them, 
it maie not reasonably be gathered and taken, that my saied lorde of Winchester, intended- 

to 



THE, 1113. YERE OF 

to gather any fe!d or assemble people, in troublyng of the kynges land, and against the 
fringes peace, but rather he purposed to acquitc hyin to the kyng in his trouthe, and to 
kepe the rest and peace in the kytigcs land, and to eschew rebellion, disobedience and all 
trouble. For by that that in the begin nyng of the said letter, he callcth my said lorde of 
Bedford, his Icuest lorde, after one, that is the kyng, whom he ought to except of dutie of 
hio t ron the, the whiche he imth euer kept and will kcpe. 

13 MOREOVER in the saicd letlre, he desireth the commyng home of my Lorde of Bed- 
forde, for the welfare of the kyng and of his realmes of England and of I'raunce. the 
whiche stande principally in his kcpyng of rest and peace, and praicth my saied lorde of 
Bedford, to spede his commyng into England, in cscliewyng of ieoperdy of the land, and 
of a felde the whiche he drade hym, might haue folowed if he had long taried : As toward 
those wordes, and ye tary we shall put this land in aduenture with a feld, suche a brother 
ye liaue here, &c. My saicd lord of Winchester saieth, lhesothei: before or he wrote 
thesaied letter, by occasion of certain ordinaunces, made by the Mairc and Aldermen of 
London, against the excess! ue taking of Masons, Carpentars, Tilers, Plasterers and other 
laborers, for their daily iorneis and approued by the kynges aduise and his counsaill, there 
were caste many heuinesses and sedicious billes, vnder the names of suche laborers, thret- 
enyng risyug with many thousandes, and manassyng of estates of the lando, and likewise 
sedicious and euill language sowen, .and .so continued and likely to haue sued of purpose 
and intent of disobedience and rebellion. To redressyng of the v.hiche, it seined to my 
forde the Chauncellor, that my said lorde of Gloucester, did not his endeuor, nor diligence 
that he might haue shewed, for lacke of whiche diligence, they that were disposed to do 
disobeysaunce, were incoraged and inboldened. So that it was like that they should haue 
made a gathcryng, and that the kyng and his true subiectes, should haue been compelled 
to haue made a felde, to haue withstand theim, the which feld makyng had been ad- 
tienturyng of this lande. And in tokenyng that it was neucr my said lorde Chauncellors 
intent to gather no feld, but as trouth moste stirred hyin against suche as riotously, would 
make suche assemble against our soueraigne Lorde, and the weale of this land : He de- 
sired so hastely, the commyng of my saied Lorde of Bedforde, the whiche he would in 
no wise haue so greatly desired, if he would haue purposed hym vnto any vnlawful makyng 
of a feld, for he wist wel that my said lorde of Bedford would moste sharply haue chastised 
and punished, all those that so would any riotous assehle make. When this answere was 
made, the duke caused this writyng folowyng, opely to be proclaymed. 

14 Beit knowen to all folkes, that it is the intent of my lord of Bedford, and all the lordes 
spiritual! and temporal!, assembled in this present parliament, to acquite hym and them, 
and to precede truly, iustely and indifferently, without any parcialitie, in any maner of 
matters or querelles, moued or to bee moued, betwene my Lorde of Gloucester, on that 
one partie, and my lorde of Winchester, Chauncellor of England on that other party. 
And for sure kcping of the kynges peace, it is accorded by my saied lorde of Bedford, and 
by my saied lordes spiritual and temporal!, an othe to be made, in forme that foloweth, 
that is to saie. 

f The Othe of the lordes. 

TMat my saied lorde of Bedford, and my saied lordes spiritual and temporal, and eche 
of them, shal as farfurth as their connynges and discrecions suffisen, truly, iustly, and in- 
differently, cousaill and aduise the kyng, and also procede and acquite them self, in al the 
said matters and quarelles, without that they, or any of theim, shall priuely and appertly, 
make or shewe hymself to be party or parciall thcrin, not leuyng or eschewyng so to do, 
for affcccion, loue, mede, doubt, or dreade of any persoue or persones. And that they 
shall in all wise, kepe secrete all that shalbe commoned by waie of counsuill, in the mat- 
ters and quarelles abouesaid, in the said parliament, without that they or any of them shall 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 135 

by worde, writyng of the kyng, or in any wise open, or discouer it to any of thesaid par- 
ties, or to any other person that is not of the saied counsail. But if lie haue a speciall 
commaundement or leaue thereto of tlie kyng, or of my saied lorde of Bedfordc, and that 
eche of them shall, with all his might and power, assist by waie of counsaill, and els shewc 
it vnto tlie kyng, my lordc of Bedibrdc, and to the rest of my said lordes, to put the said 
parties to reaso, and not suffer that any of the saied parties, by them or by their assistentes, 
procede or attempte by waie of feit against the kynges peace: nor helpe, assiste, or comfort 
any of them thereto, but let them witli all their might and power, and withstands them, 
and assist vnto the kyng and my saied Lord of Bedfordc, in-kepyng of the kynges peace, 
and redressyng all such maner of procedyng by waie of foil or force. 

5f The Dukes. The Lord Cromcwell. 

The Duke of Bedford. The Lord Bovoughth. 

The Duke of Norffolke. The Lord Louell. 

The Duke of Excestrc. The Lord Botreux. 

<f Bisshoppes. The Lord Clynton. 

The Archebishop of Canterbury- The Lord Zouche. 

The Bishop of Carlisle. The Lord Audeley. 

The Bishop of Bathe. The Lord Ferreis of Grobv. 

The Bishop of Landaffe. The Lord Talbot. 

The Bishop of Rochestre. The Lord Roos. 

The Bishop of Chichcster. The Lord Grey. 

The Bishop of Worcester. The lord Grey of Ruff 

The Bishop of Sainct Dauies. The Lord Fitzwalter. 

The Bishop of London. The Lord Berkeley. 

The Bishop of Durcsme. f Abhottes. 

^jErles. The Abbot of Waltlmm. 

The Erie of Northumberlande. The Abbot of Glaustinbtiry. 

The Erie of Staffurde. The Abbot of saincte Augustines in Can- 

The Erie of Oxforde. torbury. 

Lordes. The Abbot of Westminster. 

The Lord Hungerforde. The Abbot of Sainct Maries in Yorko. 

Tlie Lord Tiptoft. The Abbot of saincte Albons, not sworn*- 

The Lord Ponyngcs. because hewas not presente. 

WHICHE othe in maner and forme aboue rehersed, all the lordes aswell spirituall a 
temporal!, beyng in this parliamft at Leicester assembled the tburthe daic of Marche, pro- 
mised vpon their faithe, dutie and allegeaunce, whiche they owe to the kyng their soueraigne 
Lorde, truly to obserue and kepe, accordyng to the true meanyng and purport of thesame 

^[ The Arbitrement. 

IN the name of God, we Henry Archebishop of Canterbury, Thomas Duke of. Excester, 
Ihon Duke of Norffolke, Thomas bishop of Duresme, Philip bishop of Worcester, Ihon 
bishop of Bathe, Humfrey erle of Stafford, William Alnewike keper of the kynges priuie 
Scale, Ranffe lorde of Cromwell, arbitratoures in all maner of causes, matters and quarel.s 
of heuinesses and greuaunces, with all incidentz, circumstaunces, dependentes, or. connexes, . 
lieyng and hagyng betwene the high and worthy prince Hufrey Duke of Gloucester, on tlie 
one partie, and the worshipful father in God, Henry bishop of Winchester and Chauncellor 
of England, on the other partie, by either of theim for the peacyng of the saied quarelles and- 
debate?, taken nnd chosen in maner and forme; as it is conteined more plainly in a compri- 
iresse made theiupon, of the whiche the tenor sheweth in this forme. 

MEMORANDVM the. vii. daie of Marche, in the. iiij. yere of our soueraigne Ijordeithe 
kyng, Henry the sixt. The high and mightie prince Humfrey duke. of Gloucsstre, atlbe re- 

3 uerence 



THE. IIIJ. YE RE OF 

ucrcncc of God, and for the good of the kyng our soucraigne Lorde in this lande, and namely 
at the rcneix'ce, and specially at the request and praier of the mightie and highe prince my 
lord of Bedford his brother, agreed hym to put and putteth all maner matters and queralles 
in deede, with all their nicidentez, circumstaunces, dependentz and connexes, that touchen 
liyni and his persone, that lie hath in anywise, do, or feleth hym greued, or heuy against 
iny lorde his vncle, my Lorde of Winchester. Or els that my Lorde of Winchester findeth 
him greued against hym, in asmuchc as they touch hym or his persone, fro the beginnyng of 
the wbrlde vnto this daie. Jn the aduise, ordinaunce and arbitrament of the worthy father 
in GOD, Henry Archbishop of Canterbury, the high and noble prince Thomas duke of Ex - 
'tester, and Ihon duke of Norffolke, the worshipfull father in God Thomas bishop ofDu- 
resmc, Philip bishop of Worcester, Iho bishop of Bathe. The noble lorde Ilumfrey erle of 
Stafford, the worshipfull persones, Master William Alnewike keperof the kynges priuy seale r 
and Haufe lorde Crurmvel, promisyng and behightyng, by the faith of his body, and worde 
of his princehode and kynges sonne, to do kepe, obserue and fulfil, for hym and in his behalf, 
all that shalbe declared, ordeined and arbitred, by the forsaid Archebishop, Dukes, bishop- 
j>es, Erie, Keper of the priuie scale, and lorde Cruwell, in all matters and querelles aboue 
saied: Grauntyng also and promisyng ouer that, to be comprehended in the forsaied arbi- 
tretnent, as toward puttyng awaie all heuinesse or displeasures in any wise conteined by 
my lorde of Gloucester, against all those that haue in any wise assisted, counsailed, or fa- 
uorcd vnto his said vncle of Winchester, and as toward any matters, that be touchyng 
my Lord of Gloucester, remitteth it and the gouernaunce thereof vnto the kyng and 
his counsaill, they to dome it by the aduise of his counsaill, as hym thynketh it to be 
doen. In witncsse of the whiche thyng, to this present compromise, my said lorde of Glou- 
cester, hath subscribed his name with his awne hande, Humfrey Gloucester. And in like 
forme, my Lorde of Winchester in another compromise, hath suscribed with his awne hande, 
vnder the worde of priestehod, to stande at the aduise, ordinaunce and arbitremet of the 
persones abouesaied, Mutatis Mutandis. 

THE causes beforsaied and querelles by vs sene, heard, and diligently examined and de- 
creed, by the assent of the saied parties, ordeine and award, that my lordes of Gloucester 
and of W inches ter, for any thyng doen or spoken, by that one purtie against that other, or by 
any of theirs or any other persone or persones, afore the. vii. daie of this present Moncth of 
Marche, ncuer hereafter take causes, querelles, displeasures or heuinesses, that one against 
theother, ne nether against thecounsailers, adherentes or fauorers of that other, for any thing 
or thynges that are past. And that my saied lorde of Gloucester, bee good Lorde to my 
saied Lorde of Winchester, and haue hym in loue and affeccion as his kynsemen and Vncle. 
And that my saied Lorde of Winchester, haue to my saied Lorde of Gloucester, true and 
s:\dde loue and affeccion, do and bee ready to do to hym suche seruice, as aperteineth of 
'honesty to my saied Lorde of Winchester and his estate todoo. And that eche of theim be 
good Lord vnto all those adherentes, counsailers and fauorers of that other, and shewe theim 
;it all tymes fauorable loue and affeccion, as for any thyng doen by them, or saied afore the 
scuenth daie of Marche. 

AND we derre, ordaiue and awarde, that my saied Lorde of Wynchester, in the pre- 
sence of the kyng oure soueraigne Lorde, my Lorde of Bedfordr, and my Lorde of 
Gloucester, and the rcsydue of the Lordes Spirituall and Temporal!, and' Commons 
beeyng in this prcsente Parlyamente, saye and declare in maner and forme that foloweth. 

MY soueraigne Lorde I haue well vnderstande, that I am noysed emong the states of your 
land, how that the kyng our soueraigne lorde that was that tyme, beyng prince and lodged 
iu thegreate chambreat Westminster, by the baiyngof a spanyell, there was on a night taken, 
behynJ a tapet in thcsame chamber, a man, that should haue confessed, that he was thereby 
myne excitacion and procuryng to haue slain theforesaied Prince there in his bedde, where- 
vpon thesaied erle, let sacke hym furthwith, and drouned hym in the Thamise. And fur- 
thermore I am accused, how that I should haue stirred the kyng that last died, the tyme also 
that he was Prince, to haue taken the gouernaunce of this rcalme, and the croune vpo him, 

1 liuyng 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 137 

liuyng his father the same tyme beyng kyng: Through whiche language and uoysyng, I feie 
my name and fame greatly emblemmisshed, in diuerse inenhes opinions. Where vpon I take 
h'rste God to my witnesse, and afterwarde all the worlde, that I haue been at all tymes, am 
true louer and true man, to you my soueraigne Lorde, and shalbe all my life. And also I 
haue bene to my soneraigne lorde, that was your father, all tyme of his reigne, true man: 
and for suche, he toke trust and cherished me to his Hues end, and as I trust no man nil 
affirme the contrary, nor neuer in my life procuryng, nor imagenyng death nor destruccio of 
his person, ne assentyng to any such thyn'g, or like thereto, the tyme that he was kyng or 
Prince, or els in other estate. And in like wise, I was true man to Kyng Henry the. iiij. all 
the tyme that he was my soueraigne lorde, and reigned vpon me: In which matters, in all 
maner of wise, that it liketh to you my soueraigne lorde for to commaunde me, I am ready 
for to declare me: And furthermore, where, how and when, it shall like you by thaduise of 
your counsaill to assigne me. Wherefore I beseche you my soueraigne Lorde as humbly as 
I can consideryng that there is no grounded processe, by the v\ hich I might lawfully, in these 
matters aboue saied beconuict, blessed be God, to holdeme and declare me by thaduise of 
al the lordes spirituall and temporall, beyng in this presente Parliament, true man to you 
my soueraigne lord, & so to haue been vnto my souereigne lords that wer your fattier and 
graudfather, and true man also, to haue been at all tymes vnto his saied father, whilest he 
was Prince, or els in any other estate, the said slaunder and noysyng notwithstanding. And 
this same declaracion to be enacted, in this your saied present parliament. 

THE which wordes declared in maner, as it is aboue said by my said larde of Winchester, 
it semeth to my saied lordes the arbitrators, that it is fittyng that my said lorde of Win- 
chester drawe hym a part, and in the ineane tyme, the Lordes beyng present, bee singulerly 
examined thervpon and saie their aduise: And if it be assented by theim in maner as my 
saied lorde of Winchester desireth, let hyin be called again, and that then my lord of Bed- 
ford, then haue these wordes in effect y foloweV 

FAIRE vncle, my Lord, y kyngs grace by the aduise of his connsaill, hath comma unded me 
to saie to you, that he hath well vnderstande and considered all the matters whiche ye haue 
here openly declared in his presence, and thereupon ye desire a peticion that he will declare 
you, and by the aduise and assent of the lordes spiritual! an dtemporall, beyng in this presente 
Parliamente, he declarethyou a true man to hym, and that ye haue so bee to my lorde his father 
and his graundfather, and also true man to my Lorde his father whiles he was Prince or els 
in any other estate, thesaied dislaunder and noysyng notwithstandyrig : And will that the 
saied declaracion be so enacted in this present parliament. After the whiche wordes thus 
saied, as before is declared, by thesaied lordes arbitratours that my saied lorde of Winchester 
should haue these wordes that folowcth, to my saied lorde of Gloucester. 

MY Lorde of Gloucester, I haue concerned to my greate hcuinesse that ye should haue 
receiued by diuerse reportes, that I should haue purposed and imagined against your persone, 
honor and estate in diuerse maners, for thewhich ye haue take against me great displeasure 
Sir I take God to my witnes, that what reportes socuer haue been to you of me, paraduen- 
ture of such as haue had no greate affeccion to me, GOD forgiuc it them, I neuer imagined, 
ne purposed any thyng that might be hyndcryng or preiudice to your persone, honor, or estate. 
And therfore, I praie you that ye be vnto me good lord from this time furthe, for by my 
will I gaue neuer other occasion, nor purpose not to do herafter through Goddes grace. 

The whiche wordes so by hym saied, it was decreed by the said arbitratours, that my lord 
of Gloucester should answere and saie. 

Faire Vncle, sithe ye declare you suche a man as ye saie, I am right glad that it is so and 
for suche a man I take you. 

And when this was doen, it was decreed by the saied arbitratours that euery ech of my 
lordes of Gloucester and Winchester should take either other by trie hande, in the presence 
of the kyng and all the parliament, in signe and token of good loue and accord, the whiche 
was doen and the Parliamet was adiourned till after Easter. 

T When 



138 THE. IIIJ. YERE OF 

When the greate fire of this disceneion, betwene these twoo noble personages, was thus 
by the arbitratours to their knowledge and iudgement, vtterly quenched out, and laied vnder 
boord all other controuersies bttnene other Loroles, takyng parte with the one partie or the 
other, wer soue apeased and brought to concord. For ioy wherof, the kyng caused a so- 
lepne feast, to be kept on Whitsou sondaie, on the whiche daie, he created Richard Plan- 
tagenet, sonne and heiretothe erle of Cambridge (whom his father at Hampton, had put to 
execution, as you before haue heurde) Duke of Yorke, not forseyng before, that this pre- 
fermet should be his destruction, nor that his sede should, of his generacion, bee the ex- 
treme ende and finall confusion. He the same daie also promoted Ihon Lorde Mowbrey 
and Erie Marshall, sonne and heire to Thomas duke of Norffolke, by kyng Richard the se- 
conde exiled this real me and dominion, to the title, name, and stile o; the Duke of Norflblke, 
duryng whiche feaste, the Duke of Bedforde adourneJ the kyng with the high ordre of 
Jknighthode, whiche on thesame daie dubbed with the swear jd these knightes whose names 
ensue. 

Richard Duke of Yorke. Sir Reignold Cobharn. 

Ihon Duke of Norffolke. Sir Ihon Passheleue. 

The erle of Westmerlande, Sir Thomas Tunstall. 

Henry lorde Percie. Sir Ihon Chedeocks. 

Ihon lord Butler, sonne to therle cf Or- Sir Raufe Langstre. 
naond. Sir William Drurye. 

The lord Ilosse. Sir William Ap Thomas. 

The lorde Matrauers. Sir Richard Caruonell. 

The lorde Welles. Sir Richard Wooduile. 

The lorde Barkeley. Sir Ihon Shirdclow. 

Sir lames Butler. Sir Nicholas Blanket. 

Sir Henry Graye of Tankaruile. Sir William Cheyney. 

Sir Ihon Talbot. Sir William Babyngto lustice. 

Sir Raufe Graye of Werke. Sir Raufe Butler. 

-Sir Robert Veer. Sir Robert Beauchapme. 

Sir Richard Grey. Sir Edmond Trafford. 

Sir Edmond Hungerford. -Sir ILon lune chief Baron, and diuerse 

Sir Water Wyngfeld. other. 

Sir Ihon Buttelen. 

AFTER this solempne feast ended, a great aide and subsidye was graunted, for the conti- 
nuance of the conquest in Fraunce, and so money was gathered, and men wer prepared 
in euery citee, toune, and coutrey: duryng whiche busines, Thomas duke of Excester, the 
sadde, wise and ivel learned cousailer, great vncle to the kyng, departed out of this mortal 
life, at his manner of Grenewiche, & was with al funeral pompe, conueyed through London 
to Berry, and there buried. In which yere also died the Lady Elizabeth his halfe sister, 
& of the whole bloud with kyng Henry the. iiij. inaried to lorde Ihon Hollande duke of Ex- 
cester and after to the lord Fanhope, buried at the Blacke Friers of London. 

WHILE these thynges wer thus appoyntyng and concludyng in Englande: The erle of 
Warwicke leuetenaunt for the Regente in the reahne of Fraunce, entered into the countrey 
ofMayne, and besieged the toune of Chasteau de Loyre, the which shortly to h'yrn was re- 
dered wherof he madecapitain Matthew Gough esquire. After that, he toke by assaute the 
castle of Mayet, and gaue it for his valeauntnes to Iho Winter esquire, & after that he con- 
quered the castle of Lund, and made there governor, William Gladdisdale gentleman. At 
whiche place he was informed, that the Frenchemen were assembled together, in the coun- 
trey of Beausse, wherforelike a valyaunt capitain, he with all his power marched thether- 
warde, to encountre with his enemies, and to fight with his aduersaries, whiche hauyng 
knowledge of his approchyng, fled, and durste not abide the triall, nor jeopardy the aduen- 
ture, and in his returnyng, he beseged the Castle of Montdubkan, whereof was capitain sir 

4 Roberto 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 13.9 

Roberto des Croix, whiche siege cotinued thre \vekes, but in conclusion the Englishcmen, 
so sore charged theim with in, that the capitain with his whole company, were contente to 
yelde the castle, their Hues horse and harneis, oncly reseKued: Wliiche to them ivas after 
long consultacion had, and many agrementes made frankely grauted. And the saied erle of 
Warwicke, leauyng there the valeaunt lorde Willoughby, returned again to Paris. Duryng 
whiche season he was ordained by the assent of the thre estates of thcreahne of England to 
be gouernorof the young kyng, in like maner as the noble Duke of Excester before his death 
was appoynted and assigned, but yet he taried still in Eraunce, and did there no small scr- 
uice as you shall here after percciue. 

If THE FIFTH YERE. 

THE Regent of Fraunce thus beeyng in Englande, meanes was made by the Duke of Bur- The.v. y ere. 
goyne, for the deliuery of the Duke of Alanson, whiche was taken prisoner at the battaill of 
Vernoylelhe last yere. So he for the some of twoo hundred thousande crounes, was deliuered 
and set at large: but neither for release of all or abatement of part of his raunsome, he 
would in no wise acknowledge the kyng of Englande, to he his liege and soucreigne Lorde: 
Suche affeccion bare he to the Dolphyn, and suche troulh shewed he to his natural country. 
When all thynges wer concluded, ordered and established, bothe for the conseruacion of 
peace and tranquilitie within the realme of Englande, and also for the maintenaunce ofwarre 
for the finall gainyng of the region of Fraunce : the Duke of Bedforde and his wife, tooke 
their leaue of the Kyng, at Westminster and landed at Calice, with who also passed the seas, 
Henry bishop of Winchester, whiche in thesaied tonne was inuested with the Habile, Hatte 
and dignitie of a Cardinall, with all Ceremonies to it appertainyng. Whiche degree, kyng 
Henry the fifth knowyng the haute corage, and the ambicious myndeof the man, prohibited 
_hym on his allegeaunce once, either to sue for or to take, mcanyng that cardinalles Hattcs 
should not presume to be egall with Princes. Hut now the kyng beyng young and the Regent 
his frencle, he obteined that dignitie, to his greate profite, and to the empoucrishyng of the 
spiritualtie. For by a Bull legatyne, whiche he purchased at Rome, he gathered so much 
treasure, that no man in maner had money but he, and so was he surnamed the riche Car- 
dinall of Winchester, and nether called learned bishop, nor vertcous priest. 

AFTER that, the duke of Bedford was returned into Fraunce, the lorde of Rustinan Mar- 
shall of Britayn, assembled a greate company of the Britishe nacion, whiche fortefied & re- 
paired the toune of Ponntorson, and after thesaied Marshall, with a thousand men entered 
into the countrey of Constantyne in Normandy, and came before the toune of Auranches. 
Thenglishmen within the garrison, issued out & boldly fought with their enemies: but after 
long conflicte and many strokes geuen, the Britons wer ouer come, and the lorde Rusty- 
nan taken, and the moste parte of his people slaine. The Duke of Bedforde hearyng that 
4he toune of Pountorson was newly fortified and strongly defended, sent thither the erle of 
Warwicke, accopanied with the lorde Scales, and diuerse other valiaunt capitaines and 
souldiers, to the nombre of. vii. thousand men to besiege the toune, whiche so enuironed 
it on euery parte, that neither man could steale out, nor beast could passe in. The siege 
long continnyng, vitaill began to waxe scant in the Englishe armie, wherefore the Lord 
Scales hauyng in his company, sir Ihon Harpely Bayly of Constantine, sir William Brear 
ton Bayly of Caen, sir Raufe Tesson, sir Ihon Carbonell and. iii. thousand good men of 
war, departed fro the siege to get vitail, pouder and other thynges necessary for their pur- 
pose and enterprise. And as they were returnyng with their cariages On the sea cost, riere 
to S. Michaels Moiit, they sodainly wer encounlred with their enemies, wherof the chief 
wer, the Baron of Coloses, the lorde Dausebost capitain of thesaid Mount the lorde Moun- 
tabon, the lorde Mountburchier, the lorde of Chasteau Giron, the lord of Tyntygnat, the 
lord of Chasteau Brian with. vi. M. men of warre. The lorde Scales and his company 

T 2 (seyng. 



140 V THE. V. YERE OF 

(seyng that thei wer compassed on euery side with deadly daungiers, for the sea was on the 
one side, and their enemies on the other, and no mcane waie to escape or flie, discended 
from their horsses and like gredy Lions, together in an vnpeaceable fury, set on their ene- 
mies. The skirmishe was strong & the fight was fierce, the Englishmen kept themselfes so 
close, that their enemies could haue no auantage of them. At the last the lorde Scales cried 
S. George, they flie, with that thenglishmen toke suche a corage, & the Frenchmen that 
fought before, were so dismaied that they began to flie. The Englishmen leped again on 
horssebacke, and folowed theim, and slewe and toke aboue. xi.C. persones, emongest who 
wer taken, the Baron of Colsoes, and the lorde of Chasteau Brian and xxx. knightes. 

AFTER this victory, the Lorde Scales with his vitailes, prouision and prisoners, return- 
ed to the siege, where he was of the Erie and other noble men, Joyously receiuecl and for this 
notable facte, highly magnified and preysed. While the siege thus continued before Poun- 
torson, Christopher Hanson and other souldicrs of the garrison of S. Susan, made a rode 
into the countrey of Anioy, & came to a Castle called Kamffort, which castle was so priuely 
scaled, that the capitain within & his company, wer taken or slain before they knewe of 
their enemies approchyng. When knowledge of this fcate was made open to the Frenche- 
nien, whiche were assembled to the nombre of. xx.M. to reyse the siege, and breake vp the 
the campe, liyng before the toune of Pountorson, they left that iourney for a tyme, and re- 
turned to the Castle of Ramffort, and besieged thesame by the space of tenne daies. 

THE Englishmen considering the multitude of the enemies, and the farre absence of 
their frendcs, began to treate with the Frenchmen and so vpon condicion to departe with 
baggc and baggage, horse and names, thei rendered vp the castle, and departed with more 
riches then thei brought, whiche castle thus possessed by the Frenchemen, they forgat the res- 
kew of Poutorson, and brake vp thei. army. But sone after, the lorde of Raix, calling 
himself liuetenaunt general for the dolphin, accompanyed with the lorde Mount lehan, the 
Lorde Bcaumanoire, and the lorde Tussye, and other to the n5bre of thre thousand per- 
sones, entered into the countrey of Mayn, & laied siege to the castle of Malycorne, w he rot" 
was capitain an Englishma, called Oliuer Osbatersby, which castle with the capitain, was by 
force taken and obteined : in like maner they toke the litle castle of Lude^ and there in 
William Blackeborne leuetcnaunt for Willia Glasdale esquire, & put hym to rausorne, and 
slewe al his souldiers. Alter this victory, in the which they muche gloried, the Frenchmen 
perceiuing that therle of Warwicke continued stil his siege before the toune'of Pountorson, 
& knowyng by their espials, that the Englishmen wer determined to geue them battaill, if 
thei once attempted to rayse the siege, and therefore fearyng to fight in an open battaill, re- 
culed backe again to the dolphyn with litle gain and small honor. The Frenchmen and: 
Britons beyng straighlly besieged within the tonne of Pountorson, perceiuyng no likelyhod. 
of succors to come, and seyng the Englishe army daily did increase, fearyng the sequela 
therof, if they by violence should be taken and vanquished, thei offered the toune, so that 
thei might departe with horse and harnes only: whiche request (after long sute and peticion) 
to theim was hardely graunted. The Erie like avaliaunt capitain, entred into the toune and 
there appoynted for gouernors, the lord Roos, and the lorde Talbot, and leuyng there .a 
conuenient garrison, returned to the lorde Regent. 

AFTER the takyng of this toune, there was a league, and a treaty concluded betwene the 
Regent and the duke of Britayn, by the whiche agrement bothe the tounes of Pountorson 
and S. lames de Beuron wer beaten doune to the ground clery defaced. After the lord 
ef Rais was departed out of the territory of Mayne as you haue heard, Christopher Han- 
son, Phillip Gough, Martyn Godffrey called the sealer, and diuerse other of the garrison of 
S. Susan, to the nombre of. xxx. ar chars, went out in a mornyng to seke their aduetures, 
and came nere to the Castle of sainct Laurence de Mortiers (at the same very season) 
whe sir lames de Scpeaulx capitain of thesame, was gone out of his Castle with the greatest 
nombre of his retinewe, to a Churche directly against the castle. In the masse time, then- 
glisHmen entered by subtiltie into the gate & so gat the dongeon. And when sir James re- 

1 turned 



_____ KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 141 

turned from Masse, as he entered into the gate he was taken, and his men fled, and so was 
the castle furnished with Englishmen, and capitain therof was appoynted, sir William Old- 
haule. 

THE same season, sir Ihon Fastolfe, gouernor of the countries of Aniowand Maine, as- 
sembled a great puissaunce of men of warre, and laied a siege before the castle of sainct 
Owen Destays, beside the toune ofLauall, wherof was capitain sir Guillam Orenge, whiche, 
after ten daies besiegyng, rendred the castle, their Hues and armure only except: howbeit 
one railyng and slaunderous persone was put to terrible execution. And from thence, the- 
said sir Ihon remoued to the strog castle of Grauile, & after, xii. daies, thei within offred to 
yeld the castle by a day if thei wer not succored by y dolphin or his power. The offre was 
taken & pledges deliuered, which wer Guilla Cordouen, & Ihon de Majsierie esquicrs. Af- 
ter these pledges deliuered, sir Ihon Fastolffe returned in post to the regent, aduertisyng 
him of this cotnposicion and agrement: wherfore thesaid lorde, reised a greate power, to 
tight with the Frenche men at the day appoynted, and in his company, wer the erles of 
Mortaigne and Warwicke, and the lordes Roos, and Talbot, sir Ihon Fastolffe, sir Ihon 
Aubemond, sir Ihon Ratclife, and diuerse other, to the nombre of twentie thousand men, 
and so inarched forward in hope to mete and ioyne battail with their enemies. But their 
aduersaries, whiche wer not farre of, durste notapproche, wherfore the Regent sent sir Ihon 
Fastolfe incontinent to receiue the castle : but they within (cotrary to their prornesse and ap- 
pointment) had newly vitailed and manned the place, and so forsaking their pledges and 
iielowes in armes, refused to render the fortres according to the appointment:, wherfore the 
pledges were brought before the sight of theiin within the castle, and there openly put to death. 
After this, the lord Talbot, was made gouernor, of Aniow and Mayne, and sir Ihon. 
Fastolffe was assigned to another place: whiche lorde Talbot, beyng bothe of noble birthe, 
aud haute corage, after his comming into Fraunce, obteigned so many glorious victories of 
his enemies, that his only name was, and yet is dredful to the Frenche nacion, and muche 
renoumedemongest all other people. This ioly capitain, and sonne of the valiant Mars, en- 
tered into Mayn and sleive men, destroyed castles, and brent tounes, and in conclusion, , 
sodainly toke the toune of Lauull: but the lord Loghac, and diuerse other, retrayted theiiu. 
selfes into the Castle, and there remained eight daies. Duryng which tyme, it was agreed, 
that all capitaines, Burgesses, and men of warre, which wer within the Castle, should de- 
part with bagge and baggages, paiyng to the lord Talbot for al thynges, one hundred thou- 
sand CrouneSi And the Castle so beyng deliuered, was committed to the kepyng of Gilbert. 
Halsall, w.hiche after, was slain at the siege of Oileance, for whom was made capitain 
Matthew Gough, which beyng at the iorney before Senlies, by treason of a miller that kept 
a mil adioynyng to the walle, the Frenchemen entered into the toune, and brought it into 
their subiectionand obeysaunce. 

THE duke of Bedford, was aduertised by his espials, that the toune of Montares^ 
whiche was in the territory of Orleance, was but slenderly kept and smally furnished, and 
that it might be taken with litle pain and no losse. The Regent glad of these newes, sent 
therleof Suffolke, sir Ihon Pole his brother, & sir Henry Bisset with sixe. Mi men to assaute 
the toune, but when they came thether and found the toune better manned and more 
strongly defenced, then their expectacion imagined, they gaue no assaute but laied sie^e 
aboute the toune, and therle of Warwike was appoynted to lye with a great nomber of 
menne of warre, at sainct Mathelines de Archamp, to encountre the Frenchmen if they 
would attempt to ayde or vitaill those that wer enclosed within the, toune. This fortresse 
stode in suche a place, that what with waters and what with marishes, the army must seuer 
in thre partes, so that the one could not easely help the other, but either by boates or 
bridges, so the toune was besieged by the space of two monethes and more. In the meane- 
seasoiij Arthur of Britayne, Constable for the dolphyn, sent thether in all hast, the lorde 
Boisac Marshall of Frauce, Stephin le Hire, Ponton de Sentrayles, the lorde Grauile, and 
diuerse other valiaunt horssemen, to the nomber of thre thousand and aboue, which priuely; 

ins 



142 THE. V. YERE OF 

in the night, came on that side where sir Ihon de la Pole and sir Henry Bisset laye, whom 
they found out of all ordre and without any watche. So the Frenchemen entered into their 
ludgcs and slewe many in their beddes, they spared no man, for the resistance was smal, Sir 
Iho Dela pole with his horsse saued hymself, and fled ouer the water to his brother, & sir 
Henry Bisset escaped hyaboateand eight with him. The residue whiche would haue passed the 
bridge and ioynedwith the erle of Suffolke, fled in such plumpcs ouer the bridge, that the 
tymber brake and a great nombre was drouned so, y there were slain & drouned xv.C. men. 
The erle of YVanvike hearyng of this chaunce, departed from sainct Mathelyn with all dili- 
gent spede, and came before Montarges offeryng battaill to the Frenche capitaines, which 
answered that thei had manned and vitailed the toune, and enteded to do nomore at that 
time. Thenglishmen seyng that their trauaile should be in vain, came back softely again 
with all their ordinaunce to the duke of Bedforde. 

IT should seme that fortune at this time would not, that the Freche men should haue one 
ioyfull claie, butthesame also should be myngled with dolor or displeasure. For at this very 
tytne, sir Nicholas Burdett appoynted by the duke of Somerset, to vexe and trouble his ene- 
mies in the costes of Britayne, sent light horssemen into euery part, vexyng the people and 
wastyng the coutrey. All tounes that he passed by were brente al, and buildynges spoyled & 
robbed, prisoners and praies wer aboundantly taken, small villages wer destroyed, and greate 
tounes wer raunsomed, & so without hurt or damage, thcsaid sir Nicholas returned into Nor- 
mandyi This mischance beyng declared to the Constable of Fraunce and the other capi- 
taines, cut their combes and plucked doune their hartes, whiche were set on so mery a pynne, 
for the victory of Montarges, that they were in maner, like desperate persones, loth to at- 
tempte any farther enterprise against the Englishe nacion, saiyng: that God was turned 
Engtishe, and the deuill would not helpe Fraunce. 

THE duke of Alauson, whiche as you haue heard, was late deliuered out of En<lande, 
reuiued again the dull spirites of the Dolphyn, and the fainte hartes of his capitaines, pro- 
nn'syng to theim greate victory with litle trauail, and much gain with srnal labor, wherfore 
in hope of good lucke, he determined to do some notable feate against thenglishe men. 
Then happened a chaunce vnloked for, or vnthoughtof, euen as they would haue \vhisshed 
or desired, for not onely the Magistrates, but chiefly the spiritual persons of the citee of 
Mauns, knowyng that the duke of Britayne and his brother, were reuerted and turned to 
the French partie, began sore to mourne and lament that they wer subiectes and vassals to 
the yoke an.d power of the Englishemen. Wherfore they determined and fully concluded, to 
aduertise of their myndes and determinacions, the capitaines of Charles y dolphyn, (of the 
called the Frenche kyng) and so by certain false Friers, therof <vrote humble and louin<r let- 
ters. These newes pleased much the French capitaines, but no lesse you may be sure the 
Dolphyn hymself, as a thyng discended from heauen, of theim vnsought, vnimagined and 
not deuisecl. Wherfore to take oportunitie when time serued, and not to lese so great a be- 
nefite so honestly oftred, the lordes Delabreth and Fayet, Marshals of Fraunce, accompanied 
with the lordes of Monte Ihan, of Duel Doruall, Torsye and Beaumamoyre the Heire, and 
Gullyam his brother, and fine hundred other hardy capitaines and valiaunt souldiers, toke 
vpon theim this enterprise, sendyng great thankes and laudes to the Clergie and citezens 
for their assured fideliiie to their soueraigne lord, promysyng theim to be there at the daie 
appoynted, not doubtyng to find them redy accordyng to their promes, gladly to receiue 
them. 

WHEN the daie assigned and the night appoynted was come, the Frenche capitaines pri- 
uely approchecl the toune, makyng a litle fire on an hill in the sight of the toune, to sigmfie 
their couryng and approchyng. The citezes, which by the great church wer loking foAheir 
approch, shewed a hurnyng Cresset out of the steple, which sodainly was put out & 
quenched. What should I saie, the capitaines on horssebacke came to the gate, and the 
traytors within slew the porters and watch men, and let in their frendes, the footemen en- 
tered firste, and the men of armes waited at the barriers, to the intent that if muche nede 

required 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 143 

required or necessitie copelled, they might fight in the ope feld. And in the mean season 
many Englishmen wer slain, and a greate ciaymor and a houge noye was hard through 
the toune, as is wont and accustomed to be in a toune, by treason sodainly surprised & taken: 
but what was the cause of the cry, or beginnyngof the noyse, fewe except the confederates, 
ether knewe or perceiued. For the remnaunt of the citezens beyng no partakers in this fac- 
cion, imagined that the Englishmen had made hauocke in the toune and put all to the 
sweard. The Englishemen on the othersyde, Judged that the citezens had begonne some 
new rebellion against theim, or els had striuen emongest theimselfes. The erle of Suffolke, 
whiche was gouernor of the toune, hearyng the clamor and noyse of the people, hauing per- 
fect knowledge of such as escaped fro the walles, in what case the citee stode in, without 
any tariyng or psolongyng of tyme entered into the Castle which standeth at the gate of 
Sainct Vincent, wherof was Constable Thomas Gower esquier: whether also fled so many 
Englishemen, that the place was pestured, and there if they wer not rescued, likely to be 
famished : but surely they wer sore assauted and marueilously hurte, with the shot of the ala- 
blatters & crosse bowes, but they defended theimselfes so manfully, that their enemies gat 
small aduantage at their handes. But all their hardines had notserued, nor all their poliicy 
had not defended theim, if they had not priuely sent a messenger to the lorde Talbot, which 
then lay at Alanson, certefiyng hym in what case they stoode, for vitaHl had they none, mu- 
nicios tailed, and the Castle was almoste vndermined, so that yeldyng must folowe, and re- 
sistaunce could not. preuaile. The lorde Talbot hcryng these nevves, neither slept nor ban- 
quetted, but with all hast assembled together his valiaunt capitaines, whose names you haue 
before often times heard rehersed, to the nombre of vii. hundred men of warr, and in the 
euenyng departed from Alanson, and in the mornyng came to a castle called Gtiyerche 
twoo myles from Mauns, and from thence sent as an espial Matthew Gough, to espie the 
gouernaunce of the enemies, and if he might to sbewe to his countreymeu that he was at 
hade to be their aide & rescowes. Matthew Gough so well sped, that priuely in the night 
lie carne into the castle, where he knew how that the French men beyng lordos of the citee, 
and now castyngno perils nor iearyng any creature, began to waxe wanton and felle to riote, 
as though their enemies could do to them no damage :- thynkyng that the Englishemen 
whiche wer shut vp in the Castle, studied nothyng but how to escape and be deliuered. 
Whe Matthew Gough had knowen al the certaintie and had eaten a litle breade and dronke a 
cuppe of wine to comfort his stomacke, he priuely returned again, itnd within a mile of the 
citee met with the lorde Talbot and the Lorde Scales, and made open to theim al thyng ac-| 
cording to his credence, whiche to spede the matter, because the day approched, with al hast; 
possible came to the posterne gate, and alighted from their horses, and about sixe of the; 
clocke in the mornyng thei issued out of the castle criyng sainct George, Talbot. The 
French men which wer scace vp, and thought of nothyng lesse then of this sodain approch- 
ment, some rose out of their beddes in their shertes, and lepte ouer the walles, other ranne 
naked out of the gates for sauing of their lines, leuyng behynde theim all their apparcll, 
horsscs, armure and riches, none was hurt but suche, whiche ether resisted or would not 
yelde, whcrof some wer slain and cast in prisone. There were slain and taken foure hun- 
dred geilemen and the villaines frankely let go. After this inquisition was made of the au- 
thors of this vngracious coniuracion, and there were accused thirtie citezens, twenty priestes 
and fiftene Friers, which accordyngto their desertes were put in execution. 

If THE SIXT YERE. 

THE citee of Mauns thus beyng reduced into the Englishe mennes handes, the Lorde The.*;. 
Talbot departed to the toune of Alanson. After whiche marciall feat manly acheued, the ym 
erle of \Varwicke departed into Englande, to be gouernour of the young kyng, insteade of 
Thomas duke of Excester, late departed to God. In \yhose stede was sent into Fraunce,, 

the 



THE. Vt YERE OF 

the lorde Thomas Mountacute erle of Salisbury with fiue thousande men, whiche landed at 
Caliceand so came to the Duke of Bedford in Paris. Where he consultyng with the Duke, 
of Bedforde, concernyng the aftaires of the realme of Fraunce: seyng all thynges pros- 
perously succede on the Englishe part, began meruailously to phantesie the citee and coun- 
trey of Orliance, stadyng on the riuer of Loyre. But because the cite was wel fortified 
bolhe by the nature of the situation of the place, and by the ppllicie of man, he imagined 
it not the woorke of one daie, nor the study of one houre. Wherfore he remitted it to a 
farther deliberacio, yet he was the man at that tyme, by whose wit, strength and pollicio, 
jthe Englishe name was muche fearfull and terrible to the French nacion, whiche of hymself 
might both appoynt, commaunde and do all thynges, in maner at his pleasure, in whose 
power, (as it appeared after his 1 deathe) a greate part of the conquest consisted and was 
estemed, because he was a man both painful and diligent, redy to withstand thynges peril- 
ous and imminent, and prompt in counsail, and with no labor be weried, nor yet his corage 
at any tyme abated or appalled, so that all men put no more trust in any one man* nor, no 
synguler person gat more the hartes of all men. After this greate enterprise, had long been 
debated and argued, in the priuie counsaill, the erle of Salisburies dcuise, (although it 
seined harde and straungc to all other, and to hym as it wer a thyng predestinate very easie) 
was graunted and allowed, which enterprise was the finall conclusion of his naturall des- 
tiny, as you shall shortely perceiue. Thus he replenished with good hope of victory, & 
furnished with artilery, and inunicions apperteinyng to so greate a siege, accompanied with 
the erle of Suffolke and the lorde Talbot, and with a valiaunt company, to the nombre of 
tenne thousande men, departed from Paris and passed through the countrey of Beause. He 
toke by assaute th'e toune of Yainuile, but the Frenchmen fled into the Castle, and there 
continued fiue dales, at the ende wherof they rendered themselfes symply: of thesaid nom- 
bre, some were put to death for certain causes, & some were taken to mercie. He tooke 
also the toune of Eawgency, sufferyng euery man, whiche would become vassaile and sub- 
iecte to the kyng of England, to enheritc their landes and enioy their goodes. The tounes 
of Meun vpon Loyre & largenan, hearyng of these treatise, presented to hym the keyes 
of the toune, vpon like agrement & egall condicions. 

AFTER this in the moneth of September, he laied his siege on the one side of the water 
of Loyre, before whose commyng, the Bastarde of Orleaunce, and the bishop of the citec 
and a great nombre of Scottes, hearyng of therles intent, made diuerse fortificacions about 
the toune and destroyed the suburbes, in the which wer twelfe parishe churches and foure 
ordres of Friers. They cut also doune al the vines, trees-and bushes within fiue leages of 
the toune, so that the Englishmen should haue neither comfort, refuge nor succor. 

HERE must I a litle digresse, and declare to you, what was this bastard of Orleance, 
whiche was not onely now capitain of the citce, but also after, by Charles the sixt made 
erle of Dunoys, and in great authoritie in Fraunce, and extreme enemie to the Englishe 
n.icion, as by this story you shall apparauntly perceiue, of whose line and steme dyscend 
the Dukes of Longuile and the Marques of Rutylon. Lewes Duke of Orleance murther- 
ed in Paris, by Ihon duke of Burgoyne, as yon before haue harde, was owner of the Cas- 
tle of Coney, on the Frontiers of Fraunce toward Arthoys, wherof he made Constable the 
lord of Cauny, a man not so wise as his wife was faire, and yet she was not so faire, but 
she was as well beloued of the duke of Orleance, as of her husband. Betwene the duke 
and her husbande (I cannot tell who was father) she conceiued a child, and brought furthe 
a pretye boye called Ihon, whiche child beyng of the age of one yere, the duke disceased 
and not long after the mother, and the Lorde of Cawiry ended their liues. The next of 
kynne to the lord Cavvny chalenged the enheritaunce, whiche was worth foure thousande 
,crounes a yere, alledgyng that the boye was a bastard : and the kynred of the mothers side, 
for to saue her honesty, it plainly denied. In conclusion, this matter was in contencio 
before the Presidentes of the parliament of Paris, and there hang in controuersie till the 
child came to the age of eight yeres old. At whiche tyme it was demaunded of hym openly 

whose 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 

whose sonne he wns: his fredes of his mothers side aduertised him to require a day, to be 
aduised of so great an answer, whiclie he asked, & to hym it was granted. In y meane 
season his said frendes persuaded him to claiine his inheritaunce, as sonne to the Lorde of 
Cawny, which was an honorable liuyng, and an aunciet patrhnony, affirming that if he 
said contrary, lie not only slaudered his mother, shamed himself, & stained his blond, hut- 
also should liaue no liuyng nor any thing to take to. The scholemaster thinkytig y his dis- 
ciple had well learned his lesson, and would reherse it accordyng to his instruccio, brought 
hym before the ludges at the daie assigned, and when the question was repcted to hym 
again,- he baldly answered, my harte geueth me, my noble corage telleth me, that I am 
the sonne of the noble Duke of Orlcaunce, more glad to be his Bastarde, with a mcane 
liuyng, then the lawfujl sonne of that coward cuckolde Canny, with his foure thousande 
crounes. The Justices muche merueiled at his bolde answere, and his mothers cosyns de- 
tested him for shamyng of his mother, and his fathers supposed kinne reioysed ingainyng the 
patrimony and possessions. Charles duke of Orleance hcryng of this iudgement, toke hvm 
into! his family & aue him great offices & fees, which he well deserued, for (duryng his' 
captiuitie) he defcded his lades, expulsed thenglishmen, & in conclusion procured his d^- 
liueraunce. 

THIS coragious Bastard, after the siege had continued threwekes ful, issued out of the 
gate of the bridge, and fought with the Englishemen, but they receiued hym with so fierce and 
terrible strokes, that he was with all his company compelled.. to retire and flie backe into the 
citce: But the Englishemen folowed theim so faste, in killyng and takyng of their enemies, 
that they entrcd with them the Bulwarke of the bridge, whiche with a gi eate ton re, standing 
at thende of thesame, was taken incontinent by thenglishmen. In whiche conflict many 
Frenchemen were taken, but rno were slain, and the kepyng of the ton re and Bulwerke was 
comitted to William Glasdaleesquier. When he had gotten this Bulwarke, he was sure thi:t, 
by that waie neither man nor vitaill could passe or come. After that he made certayne Bul- 
warkes roiide about the citee, castyng. trenches betwene the one and the other, laiyng ordi- 
naunce in euery part, where he saw that any battery might be deuised. When they within 
perceiued that they were enuiroried with fortresses and ordinance, they laied gonne against 
gonne, and fortefied toures against bulwarkes, and within made new rampires, andbuvldcd 
new mudwalles to auoyde crackes and breches, whiche might by violent shot sodainlv insue. 
They appoyntcd the Bastard of Orleance, and Stephin Veignold called the Heire, .to see the 
walles and watches kept, & the bishop sawey thinhabitates within the cite, wer put in good 
ordre, and that vitaill wer not wantonly consumed, nor vainly spent. 

IN the toure that was taken at the bridge ende, as you before- haue heard, there was a 
high chamber hauyng a grate full of barres of yron by the whiche a man might loke all the 
length of the bridge into the cite at which, grate many of the chief capitaines stode diuerse 
times, yieuyng the cite & deuisyng in what place it was best assautable. They within the citee 
perceiued well this totyng hole, and laied a pece of ordynaunce directly against the wyndowe. 
It so chaunced that the. lix. daie after the siege laied before the citee, therle of Salisbury, 
sir Thomas Gargraue and William Glasdale and diuerse other, went into thesaid toure and 
so into the high chabre, and loked out at the grate, and with in a short space, the sonne of 
the Master gonner, perceiued men lokyng out at the wyndowe, toke his matche, as his 
father had taught hym, whiche was gone doune to dinner, and fired the gonne, whiche brake 
& sheueredy yron barres of the grate, wherof one strake therle so strogly on the bed, that 
it stroke away one of his iyes and the side of his cheke. Sir Thomas Gargraue was likewise 
striken, so that he died within two daies. Therle was conueighed to Meurn vpon Loyre, 
where he laie beyng wounded, viij. daies, duryng whiche tyme, he receiued deuoutly the holy 
Sacramentes, and so commended liis soule to almighty God, whose body was cpnueyed into 
England, with allfunerall and pompe, and buried at Bissam by his progenitors, leuyng behind 
him, an onely daughter named Alice, maried to Richarde Neuell, sonne to liaufe erle of 
Westmorland, of whom hereafter shalbe made mention. W r hat detriment, what damage, 

U what- 



THE. VI. YERE OF 

what lossc succeded to the Englishe publique wealthe, by the sodain death of this valiaunt 
capitain, not long after his departure, manifestly apered. For high prosperitie, and groat 
glory of the Englishe nacion in the parties beyond the sea, began shortely to fall, and litle 
and litle to vanishe awaie: which thing although the Englishe people like a valiant & strong 
body, atthefirste tyme did not perceiue, yet after y they felt it grow like a pestilet humor, 
which succesciuely a litle and litle corrupteth all the membres, and destroyeth the bodf. For 
after the death of this noble man, fortune of warre began to change, and triumphant victory 
began to bedarckened. Although the death of therle were dolorous to]all Knglishme, yet 
surely it was moste dolorous to the duke of Bedford, regent of Fraunce, as he whiche had 
loste his right hand or lacked his weapon, when he should fight with his enemie. Jiut 
seyng that dedde men cannot with sorowe be called again, nor lamentacion fordedde bodies 
cannot remedy the chaunces of men liuyng: he (like a prudent gouernor & a pollitique pa- 
tron) appointed the erle of Suffolke to be his leuetenunt, and captain of the siege, and ioyned 
with hym the lord Scales, the lorde Talbot, sir Ihon Fastolfe, and diuerse other valiaunt 
knightes and esquiers. These lordes caused bastiles to be made round about the citee, 
with the whiche they troubled their enemies and assauted the walles, and left nothyng vn- 
attempted, whiche might be to theim, any aduantage, or hurtefull to their enemies. 

IN the time of lent vitaile and artillerie, began to waxe scant in the Englishe armie, wher- 
fore therle of Suffolke appointed sir Ihon Fastolfe, sir Thomas Rampsto, and sir Philip Hal ~ 
with their retinewes, to ride to Paris to the lord Regent, to informe him of their scarcenes 
and necessitie. Whiche beyng therof informed, without any delaye or prolongyng, prouided 
vitaile, artillery and municions, necessary and conuenient for so greate an enterprise, and 
laded therwith many chariottes, cartes, and horsses, and for the surecoduite, and sauegard 
of the same, he appoynted sir Simon Morhier Prouos/of Paris, with the gard of the citee 
& diuerse of his awne housholdseruauntes, to accompany sir Ihon Fastolfe and his coplices, 
to the army liyng at the siege of Orleaunce. The whiche departed in good ordre, to the 
nombre of. v. hundred men of war, beside wagoners out of Paris, and came to Yaynuile 
in Beausse, aud in a mornyng early in a greate frost they departed, from the place toward die 
siege, and when they came to a toune called Ronuray, in the laiides of Beausse, they per- 
cciued their enemies comyng against them, to the nombre of. ix. or. x. M. Frenchemen & 
Scottes: the capitaines wherof was Charles of Cleremot, sonne to the duke of Burbon, then 
beyng prisoner in Englande, sir William Stewarde Constable of Scotlande, alitle before de- 
liuered out of captiuitie, the erle of Perdriacke, the lord Ihon Vandosme, Vidane ofCharters, 
the Lorde of Touars, the lorde of Lohat, the lorde of Eglere, the Lorde of Beaniew, the 
Bastard Tremorle, and many other valiant capitaines. Wherfore sir Ihon Fastolfe and his- 
cqmpanions, set all their company in good ordre of battaill, and picked stakes before euery. 
Archer, to breke the force of the horsemen. At their backes they set all their wages and 
cariages, and within theim thei tied all their horsses, so that their enemies could nether assails- 
them on the backeside, nor yet spoile them of their horsses, and in this maner they stode. 
still, abidyng the assaute of their aduersaries. The Frenchmen (by reason of their greats 
nombre) thinking the victory to be in their handes, egerly like Lions set on the Englishmen,, 
whiche with greate force, them receiued and manfully defended : for it stode theim vpon, 
consideryng the inequalitie of the nombre. And after long and cruell fight the Englishmen 
droue backe and vanquished the proude Frenchemen, and compelled theim to flie. In this 
conflict were slain, Lorde Willyam Stewarde Constable of Scotlande and his brother, the 
lorde Doruall, the lorde Delabret, the lorde Chasteanbrian, sir Ihon Basgot, and other 
Frenchmen & Scottes, to the nombre of. xxv. C. and aboue xj. hundred taken prisoners, 
although some French writers affirme the nombre lesse. 

AFTER this fortunate victory, sir Ihon Fastolfe and his company (of the whiche no man 
of any reputacion was either slain or taken,) came with all their cariages, vitaile, and pri- 
soners, to, the siege before Orleance, where they wer Joyously receiued & welcomed of all the 

souldiors. 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 147 

souldiors. This conflict (because the most part of the cariage was heryng & lenten stuffe,^ 
the Frenchmen call, the vnfortunate battail of herynges. 

THE Erie of Suffolke, beeyng thus vitailed, continued his siege, and cuery daic almoste, 
skirmished with his enemies, whiche being in dispaire of all succors, began to cornea 
emongest theimself, how they might rendre the toune, to their inoste hcnou re and profile. 
After muche reasoning, and long debatyng emongest the capitaines, and the magistrates of 
the toune, what way was best to be folowed: Some iffirmed it not onely to be shamefull and 
dishonorable, but also vnnaluralland vnreasonable, to yelde the toune to the Englishcmen, 
beyng neither frendes nor fauorers of the French nucion : other, fe.iryng the victory of the 
Englishmen, imagined, that if they by force possessed the citee, they would do to them as 
tyrantes be accustomed toserue, wilfulland obstinate people, and therefore they thought it a 
greate folye and a notable lightnes, not to beware the one, as to deny or refuse the other. 
But when they saw, that their glory must nedes decline to a shame & reproche, they 
thought to find a meane waye to saue themselfes, and their cite fro the captiuitie of then- 
enemies, and deuised to submit their citee theselfes, & al theirs vnder the obeysance of 
Phillip duke of Burgoyn because he was brought out of the stocke and bloud royall of the 
auncient hous of Fraunce: thinkyng by this meanes (as thei did in deede) to breke or 
minishe the greate amitie betwene the Englishemen & hym. 

AFTER this poynt concluded, they made open & sent to the duke all their deuises and 
intentes whiche certified the that he would gladly receiue their oflVe, so that the Regent of 
Fraunce would therto agre & cosent. And therupo dispatched certain ambassadors to the 
duke of Bedford, to whom these newes wer straunge and not very plesaunt, vpon whiche 
poynt, he assembled a great counsaill. Some thought that maner of yeldyng to be bothe l.o- 
norable and profitable to the king of Englande, by reason wherof, so greate a citee, & so 
riche a countrey, should be brought out of the possessio of their enemies, into the hades of 
their trusty frendes, without farther cost or bloudshed. The Duke of Bedford & other, wer 
of a contrary opinion, thinkyng it bothe dishonorable and vnprolitable to the rea'me of Eng- 
land, to se a cite so long besieged at the costes & expenses of the kyng of England, & almoste 
brought to the poynt of yeldyng, to be yclded to any other fore prince or potestate, and not to 
hym or his Regent, the example wherof might prouoke other tounes heraftcr to do the same. 
This reason toke place, and the Regent answered the dukes ambassadors, that it was not 
honorable nor yet c5sonaunte to reason, that the kyng of Englande should beate the bushe 
and the duke of Burgoyn should haue the birdes: Wherfore sithe the right was his, the war 
was his, and the charge was his, he saied that y citie ought not to be voided to no other 
person, but to hym or to his vse and profile. By this litle chance, succedcd a great change 
in thenglishe affaires, for a double mischief of this answere rose and sprang out. For first 
the duke of Burgoyne, began to conceiue a certain priuye grudge against thenglishrnen for 
this cause: thynkyng the to enuy & beare malice against his glory and proiite, for the whiche 
in continuance of lime he became their enemy, and cleued to the French Kyngv Secondly, 
the Englibhcmen left the siege of Orleaunce, whiche by this treaty they might haue had to 
frend, or to haue continued neutre, till their Lord the duke of Orleaunce, or the erle of 
Angulosie his brother wer deliuered out of the captiuitie of the English people. But if men 
wer angels and forsaw ihyngesto come, ihey like beasles would nolronne to their confusion: 
but fortune which gideth die destiny of man, will lurne her whele as she listeth, whosoeuer 
sailh nay. 

WHILE this treaty of the Orleaunces was in hand, Charles the dolphin, daily studied 
and hourly labored, to plucke the fauor and hartes of the noL>i!itie of Fraunce, from the 
Englishe nacion, to the intent, that he might assemble a puyssance, sufficient to relefe 
his frendes, beyng shut vp in the citee of Orleauce. While he was studiyng and com- 
passyng this matter there happened to hym, a straunge chaunce, of the whiche I will 
write a litle, because some of the Frenchc aucthours, and especially Ihon Bouchet, of it 
writeth to muche. 

U 2 FOR 



148 THE. VI. YERE OF 

FOR as he and other saie, there came to hym beyng at Chynon a mayd of the age of. xx. 
yeres, and in mans apparell, named lone, borne in Burgoyne in a toune called Droymy 
beside Vancolour, which was a greate space a chamberleyn in acommen hosiery, and was a 
rampe of suclie boldnesse, that she would course horsses and ride theim to water, and do 
thynges, that other yong maidens, bothe abhorred & wer ashamed to do: yet as some say, 
whether it wer- because of her foule face, that no man would desire it, either she had made a 
vowe to liue chaste, she kept her maydcnhed, and presented her virginitic. She (as a mon- 
ster was sent to the Dolphin, by sir Robert Baiulrencort captain of Vancolour, to who she 
declared, that she was sent fro God, bothe to aide themiserable citee of Orleaunce, and also 
to remit hym, to the possession of his realme, out of the whiehe,, he was ex pulsed and ouer- 
comed: rehersyng to hym, visions, trauses, and tables, full of blasphemy, supersticio and 
hypocrisy, that I maruell much that wise men did beleue her, and lerned clarkes would write 
suche phantasies. What should I reherse, how they saie, she knewe and called hym her 
kyng, whom she neuer saw before. What should I speake how she had by reuelacion a 
swei'de, to her appoynted in the churchc of saincte Katheryn, of Fierboys in Torayne where 
she neuer had been. What should I write, how she declared suche priuy messages from 
God, our lady, and other sainctes, to the dolplr n, that she made the teres ronne doune 
fro his iyes. So was he deluded, so was he blynded, & so was he dcceiued by the deuils 
meanes which suffred her to begynne her race, and inconclusion rewarded her with a 
shameful fal. But in the meanc season suche credite was geuen to her, that she was honoured 
as asainct, of the religious, and beleued as one sent from God of the temporaltie, in so 
muche that she (armed at all poyntes) rode from Poytiers to Bloys, and ther found men of 
war vitail, and municjons, redy to be conueyed to Orleatice. The Englishmen perceiuyng 
that they within could not long continue, for faute of vitaile& ponder, kepte not their watche 
so diligently as they wer accustomed, nor scoured not the coutrcy enuironed, as thei before 
had ordained : which negligence, the citezens shut in perceiuyng, sent wordc thcrof to the 
Frenche capitaines, whiehe wi.li Puccl/e in the dedde tvmc of the niglit, and in a greate 
rayne and thundre, with all their vitaile and artilery entered into the citee. If thei were wel- 
comed marueill not, for folkes in greate trouble, be ioyous of a litle comfort. And the 
nextdaie the Englishemen boldely assauted the tonne, promisyng to theim that best scaled the 
walles great rewardes. Then men mounted on ladders coragiousiv, and with gonnes, arrowes 
and pikes, bette their enemies from the wailes. 

THE Frenchemen, although they marueiled at the fierce fightyng of the English people, 
yet thei wer not amascd, but they defended them selfes to the darke night, on whiehe 
daie, no great priuate feate worthy of memory, was either attempted or doen. The Bastard 
of Orleaunce (seyng the puyssaunce of thenglishe nacion) began to feare the sequele of the 
matter: wherfore he sent worde to the duke of Alannson, aduertisyri hym in what case the 
tonne then stoode, and that it could not long continue without his hasty spede, and qiiicke 
diligence. Whiehe delaiyng no tymc nor deterryng no space came with all his army within 
two leagues of the citee, and sent woorde to tiie capitaines, that on the next inorowe they 
should be rccly to receiue theim. Whiehe thyng, the nexie daic they accomj>lished, for the 
Englishernen thought it to be muche to their auaile, if so greate a multitude entered into the 
citee, vexed with famyne & replenished with scarsenes. On the next daie in the mornyng, 
the Freuchemen altogether issued out of the toune, and assauted the fortresse or Bastile, 
called the Bastyle of sainct Lou re, the whiehe with great force and no litle losse they toke 
and set it on fire, and after assauted the ton re at the bridge ibote, which was manfully de- 
fended. But the Frenchemen beyng more in nombre, so fiersely assauted it, that they toke 
it or the LordeTalbot could come to succors: in the whiehe Willyam Gladdisdale the capi- 
tain was s-lain, and the Lorde Morlyns, and thelorde Pownynges also. 

THE Frenchemen puffed vp with this good lucke, seyng the strong fortres was vngotten, 

, whiehe was vnder the defence of the lorde Talbot, fetched a compasse abor;te, and in good 

ordre of battaile marched thether ward. The lord Talbot like a capitain, without fere or 

dred 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 149 

dred of so great a multitude, issued out of his Bastile, and so fiersly fought with the Frenche 
men, that they not'able to withstande his puyssaunce, fled (like bhcpj before the Wolffe) 
again into the citee, with greate losse of men and small artilerie: and of the Englishemen 
wer lost in the two Bastyles sixe hundred presones. Then the erle of Sufiblke, the Lorde 
Talbot, the Lorde Scales, and other capitaines, assembled together, where causes wer shewed, 
that it was bothe necessary and conueniente either to leue the siege for euer, or to deferre it 
till another tyme, more luckey & conuenient. And to the intent that thei should not seme 
either to flie or to be driuen from the siege by their enemies, they determined to leaue their 
fortresses and Bastyles, and to assemble in the plain feld and there to abydc all the daie, a,bi-c 
dyng the outcommyng and baltaile of their enemies. This conclusion taken, was accord- 
yngly executed. The Frenchemen, weried with the last bickeryng, held in their heddes and 
durste not once appere: and so thei set fire in their lodgyngcs, and departed in good ordre 
of battail from Orleaunce. The next daie whiche was the. viij. daie of Maie, the Erie of 
Suftblke, ridyng to largeaux with. CCCC. Englishmen, and the lord Talbot with another 
copany returned to Meum which" tonne, after that he had fortified, he incontinent, assauted 
and wan the toune of Lauall and the Castle sore vexyng and punishyngthe tounes men, for 
their hard hartes, and cancard obstinacie: and leuyng there a garrison reculed to Meum. 

AFTER this siege thus broken vp to tell you, whattriumph.es wer made in the citee of 
Orlaaunce, what wood was spente in fiers, what wyne wasdronke in houses, what songes wer 
song in the stretes, what melody was made in Tauernes, what roundes were daunced, in 
large and brocle places, what iightes were set vp in the churches, what anthemes, wer song in 
Chapellcs, and what ioye was shewed in cuery place, it were, a long woorke and yet no ne- 
cessary cause.- For they did as we in like case would haue dooen, and we being in like 
estate, would haue doen as they did. After that the Englishmen, wer thus retired from the 
siege of Orleaunce, and seuered themselfes in cliuer?e tonnes & fortresses, holdyng on their-" 
part: The duke of Alaunson, the Bastard of (Meat) nee, lone the puzell, the lorde of Gan- 
cort, & thuerse other Frenche men came before the toune of largeaux, where the ei le of 
Suffolke and his twoo brethren soiorned the. xij. .'daie of lune, and gaue to the toune a great 
and a terrible assaut, wliiche the Englishmen, (beyng but a handful! ) manfully defended on 
three paries of the same. Poyton of Sentrailes, perceiuyngone part of the toune to be vn- 
defended, scaled the walles on that part: and without any diiuculte toke the toune, and 

-siewesir Alexander Pole brother to therle, and many other, to the nomlvre of two hundred: 
but they not muchegaynedj for they lost. iii. C. good men and more. Of thenglishmen wer 

-taken, xl. be: -ide his brother Iho. After this gain and good lucke, the Frenchcmen returnyng 
towarde Orleaunce, fell in contention and debate, for their captiucs and prisoners, and 

"Slewe them all, sauyngthe crle and his brother, 

T THE SEUENTil Yi:RE. 

AFter the gaynyng of the toune of largeaux, the same array cam to Meuin, and tokc the iv.vi-:, 
toure at t!ie bridge, and put there in a garrison, and fro thence remoue-.l to Bangency. ye " Cj 
Whiche garrison, beyng not vitailed rendered the toune, so that they might departe with i'bagce 
and baggage, frankely and frely: whiche dc.sire to the was graunted. 'At this toune of Ban- 
gency, met with the duke of Alaunson, Arthur of Brilayna, the false .forsworne gentleman 
to the kyng ofEnglande newly made Constable of Fraunce (as you haue heard,) with whom 
was tiie lord Delabret with. xij. C. men : to whom daily repaired freshc aide out ofeuery paut, 
as the Erie of Vandosme, and other, to the nombre of. xx. or. xx'tij. M men. All these 
menofwarre, determined to go to Meum, and to take the toune, but they wer informed, 
that the Englishemen, had leftethe toune desolate, and wer returned to tiie lord Talbot to 
leneuile. Then thei concluded to passe towarde that toune. But, as they marched forwarde 
vpon a Sateidaie, thei had perfite knowledge, that the lorde Talbot with, v, thousand men, 

4 was 



-150 THE. VII. YERE OF 

Avas commyng to Meum. Wherfore, thei intendyng to stop hym a tyde, conueyed their 
.company to asm-all village called Patay, vvhiche way, they knewe that the Englishmen must 
nedes passe by. And first they appoynted their horsemen, whiche were well and richely fur- 
bished, to go before, and sodainly to set on the Englishemen, or they wer, either ware or 
setinordre. The Englishmen commyng forwarde, perceiued the horsemen, and, imaginyng 
to deceiue their enemies, commaunded the fotemen to enuirone & enclose theselfes about with 
their stakes, but the French horsmen came on so fiersly, that the archers had no leyser, to 
set themselfes in a raie. There was no remedy but to fight at aduenture. This battaill, co- 
tinued by the space of thre long hou res. And although thenglishmen wer ouerpressed, with 
the noiubre of their aduersaries, yet thei neuer fledde backe one foote, till their capitain the 
lorde Ta loot, was sore wounded at the backe, and so taken. Then their hartes began to 
faint, & thei fled in whiche flight, ther wer slain aboue. xij. C. and taken, xl. wherof the lorde 
Talbot the lord Scales, the lord Hungerford, & sir Thomas Rampston, were the chief: howbeit 
diuerse archers whiche had shot all their arrowes, hauyng only their swerdes, defended the- 
self, and with the help of some of the horsmen, ca safe to Meu. 

WHEN the fame was blowen abrode, that the Lorde Talbot was taken, all the French- 
men not alitle reioysed, thinkyng surely, that now the rule of the Englishmen, should 
shortly assuage and waxe faint : for feare wherof, the tounes of leneuile, Meu, Fort, and 
diuerse other, returned from the Englishe part, and became Frenche, to the greate dis- 
pleasure of the Regent. Fro this battaill, departed without any stroke striken, sir Ihon 
Fastoiffe, thesarne yere for his valiauntnes elected into the ordre of the Garter. For 
whiche cause the Duke of Bedford, in a great anger, toke from hym the image of sainct 
George, and his Garter, but afterward, by meane of frendes, and apparant causes of good 
excuse by hym alledged, he was restored to the order again, against the mynd of 'the lorde 
Talbot. " 

CHARLES, callyng hymsclf Frenche kyng, beyng aduertised of this victory, thought 
now, that al thynges succeded, accordyng to his opinion and good hope, whiche euer, was 
of that hie corage and haut mynd, that in his moste aduersitie, he neuer dispaired in good 
lucke at length: so that the Erie of Salisbury beyng dedde, and the lorde Talbot liuin<r in 
captiuitle, (which wer y glory of his enemies) he thought to enterprise great and waighty 
thynges, wner before he rnedeled with small and litle doynges. For fulfillynsf of his mynd 
and appetite, he determined, first to conquere the citee of Reynes, to the intent, that he 
beyng there, might accordyng to the fashion of his progenitors, with all accustomed Cere- 
monies, be sacred and anoynted kyng with the holy ampulle, that all men niight se and 
perceiue, that he was, by all lanes and decrees, a iust and a lawfull kyng. Wherfore he 
assemblyng to gether a great army, & hauyng in his company lone the Puzel, whom he 
vsed as an oracle and a southsaier, passed through Champaigne, by the toune of Anxer. 
The within, sent to him messegers, praiyng him of certain daies of abslinece of war, in 
ttie which (if they wer not rescued) they promised to rendre the toune. He not willing to 
recornpenee with ingratitude, the louyng hartes of the cite/ens, graunted gently to their 
peticion, and leuyng there certain persons, to se that they should not iugle with hym, de- 
parted from thence to Troys, beyng the chief citie of Chapaigne, whiche he besieged, xii. 
daies. Sir Phillip Hal capitain there, vnprouided bothe of vitai'l and men, mistwistyng, 
that aide would not come in tyme, vpon ccposicion rendered the toune, so that he, his, 
with all their moueables might in sauetie depart the citee: whiche demaund was agreed to. 
After that Troys was voided, the comnionaltie of Chalons, rebelled against sir John A\v- 
bemod their capitain, and constrained hym to deliuer the toune vpon like coposicion, whiche 
against his wil, he was fain to do: and likewise did the citezens of Reyns, desiryng hym to 
geue saueconduite to all Lnglishemen, safely to departe. 

WHEN he had ihus conquered Reyns, he in the presence of all the noblemen of his faccion, 
and the dukes of Lorayne and Barre, was sacred kyng of Frafice, by the name of Charles 
ihe. vi. with all rites and ceremonies therto apperteinyng. Thei of Anxer which wer not 

rescued 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 1.51 

rescued within the tyme appoynted, brought the kayes to hym, and submitted theirnselfes to 
liis obeysaunce : likewise did all the citees and tounes adioynyng, geuyng thankes to almigh- 
tie God, whiche hauyng compassion of their misery, had restored them to libertie and fre- 
<lome. The Duke of Bedford, hearyng that these tounes and soyssons also, had returned 
to the part of his aduersaries, and that Charles late Dolphyn had taken vpon hym the name 
and estate of the kyng of Fraunce, and also, seyng that daily, citees and tounes returned 
from thenglishe part and became Frenche, as though the Englishmen had now lost all 
their hardy chieftaines and valiaut men of warre, espied and eu'idently perceiued, that the- 
laste and vttennoste poynt of recouery, was driuen only to ouercome by battaill, and to 
subdue by force. By whiche victory, (as he putte his confidence in God) he trusted not 
onely to scourge and plague the citees, whiche were so sodainly chaungeable, but also to- 
assuage and caulme the haute corage of the newe sacred Frenche kyng and his comi a- 
nions. Wherfore, he hauyng together, x. M. good Englishmen, (beside Normans) de- 
parted out of Paris, in warlike fashid and passed through Brye to Monstrean Faultyow, 
and there sente by Bedforde his herault letters to the Frenche kyng, alledgyng to hym that 
he contrary to the lawes of God and man, yea, and contrary to the final! conclusion^ 
taken, concorded, and agreed betwene his noble brother kyng, Henry the fifth, and kyng 
Charles, the. v. father to thesaid nowe vsurper, leuyng all humuyne reason and honest com- 
municacion, (which sometyme appeaseth debates and pacifielh strifes) onely allured and 
intised by a deuilishejvyjche, and a gflthanicall enchaunterese, had not onely falsely and 
craftely, taken vpon hym, the name, title and dignitie of the kyng of Frauce: J3ut also 
had, by murder, stelyng, craft, and deceiptful meanes, violently gotten, and wrongfully 
kept, diuerse citees and tounes, belongyng to the kyng of Englande, his mpste best be- 
loued lorde, and moste derest nephew. For profe wberof, he was come dourie from Paris, 
with his armye, into the countrey of Brye, by dent of swerde and stroke of battaill, to 
proue his writyng and cause trewe, willyng his enernie to chose the place, and he in the 
same, would geue hym battayle. 

THE newe Frenche kyng, departyng from his solempne Ceremonies at Reins, and re- 
mouyng from thence to Dampmartine, studiyng how to compasse the Parisiens, ether with 
money, or with promes, was somewhat troubled with this message, howbeit, he made a 
freshe countenauee, & a Frenche brag, answeryng to the herault: that he would soner- 
seke his Master, and the Duke should pnrsewe hym. The duke of Bedford hearyng his 
aunswer, marched toward hym, and pitched his feld in a-strong place, and sent out dinerse 
of his raungers, to prouoke the Frenchmen to come forward. The Frenche kyng was in 
nianer determined to abyde the battaill, but when he hard saic by his espialles, that tha 
power and nombre of the Englishemen, w.er to his army equal in power, he determined that 
it was more for his profile, to abstain fro battaill without danger, then to entre into the con- 
fticte with ieopardy : fearyng least that with a rashe corage, he might ouerthrowe al liis affaires 
whiche so effecteously preceded. And so well aduisecl, he turned with his army, alitle out of 
the waie. The duke of Bedford pefceiuyng his faint corage, folowed hvm by mountaines and 
dales, tilt he came to a toune in Barre, not forre from. Senlys, where he found the Freeh, 
kyng and his army. Wherfore he ordred his battail, like a man expert in marciall science, 
settyng the archers before, and hymself with the noblemen in the mayne battaill, and put 
the Normans on bothe sides for the wynges. The Frenche kyng also ordered his battailes, 
accordyng to the deuise of his caprtaines. Thus, these twoo armies without any greate 
doyng, (except a fewe skirmishes, in the whiche the dukes light horsmen did very vafiaunt- 
ly) lay eche in sight of other, by the space of twoo daies and twoo nightes. But when tiie 
Frenche kyng sawe, and perceiued, how glad, how diligent and. coragious the Englishmen wer 
to fight and geue battail, he imagened that by his tariyng, one of these twoo thynges must 
nedes chauce : that is to saie, either he should fight against his will, or lye still like a cowarde, 
to his greate rebuke and infamy. Wherefore in the dedde of the night, (as priuely as he 
could) he brake vp his campe and fled to Bray. When this flight was perceiued in the 

mornyng,; 



153 THE. VII. YEREOF' 

mornyng, the Regent could scace refrain his people, from folowyng the Frenche army, call- 
yng them, cowardes, dastardes, and loiites, and therfore, he perceiuing that by no mcanes, 
he could allure the new Frenche kyng to abide battaill, mistrustyng the Parisias, and gcu- 
yng no great crciiite to their faire, swete and fiatteryng woordes, returned again to Paris, 
to assemble together a greater power, and so to prosecute his enemies. 

IN this season, the Bohemians, (whiche belike had espied the vsurped authorise of the 
bishop of Rome) began to rebell against-his sea, which, (as Eneas Siluius doth report wer; 
i'alle into certain sectes of heresie. Wherefore, Martyn the fifth bishop of Rome, wrote 
vnto them to abstain from warre, and to be reconciled by reason, from their damnable 
opinions. But they, (beyng persuaded to the contrary) neither gaue eare vnto "hym, nor 
yet obeyed his voyce. Wherfore the bishop of Rome, wrote to the princes of Germany, 
to iimade \ realmes of Beanie, as the denne of heretikes, and cane of deuilishe doctryne. 
Besyde this, he appoynted Henry bishop of Winchester, and Cardinall of. S, Eusebie, a 
ma very \vel borne, (as you haue hard) but no better borne then high stomacked, and yet 
ho higher stomacked, then abundantly enriched, to be his legate in this great iomey, and to 
bryng out men from the realme of Englande, into the countrey of Beame. And because 
tlie warre touched religion, he licenced the said Cardinall, to take the tenth part of euerv 
spirituall dignitie, benefice, and promocio. This matter, was declared in open Parlia- 
ment in* Englande, and not dissented, but gladly assented to, wherfore the bishop gathered 
the money, and assembled foure thousand men and mo, not without great grudge of the 
people, uhiche daily were with tallages and aides weried, and sore burdened. And when 
men, mnnicions, and money wer ready for his hrght enterprise, he with ail his people came 
to the sea stronde at Douer, ready to passe ouer the sea into Flanders. 

liVT in the meane season, the Duke of Bedforde consideryng, how tonnes daily wer 
gotten, and countries hourely vvonnc in the realme of Fraunce, for lacke of sufficient de- 
fence and nombre of men of warre, wrote to his brother the duke of Gloucester, to releue 
him with aide, in that tcmpestious tyrne and troubelous season. When this letter was 
brought into Englande, the duke of Gloucester was not alitle amased, because he had no 
army redy to sende at that tyme : for by the reason of the Crewe, sent into Beame, he 
could not soclainly reyse a newe arrnye. But because the matter was of suche importaunce, 
and might neither be, fro day to day differred, nor yet long delaied, he wrote to the bishop 
of Winchester, to passe with all his army toward the duke of Bedford, whiche at that tyme 
had bothe ncde of men and assistance, consideryng that now, all stoocle vpon losse or gaine 
whiche thyng doen, and to his honor acheued, he might performe his iorney against the 
vngracious Bohemians. Although the Cardinall was somewhat moued with (his counter- 
mauncle, yet least he should be noted, not to ayde the Regent of Fraunce, in so greate a 
cause and so necessary an entreprise, he bowed from his former iorney, and passed the sea 
with all his company, and brought them to his cosyn, to the citee of Paris. 

CHARLES the Frenche kyng, hauyng knowledge in the meane season by his espialls, 
which went round about the countrey, to intise and soliicitc tounes and citees, to returne 
from the Englishe part, and become Frenche, that the inhabitates of Champeigne and 
Beuauoys ought hym greate loue and synguler fauor, and gladly coueted to renounce the 
subieccion of England, and to be vnder his proteccion, and also offred to open him their 
gates, so that they should not therby, be in ieoperdy of their lifes and losse of their goodes, 
with all haste & diligece remoued towarde Champeigne. The duke of Bedford beyng ad- 
uertiscd of his progresse, and hauyng his armie augmented, with the new aide, whiche the 
cardinal had of late conducted, marched forward with great spede to encountre and eue 
battaill, to his mortall enemy the Frenche kyng. When the duke was come to Senlys, the 
Frenchemeri wer lodged on the Mountpilioll, betwene Senlis and Champiegne. Euery 
army knew of other, and euery hoste might behold other. Then the capes wer trenched, 
and the 'battailes pitched, and the feldes ordered. Thus, these great armies lay two daies, 

nothyng 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 153 

nothyng doyng but with skirmishes, in the whiche the Normans sore vexed the Frenche- 
men. Wherfore, the lorde Regent, gaue to them many high laudes and praisynges, and 
determined surely the next dale, to set on Uie French kyng in his cape, if he would not 
remoue out, and abide battaill. But while kyng Charles did politiquely consider, what a 
variable lady, Fortune was, and what a sodain and vnthought chauce of a small thyng, might 
<Jo in a battaill : for the detrimentes and ouerthrowes, that he and his nacion had taken 
and tasted by thenglishemen, wer to them a lernyng, an example and a plaine experiment, 
to auoyde open ioynyng, mutual coflict, and force to force. .And beside that, he had by 
his explorators and spies, plain and perfect knowledge, y many and diuerse citees & tounes 
in Fraunce, abhorryng thenglislie libertie, and aspiryng to the French bondage and natiue 
-seruitude, (accordyng to the nature of Asses, whiche tiie more they be charged with, the 
more they desire) would, (whe they sawe their tyme) not onely rebell and returne to his 
faccion and parte, but also were ready to aide and assi-te hym, in recoucry of his desired 
realme and auncient dominion, in expeilyng also the Englishe nacion, out of the territories 
of Fraunce. And therefore, he imagined that the duke of Bedforde, was so hasty to geue 
hym battaill, thynkyng, that if he then wer oucrcome, the game had, for the Englishemen 
been clerely gotten, & to the Frenchemen, a perpeluall checkemate. Wherfore he deter- 
mined neuer, (except very necessitie compelled or constrained him) to fight in open battaill 
with the Englishmen, nor by a feld to aduenturc his realme with the, of whom his prede- 
cessors so often tymes had been vanquished. Wherfore, like a carpet capitaine he in the 
night, remoued his campe and fled to Crespy, and yet his nobre was double to the Englishe 
army. The duke of Bedforde, seyngthat the Frenche kyng was thus cowardly retrayted, 
and as a man, whiche durste not once assaie the stroke of an Englishe arme, shamefully 
reculed : with all his power and armie, returned agayn to Paris, sore suspectyng the de- 
ceiptfull faith of the pollitique Parisians. The bishop of Winchester, after the Frenche 
kynges flight, went into Beame, and there did somwhat, but what it was, authors kepe si- 
lence, and so do I: But shortly, he without any greate praise, and small gayne, returned 
into Englande, more glad of his retraite, then of his aduausyng fonvarde. Sone after, the 
bishop of Rome without his agrement, vnlegated hym, and set another in his stede & au- 
thoritie, with which doyng, he was neither cdtent nor pleased. 

5f THE EIGHT YERE, 

ON the vi. day of Nouembre, being theday of sainct Leonard, kyng Henry, in the eight Ttle- ,.- 
ye re of his reigne, was, at Westminster with all pompe and honor, crouncd kyng of this- >* 
realme of England. At which coronacion, to reherse the costly fa ire, the delicate meate, 
the pleasaunt wines, the nombre of courses, the sortes of dishes, the labors of officers, the 
multitude of people, the estates of Lorcles, the beauties of Ladies, the riches of apparel!, 
the curious deuises, the solempne banquettes, it would aske a long tyme, and wery you: 
Wherfore leuyng the pleasaunt pastyme in England, I will returne to the troubleous warrcs 
in Fraunce. 

AFTER that the French kyng was fled from the duke of Bedford, (as you haue harde 
before) and was come to Crespy in Valoys, he was credibly informed, how the citezens of 
Champaigne, desired greatly to be vnder his gouernaunce and subieccion. Wherfore, he 
.mindyng not to lese so faire an offred prey, ceased not, til he came to the toune, where,- 
with all reuerence and benignitie, he was receiued and welcomed. And after that, were 
rendered to hym, the tounes of Senlis and Beauoys. And the Lorde Longuenall tooke by 
stelth, the castle of Aumarle and slewe all the Englishemen, and in short space, the lorde 
Barbasan, whiche long had been prisoner in the Castle Gaylard, so muche, what with faire' 
wordes and large promises, persuaded his kepers, that he not only deliuered his awne per- 
soiie, but also caused the toune, to turne from thenglishmen, to the part of kyng Charles 

X his 



1.54 THE. VIII. YERE OF 

his Master. Whiche kyng, although he muche reioysed, at the good successe, that Fortune 
had to hym sente, yet he was somwhat desperate, how to recouer his conntrey from the pos- 
session of the Englishemen, except he vnknitted the knotte and league, bel wene the duke of 
Burgoyn and them. Wherfore, he sent his Chauncellor, & diuerse Ambassadors to the 
duke of Burgoyn, first, excusyng himself of the death & murder, of duke Ihon his father, 
& after, declaryng to him, that there could be nothing more foule, more dishonest, nor more 
detestable, then, for his awne peculiar cause, & pi iuate displeasure, to ioyne with his aun- 
cient enemies, and perpetual aduersaries, against his natiue countrey and natural! nation: 
not onely requiryng hym, of concord, peace, and arnitie, but also promisyng golden moun- 
taines, and many more benefites, then at that tyme, he was either able or could performe. 
This message was not so secrete, nor the doyng so closely cloked, but the Duke of Bedford, 
therof was plainly informed. Whiche beyng sore troubled, and vnquieted in his mind, 
because he sawe the power of thenglisl.e nation, daily waxe lesse, he, of all thynges, first 
forseyng, if any losse should of necessitie chaunce, of those tounes and countreis, whiche 
his noble brother, kyng Henry the fifth had conquered, in the very countrey of Fraunce, for 
lacke of tuition or defence: yet for an ankerhold, he determined to kepe, possesse, and de- 
' fende, the Dutchie of Normandy, the olde inheritaunce and aunciente patrimony, of the 
kynges of Englande, and fro 'them onely, by force and not by iustice, by violence and not 
by right, sithe the tyme of kyng Henry the t'hirde, (the deuilishe de-jii-ion then reignyng in 
the realmej wrongfully deteined, and injuriously vsurped. Wherfore, he diligently pro- 
uidyng, for thynges that might chaunce, appoynted gouernor of the citce of Paris, Lewes of 
Luxenberough, bishop of Turwine and Ely, beyng Chauncellor of Fraunce, for the kyng of 
England, a man of no lesse wit, then of birthc, leuyng with hym, a conuenient n ombre of 
Englishemen to defende bothe the citee and territory of Paris, & the isle of Fraiice. then 
beyng in the Englishmens possession and gouernaunce. 

THESE thynges thus oidered, he departed from Paris, into Normandy, and called at 
Roan a parliament, of 1 he t lire estates of the ducbie, in the whiche he declared vnto them, 
the great liberties, the mani.bide priueleges, the innumerable benefites, whiche they had re- 
ceiued of the kynges of Englande, duryng the tyme, that they wer possessors and iordes of 
thesame duchie, not puttyng in obliuion, the mi.>ery, bondage, and calatnitie, whiche they 
had sustained, by the intollerable yoke and daily tributes, continually layed in their neckes 
like Asses, by the cruell and coueteous Frenchemen : and puttyng theim also in remetn- 
braunce, how the kynges of England, wer not only brought furth and disceded, of the Nor- 
mans bloud progeny, but wer the very true & vndouhtfu'l heires, to thesame countrey and 
duchie, lineally succedyng & lawfully discendyng from Rollo the hardy, first duke and 
prince of the same dominion: Requiryng theim farther, to line in lone and amitie emongest 
theim self, to be true and obedient, to the kyng their soueraigne Lorde, and to kepe their 
othe and proaies, made and sworne to his noble brother, kyng Henry the. v. prorriisyng to 
them, Englishe libertie and priueleges royall. While the duke of Bedford was thus, inter- 
tainyng and encoragyng the Normans, Charles the new Frenche kyng, beyng of his depar 
ture aduertised, longyng and thrystyng for to obtain Paris, the chief citee & principal! place 
of resort, within the whole real me of Fraunce, departed from the toune of SenliS well ac- 
companied, and came to the toune of sainct Denise, whiche he found desolate, and aban- 
doned of all garrison, and goodgouernauce. Wherfore, without force arid small damage, he 
entered into the voyed toune, and lodged his armie at Monntmartyr, and Abberuilliers, riere 
adioynyng, and liyng to the citee of Paris. And from thence, sent, Ihon duke of Alatnisoh, 
and his sorceresse lone, (called the mayde, sent from (icd) in whom, his whole afh'au'nce 
then consisted, with thve rbousande light hor^men, to get again the citie of Paris, either by 
force, or by faire flatteryng, or reasonable trcatie, and after them, he without delaie or difer- 
ryng of tyme, with all his power,, came betwene Moutmartyr and Paris, and sodainly, ap- 
proched the gate of sainct Ilonore, settyng vp ladders to the wailes, and castyng faggoltes into 
the cliches, as though, he would with a French bragge, sodainly haue gbtte the faire cite! ' "But 

thenglishe 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. )55 

thenglishe capitaines, euery one kepyng his ward and place assigned, so manfully and fiersly 
with a noble forage, defended themselfes, their walles and toures, with the assistence of the 
Parisians, that thei rebutted and draue aaie the Frenchmen, & threwe doune lone, their 
greate goddesse, into Hie botome of ilie toune ditchc, where she laie behynd the backe of an 
Asse, sore hurte,' till the tyine tliat she all filthy with mire and duvte, was drawen out, by 
Guyschard of Thienbrone, scruaunt to the duke of Alaunson. The Frenche Kyng, seyng 
the greate losse, that he had sustcined at tins assaut, and accompted his pretensed conquest, 
in raaner impossible, leuyng the dedde bodies behind hyra, and takyng with hyin, the 
wounded capitaincs, whiche wer of no small nombre, returned into Berry. But in .the 
uieane waie, tlie ciuzens of Laignie, became his subiectes, and made to hyin an othe, pro- 
inisyng to conlinewe from thence fnrth to hym, both true and obedient. 

THE Duke of Bedford, bevng in Normandy, and hearyng of this soclain attempt, lost no 
tyine, nor spared no trauaile, till lie came to Paris. Where he, not onely thanked the capi- 
taines, and praised the cilezSs for their assured h'delitie and good will, towarde their kyng 
and souereigne lorde, but also extolled tlieir hardines, & manly doynges aboiie the Staires, 
and high elementes: promisyng to them, honor, fame, and greate aduauncemcntes. Whiche 
gentle exbortacion, so incbraged and inflamed the hartes of the Parisians, that they sware, 
promised, and cocluded, to be frendes euer to the kyng of Englande and his fi endes, and ene- 
mies alwaies to his foes anil adaersaries, ma kyng proclamation by this stile. Frendes to Kyng 
Henry, frendes to the Parisians, enemies to England, enemies to Paris. But if they spake 
it with their hartes, either for feare, that Charles the Frenche kyng, should not punishe 
them, if he once ohteired the suporioritie, ouer their citee, & toune, or that thei flattred 
thenglishmen, to put theiii.sclfes in credite with the chief capitaines, you shal plainly perceiue, 
by the sequele of their acies. 

SQNE after these doyngiis, came to Paris with a greate company, Phillip duke of Eurgoyn, 
whicl.e was of the Regent, and the. lady his wife, honorably receiued, and highly feasted. 
And after long coiiMiltacion had, for recoueryng of the tounes, lately by the Frenche kyng 
stollen and taken, it was agreed, that the duke of Bedford, should rayse an armie, for the 
recouery of Unsaid fortresses, and that the duke of Burgoyne, should be his deputie, and 
tary at Paris, for the defence of the same. After this greate businesse, thus concluded, and 
appoynted, rlie Duke of Bedforde hymself, without any greate resistannce, recouered again 
the toune of sainct Denise, and diuerse other Castles. And after that doen, he sent the Bas- 
tard of Clarence, to laye siege to the Castle of Toursie, beyng bothe by the naturall situacion, 
and mannes pollicie, very strong, and in manor vnahle to be beaten douue. The siege con- 
tinued sixe monethes, but in conclusion, the capitain discomfited of al rcleue and succor, 
rcndfix-d the fortresse. the life of hyin and his souldiersonlysaucd. Whiche olfre was taken, 
& the castle raised, and cast doune to the grounde. During this siege, sir Thomas Kiriell 
knight, with foure hundred Englishemen, departed from Gourney in Normandy, and rode by 
Bea.ioys spoylyng, robbyng, and wastyng the countrey, to the suburbes of Cleremont. 
Wherof. hcaryng the Erie of thesame tonne, assembled all the men of warre, of the garrisons 
adioynyng, to fight with thenglishmen : and so the Frenchemen with all diligence set forward, & 
found their enemies in a straight place, pere vnto Beauois. The erle oi Cleremount seyng 
that he could not hurte theim, with his men of armes, by reason of the straight, cume doune 
on fote with all his company, and fiersly set on the Englishmen. The fight was fierse, and 
the aduamnage doubtful. But in conclusion, the archers shot so terriblie, that the French- 
men, notatile to abide the smart, andgaulesof thearrmves, fled apjce, and the, Englishmen 
leuyng the straight, Icpedon horsebacke, and folowed the chase. In the whiche wer taken 
twuo hundred prisoners, and thriseas many slain. The Erie, by the suiftnesseof hishorsse, 
escaped his enemies, and came to the toune of Beauoys : and so s-ir Thomas Kiriell, with 
plentie of spoyle and prisoners, returned to Goruay, renderyng to GOD his hartie thankes, 
for tnat good chaunce and happie vittory. 

YET Fortune sent not this good lucke alone, for therle of Suffolk at thesame very season, 

X 2 besiegyng 



156 THE. IX. YERE OF 

besiegyng the toune of Aumarle, wherof was capitain the lord Rambures, (after, xxiiii. great 
assautes geuen to the fortresse) had the toune and castle to hym symply rendered. Where- 
fore, he caused, xxx. of the tounes men, for their untruthe, to be hanged on the walles, and all 
jthe rest he raunsomed, and sent the capitain into Englande, where he remained sixe yeres 
"continually, after by excaunge was deliuered. After this, the erle fortefied the toune, with 
jnen, municions and vitaile, and so by a litle and litle, the Englishmen recouered again many 
"tounes, whiche before they had loste, without any greate losse of their people. Whiche 
thyng, the Frenchernen well consideryng irnagened by what means, how to get again the 
toune of Laual, whiche y lorcle Talbot (before as you haue heard) gat, by scalyng in a night. 
Wherfore, to possesse their desired prey, tluy with money, and gay promises, first corrupted 
a Miller, that kept a Mil adioynyng to the wall, so thafthe Miller, suffered the lorde llo- 
met with thre hundred other, to passe, through bis Mill into the toune, in a very durke 
night. When they wer entered, they slewe the kepers of the gate, and let in the Lorde Rer- 
trand de la Ferrier, with fiue hundred men of armes: whiche either slewe or toke prisoners, 
all thenglishemen within the toune. And shortly after, Sir Stephen de Vignoles called the- 
Heire, toke by scaly ng, the toune of Lonuiers in Normridy, and did muche damage, to all 
the tounes adioynyng. 

1 THE NYNTH YERE. 

The.;*. WHile these chaunces happened, betwene the Englishmen and Frenchemen, Phillip 
duke of Burgoyne, maried the Lady Isabel!, daughter to Ihon, kyng of Portyngall, and 
greate aunte to the kyng of Englande. In honor of whiche manage, he instituted and 
began an ordre of. xxxvi. knightes without reproche, called the ordre of the golden flece, 
and deuised statutes, mantels, collers, and Ceremonies for thesame, muche like to the or- 
dinaunces, of the noble ordre of the Garter begonne in Englande, almoste an hundred 
yeres before the inuencion, of this fraternitie and frcdship. On the which wife, he begat, 
the hardy duke Charles, father to Marie, after maried to Maximilia. kyng of the Romans, 
as (when place requireth) shalbe hereafter to you declared. 

IN this very season, the Englishemcn in the colde moneth of Decembre, besieged the 
toune of Laigny, in the whiche was the Puzel and diuerse other good capitaines. But the 
weither was so cold, & the raine so greate and so continual!, that they, of force copelled, 
not by their enemies, but by intemperate season, reised their siege: and in their returne, 
the Puzell and all the garrison within the toune, issued out and fought with thenglishrnen, 
\\here, (after log fightyng) both parties departed without either great gain or losse. After 
this enterprise done, the duke of Burgoyne, accompanied with the erles of Arundell and 
Suffolke, and the lord Ihon of Luxenbrough, and with a great puissaunce, besieged the 
toune of Champeigne : whiche toune was well walled, manned, and vitailed, so that the 
besiegers, must either by assaut or long tariyng, wery or famishe them within the toune. 
So they cast trenches, and made moynes, "and studied al the waies that they could deuise, 
how to compasse their coquest and enterprise. And it happened in the night of the Ass&n- 
cion of our lorde, that Pothon of Xentraxles, lone the Puzell, and fine or sixe hundred 
men of armes, issued out of Chapeigne, by the gate of the bridge towarde Mowntdedier, 
intendyng to set fire in the tentes and lodgynges of the lord of Baudo, which \vas then gone 
to Marigny, for the Duke of Burgoyns affaires. At whiche tyme, sir Ihon of Luxenbo- 
rough, with eight other gentlemen (whiche had riden ahoute the toune to serche and vieue, 
in what place the toune might be most aptly and conueniently assauted or scaled) were 
come nere to the lodges of the lorde of Baudo, where they espied the Frenchmen, whiche 
began to cut doune tentes, ouerthrowe pauilions, and kil men in their beddes. Wherefore, 
shortely they assembled a great nombre of men, as well Englishe as Burgonions, and co- 
vagiously set on the Frenchmen. Sore was- the fight and greate was the slaughter, in so 

-such 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 157 

much that the Frenchemen, not able lenger to indure, fled into the toune so faste, that 
one letted the other to entre. In vvhiche chace was taken, lone the Puzell, and diuerse 
other : whiche lone was sent to the duke of Bedford to Roan, wher, (after log examinacio) 
she was brent to ashes. This wytch or manly woman, (called the maide of GOD) the 
Frenchemeu greatly glorified and highly extolled, alledgyng that by her Orleauce was vi- 
tailed: by her, kyng Charles was sacred at Reynes, and that by her, the Englishmen wer 
often tymes put backe and ouerthrowen. O Lorde, what dispraise is this to the nobilitie 
of Fraunce: What blotteis this to the Frenche nacion: What more rebuke can be imputed 
to arenoumed region, then to affirme, write & confesse, that all notable victories, and ho- 
norable conquestes, which neither the kyng with his power, nor the nobilitie with their va- 
liauntnesse, nor the counsaill with their wit, nor the comonaltie with their strenght, could 
compasse or obtain, were gotten and acbiued by a shephcrdes daughter, a chamberlein in 
an hostrie, and a beggers brat: whiche blindyng the wittes of the French nacion, by reue- 
lacions, dreames & phantasticall visions, made the beleue thynges not to be supposed, and 
to gfcue faithe to thynges impossible. For surely, if credite may be geuen to the actes of_ 
the Clergie, openly done, and comonly shewed, this woman was not inspired with the holy 
ghost, nor sent from God, (as the Frenchmen beleue) but an enchfileresse, an orgayne 
of the deuill, sent from Sathan, to blind the people and bryng them in vnbelife : as by this 
ktter, sent fro the kyng of England, to the duke of Burgoyn, to you euidently shall 
appere. 

" MOSTE dere and welbeloued vncle, the feruentloue and great affection, whiche you 
(like a very catholique prince) beare to our Mother holy Churche, and to the aduancement 
of our faithe, doth bothe resonably admonishe, and frendly exhort vs, to signifie and write 
vnto you, suche thynges, which, to the honor of our Mother holy Churche, strengthen- 
yng of our faith, and pluckyng vp by the rotes, of moste pestilent errors, haue been so- 
lemply done within our citee of Roan. It is commonly renoumed, and in euery place 
published, that the woman, commonly called the Puzell, hath by the space of twoo yercs 
and more, contrary to Goddes lawe, and the estate of womanhed, been clothed in a marines 
apparell, a thyng in the sight of God abhominable. And in this estate, caried ouer and 
conueyed, to the presence of our chief enemy and yours, to whom, & to the prelates, 
nobles, & commons of his parte she declared that she was sent from God, presumptuous- 
ly makyng her vaunt, that she had communicacion personally, and visibly with sainct Mi- 
chaell, and a greate multitude of Angels, and sainctes of heau^n, as sainct Katheryn, and 
sainct Margarete : by the whiche falshode and subtilitie, sue made diuerse to beleue, and 
trust in her faithe, promisyng to them great and notable victories, by the which meane, 
she did turne the hartes of many men and women, from the truthe and veritie, and con- 
uerted them to lies and errors. Beside this, she vsurped a cote of annts, and displaid a 
standard, whiche thynges, be apperteinyng only to knightes and esquiers: and of a greate 
outrage, and more pride and presumpcio, she demaunded to beare the noble and excel- 
lent Armes of Fraunce, whiche she in part obteined, the whiche she bare in many skir- 
mishes and assautes, and her brethre also (as men report) that is to say: the feld azure, a 
swerd, the poynt vpward in pale siluer, set betwene two flower deluces, firmed with a 
croune of gold. And in this estate, she cam into the feld, & guided men of war, and 
gathred copanies, & assebled hostes to exercise vnnatural cruelties, in sheding of christen 
bloud, & stirring sedicions, and commocions emongest the people, inducing them, to per- 
iurie, rebellion, supersticio and false error, in disturbyng of peace and quietnes, and re- 
newyog of mortal warre. Beside this, causyng herself to be honored and worshipped of 
many, as a woman sanctified, and dampnably opcnyng, diuerse imagined cases long to 
reherse,. in diuerse places well knowen and apparantly proued. Wherby, almoste al Chris- 
tendom is slaundered. But the diuine pui-baunce, hauyng compassion vpon his true peo- 
ple, and willyng no lenger to leaue them in peiil, nor suffre the to abyde still in waics 
daungerous, and newe cruelties, hath lightly permitted, of his greate mercieand clemency, 

thesaied 



158 THE. IX. YERE OF 

tliesaied-puzell to be taken in your host and siege, whiche you kept for ys before Cham- 
peigne, and byyouregood mta;ie, deliuered into o-ir obeysaunce and dominion. And be- 
cause we were required, by the bishoppe of tlie Diocese, where she was take, (because 
t>he was noted, suspected, and defamed to be a traitor to almightie God) to deliuer to hym 
as to her ordinary and Ecclesiasticall lodge: We, for the reuerence of oure Mother holy 
Churche, (whose ordinaunces we will preferre, as oure owne dedes and willes, as reason 
it is) and also for the aduauncement of Christen faithe, baylcd thesaied lone to hym, to 
the intent that he should make processe against her: not willyng any vengeaunce or punish- 
mete to be shewed to her, by any officers of our secular iustices, which they might haue 
lawfully and resonable done, cbnsideryng the greate hurtes, damages, and incbueniences, 
.the horrible murders, and detestable cruelties, & other innumerable mischiefe-s whiche she 
hath committed in our territories, against our people, and obedtet subiectes. '1 he whiche 
bishop, takyng.iri company to hym, the Vicar and inquisitor of errors, and hcrisies, and 
callyng to them, a great and notable nombre of solempnc doctors, and masters in diuinitie, 
and lawe Canon, began by great solempnitie, and granitic, accordyngly, to procede in the 
cause of the saied lone. And after that, thesaid bishop and inquisitor, judges in this 
"* cause, had at diuers daies ministered, certain interrogatories to the said lone, and had 
caused the confessions assercions of her, truly to be examined by thesaid doctors and 
masters, and in conc!u. c io'generailv, by all the faculties of our dere and weibeloued daugti- 
ter the Vniuersity of Paris. Against whom, (the confessions and assercios, maturely and 
deliberatly considered) the ludges, Doctors, & all other the parties aforesaied, adiudged 
thesame lone, a supersticious sorceresse, and a diabolical blasphemeresse of God, and of 
his sainctes: and a persone scismatike and erronious, in- the lawe of lesu Christe. And 
for to reduce and bryng her again, to the communion and company, of oure Mother holy 
Churche, and to purge, her of her horrible, and pernicious crimes and offences, and to 
saue and preserue her soule, from perpetual! payne 1 and dampnacibn, she was moste cha- 
ritably and fauorably admonished and aduised, to put away and abhor, all her errors and 
erromrus doynges, and to returne humbly to the right way, and come to the very vcritie 
of a Christen creature, or els to put her soule and body in great perell and ieoperdie. But 
all tuis notwithataudyng, the perelous and inflamed spirit ot pride, and of outragious pre- 
sumpcio, the whiche continually tnlbrceth hymself, t:> brekc- and d'ssolue the vnitye of 
Christen obedience, so clasped in his clawes, the harte of this woman lone, that she, nei- 
ther by any ghostly exhortation, holy adinonicion, or any oilier wholsome doctrine, whiche 
might to her bee shewed, would molhfie her hard harte, or bryng her to hmiiilitie But 
she aduauncec! and auowed, that all thynges by her do: e, wer well done: yea, and done by 
the commaundeiuentes of GOD, and the sainctes before rehersed, plainly to herapperyng: 
Kefcrryng the. Judgement of her cause, o-.ely to God, and to no indge o"r counsaill, of the 
rjimche militant. Wherefore, the ludges I-cclcsi s t:call, perceiuyng her hard harte, so 
long to continue, caused her to be brought !unh, in a common auditorie, before the Cler- 
gie and people, in a great multitude, there, for that purpose assembled. In which pre- 
;.nce wer opened, manifested, & declared, solemnly, openly, and truly, by a master in 
tie, ot notable learnyng and vcrtuous life to the aduaunx-ement of the catholike faithe 
extirpyng of errors and false opinions, all her confessions and assercions, charitably 
jomshyng, and persuadyng her to returne, to the vnion and feloship ofChristcs ( hurche 
and to correct and amend, the fames and offences, in the whiche she was so obstinate and 
le. And accordy g to the lane, the Indies aioresaied, beganne to procede and pro- 

InZ !-id ofcf T St ntenCe> ^ , that CMe f ^ ht !'!)>. eining. Yet, before the 
uc ,1 fuUj declared the sentence, she began somewhat to abate her corage, and saied 

ha she would t econc,le her self, to our Mother the holy Churche, bothe gladly and wyl- 
jyngly. Judges and other Ecclesiasiicall personcs. genteiy receiued he? offer, hopynfl 

meane, that bothe her body and soule, wer gotte again out of eternal losse and per" 
so, .sue .submitted her self,, to the ordinaunce of the holy Churche, and with 

. ^ her 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 159 

her m'outhe, openly reuokedj her erroros and detestable crimes: and thesame, abiured 
Openly, signyng with her hande, thesaiedabiuracion, and reuocacion. Wherevpon, oure Mo- 
ther the holy Churche, beeyng pitit'ull and mercifull, glad and reioysyng of a synner, that 
will conuerte, willyng the strayed shepe to returne again to his folde and flocke, coridepned 
thesaid lone onely to doo open penaunce. But the fire of her pride, whiche was in her 
harte, sodainly brast out into hurtfull flames, blowen out by the belowes of enuie: and in- 
continent after, she tooke again, all her errors and false opinions, by her before, adiured 
' ! and reuoked, for whiche causes, accordyng to the iudgementes and instituciona of holy 
church, to the intent that she, hereafter should not defile, any other membre of the flocke, 
of our Lorde Jesus Christe: was again exhorted, and preached to openly. And because 
she still was obstinate, in her trespaces and villanous offences, she was dcliuered to the 
secular power, the which codempncd her to be brent, ami- cosumed her in the fire. And 
when she saw that the fatall daie of her obstinacie was come, she opely confessed, that the 
spirites, whiche to her often did appere, were euill and false, and apparant Hers, and that 
their promes, which they had made, to deliucr her out of captiuitie, was false and vntrue: 
affirmyng her self, by those spirites to bee often beguiled, bhnded, and mocked. And so 
oeyng in good mynde, she was by the Justices caried to the okle market, within the citee 
of Roan, and there by the fire, consumed to asshes, in the si^ht of all the people. 

TIMS letter, tbekyng of Englande, sente not onely to the Duke of Burgoyne, and other 
Princes, to declare the veritie of the matter, and the administracion of Justice, but to ad- 
rnonishe all rude and ignorant persones, in all other countries, to refraine, from the credite 
and belefe 1 of the saiynges, of suche prophane prophesies, and craf'tie imageners, as this 
peuishe painted Puzel was. Yet notwithstandyng, this lawful processe, this due examina- 
cion and publike sentence, Iho Buchet, and diuerse Frenche writers aflirme her to be a 
saincte in heauen. But because, it is no poynt of our faith, no man is bound to bekue his 
Judgement, although he were an Archedeken. But Paulus Emilius, a famous writer, rehers- 
yng that the citezens of Orleaunce, had buylded in the honor of her, an Image or an Idole, 
saith, y Pius bishop of Rome, and Anthony bishop of Florence, muche mertieiled and 
greately wondered at her actes and doynges. With whiche saiyng, I can very well a^ree, 
that she was more to be marueiled at, as a false prophetisse, and seducer of the people i 
then to be honored or worshipped as a sainct sent from God into the realme of Fraunce. 
For of this I am sure, that all auncient writers, aswell deuinc, as prophane, alledge these 
three thynges, beside diuerse other, to apparteine to a good woman. First, shamefastnesse, Thre P r - 
whiche the Romain Ladies so kept, that seldome or neuer thei wer seen openly talkyng with imperuymf 
a man: which vertue, at this day emongest theTurke?, is highly esteemed. The seconde, is to a l ood - 
pitie: whiche in a womans harte, abhorreth the spillyng of the bloud of a poore beast, or a 
sely birde. The third, is womanly behauor, aduoydyng tlie occasion of euill judgement, and 
cause* of slaundre. If these qualities, be of necessitie, incident to a good woman, where 
was her shamefastnes, when she daily and nightly, was conueisant with comen souldiors, and. 
men of warre, emongest whom, is small honcstie, lesse vertue, and shamefastnesse, least of 
all exercised or vsed? Where was her womanly pitie, whe she taking to her, the harte of a 
c'ruell beaste, slewe, man, woman, and childe, where she might haue the vpper hand? 
Where was her womanly behauor, when she cladde her self in a man ties clothyng, and was 
cou'ersant with euery losell, geuyng occasion to all men to Judge, and speake euill of, her, 
and her doynges. Then these thynges, bcyng thus plainly true, all men must nedes confesse' 
that the cause ceasyng, the effect also ceastth: so y, if these morall venues lackyng, she 
was no' good worm, then it must nedes, consequently folowe, that she was no sainct. 
^ NOVV leuyng this woman, consumed to asshes, lette vs returrle agayne to the siege of 
Com;-eign.-, whiche still continewed. Duryng whiche tyme, the Regent sente to the Duke 
of Burgoxne, l:yng at the siege the erle of Huntingdon, i-ir Ihon Robsert. with a thou- 
sande Archers, whiche daily skirmished, with theiiri of the toune, and made guche 
Bastiles and fortresses, that' the toune must nedes' 'be rendered, or els they within, fa- 



]60 THE. X. YERE OF 

wished. But se the chaunce, when victory was at had Tidynges wer brought to the 
duke of Burovn, that Phillip duke of Brabantc, was departed out of this worlde, leuyng 
behvnde hvm, no heire of his'bodie: To whom thesaieci duke pretended to be next heire. 
Wlierforc," he takyng with hym, his best capitaines, for the recouery of so greate a duchy, 
departed from the siege, leuyng his poore people behynd hym, and ordemed in his place, 
for his leuetcnaunt, sir Ihon'Luxen borough, whiche beyng of small strength and lesse co- 
rage, after the dukes departyng, aduised the Englishmen, to depan for that tyme, tyll the 
nextsotnmer: whiche therto at the first, would in nowise agree. But there was no remedy. 
for he was capitain general!, and had the ordynaunce vnder his rule, so that without that, 
thei could nothyngdoo: Wherfore in greate displeasure, they returned into Noirnandy, 
After whose departure, the captain set fire in all the hastiles, and secretly departed, leyng 
behynde him, diuerse peces of ordynaunce, for lacke of cariage. With which returne, the 
dukes of Bedford and. Burgoyn, wer sore displeased : for if he had continued his siege, eight 
daies lenger, the toune had been rendered, without dent of swerd. For pestilence and fa- 
royne, had almoste consumed all the souldiors, and left the toune, with out safeguard or 
defence. 

AFTER this siege broken vp, Ihon duke of NorfFolke, toke again the tounes of Dap- 
martyn, and the Chasse Mongay, and diuerse other tounes. And therle of Stafford, toke 
the toune of Brie, in Countie Robert, and from thence, foraged al the countrey to Sens, 
and after toke Quesnoy in Brie, Grand Puys, and Rarnpellon, with many prisoners as sir 
laques de Milly, and sir Ihon de la Hay. Duryng whiche tyme the Frenchmen toke Louiers, 
& Villuense. And then the toune of Melune rebelled, and had suche ayd<>, of other tounes 
adioynyng, that the Englishe souldiors, wer fayne to leaue Melune, Morret and Corbell. 
Thus accordyng to the chaunce of war, the one part gat, and the other lost. Thus the En- 
glishe affaires (as yon haue hard) within the realme began to wauer, and waxe variable, 
whiche caused the Englishe capitaines, to be of diuerse opinions. For one part, beyng sory 
and pensiue, adiudged the thynges present, light and of no moment, in comparison of them 
whiche they sa\ve likely to folowe: and another sort, adiudged that present time, to be moste 
ieoperdus, and moste repleted with perils: Because they sawe, the power of their enemies, 
now increa*.d, and their owne stregth rather dccaied, then coserued. And so euery man 
studiyng on 'fliis businesse, aduised secretly with hymself, what counsaill was best to be taken, 
and what waie was best to be folowed, to remedy these thynges, thus waueryng, in a doubtful 
balance. And then it was concluded, that it was moste apteand mete, for tl>e tyme presente, 
that kyng Henry in his royall person, with a newe army, should come doune into Fran nee, 
partly to comfort and visite his awne subiectes thcr: partly, either by feare or fauor, (be- 
cause a childe, of his age and heautie, dooth commonly allure to hym, the hartes of elder 
persones,) to cause the Frenchetnen to continue, in their due obeysaunce towarde hym. Wher- 
fore, after a great hoste, conuenient for that purpose, assembled, and money for the mainte- 
nance of thewarre, redy gathered, and the realme sette in an ordre, and the Duke of Glou- 
cester, appoynted gouernor (winch duryng the kynges absence, appeased diuerse riottes, and 
punished many offenders,) the kyng with a great power, tooke shipping at Douer, and 
landed at Calice, and there taried a good space; and from thence he remoucd to Roan, 
where, with al triumphe, he was receiued, and there soiorned, till the rniddest of August, 
his nobles daily consultyng, on their greate busines, and waightie affaires. 

U THE TENTH YERE. 



> nce 

i'enice, to the intent to make his entrie, into the citee of Paris, and there to be sacred kyn* 
'ruror l receiue the sce P tre andCroune of the realme and countrey 



'ruror 

1 HLKL were in his company, of his owne nacio, his vncle the- Cardinall of Winchester, the 

Cardinal] and Archebishoppe of Yorke, the dukes of Bedforde, Yorke, and Norffolke, the 

1 - 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 161 

Erles of Warwicke, Salisbury, Oxford, Huntyngdon, Ormond, Mortayn, Suffolke, and of Thccorona - 

s~< i *-i i f T -i i -m > T i 11 *- / -ri i i f, cionofkvne 

Gascoynes, the Lne of Long'iilc, and Marche, beside many noble men of England, Guyan, Henry the 
and Normandy. And the chief of the Frenche nacion, wer- the dukes of Burgoyn, and l vUn l>arij - 
Lewes of Luxenbrough Cardinal! and Chauncellor of Fraunce for kyng Henry, the bishops 
ofBeauoysand Neyon, bothe peres of France, beside the bishOpp of Paris, and diuerse 
other bishoppes, therle of Vaudeniont, & other noble men whose names were very tedious 
to you to here rehersed. And he had in a gard, aboute his person, thre thousand strong ar- 
chers, some on horsebacke, and parte on fote. And as he was commyng, betwene sainct 
Denice and Paris, he was met at the Ciiapell, in the meane waie, by Sir Simon Moruer 
prouost of Paris, with agreate company, all clothed in redde Satin, with blewe whoddes, 
vvhiche did to hym, due reuerence and lowe obeysaunce. After whom, came diuerse -riche 
and notable burgesses, of the toune of Paris, all appareled in Crimosyne clothe. -Alter 
they haddoen their reuerence, there approched to the kyng, the. ix. worthiesjsittyng richely 
on horsebacke, armed with the armes to them apperteinyng. Next after them, came the knight 
of the watch, for the prouost Marchauntes, and with him all the officers of the court, ap- 
pareled iu blewe, and hattes redde. And in a long space after, came Master Phillip de 
Noruillier, chief president of the Parliament, appareled in a. robe of estate : and all the 
other presidentes of the parliament, clothed in robes of scarlet, and in like robes fulowed. the ^ 

Lordes of the Chamber of accornptes, and of the finaunce, the Masters of the Requestes, 
the secretaries, and Regesters, and eucry copany, as their course came, saluted the kyng, with 
eloquent oracions, and heroicall verses, and so conueyed hym to the gate of saincte Denice, 
where the prouoste, of the Marchauntes, and the Shrefes of the toune, receiued hym with a 
Canapie of blewe veluet, richely embraudred, withflower of delices gold, and barethesame ouer 
hym, through the toune, whiche on euery side, was hanged with jiche clothes of Arras and 
Tapistrie. And at euery porte and bridge where .he passed was set a pageaunt, of greate 
shewe and small coste, whiche, because they wer but trifles, I ouer passe, and spekc but of 
one deuise, made before the gate of the Chastelet, wherevppn a stage stode, a goodly childe 
clothed with habite royall, set full of flower delices, hauyng two Crounes on his hed, repre- 
sentyng the yong kyng, and on his right hande, stode twoo noble personages, in the arrne&of 
Burgoyne and Flaunders: and on thelefte side of hym, stoode three personages, clothcd:in 
the armes, of Bedforde, Salisbury, and Warwicke, whiche to hym delinered, the swerde of 
Englande. This pagiaunt was well regarded, and highly praised. From thence he departed 
to the palace, and offered in the Ciiapell, and from thence he departed, to the hous of Tour- 
nelles, and there toke his repast. And after dinner Isabel, late wife to kyng Charles, his 
grandfather, long before disceased. And the next daie he was conueighed, to Boys de 
Vyncennes, where, he reposed hymself,till th. xv. day of Decebre : on which daie, he returned 
to the palaice of Paris. And on the. xvij. of thesaied moneth, he departed from the place, in 
greate triumphe, honorably accompanied, to our Lady church of Paris: where with al so- 
lempnitie, he was anoynted and crouned kyng of Fraunce, by the Cardinal of Winchester: 
(the bishop of Paris, not beyng content, that the Cardinal should do suche a high Ceremony, 
in his Churche and iurisdiccion.) At the offeryng, he offred breade and wine, as the cus- 
tome of France is. When the deuine seruise was finished, and all Ceremonies due, to that 
high estate were accoplished, the kyng departed toward the palaice, hauyng one croune on 
his hed, and another borne before hym, and one scepter in his hand, & the second borne be- 
fore hym. What should I speake, of the honorable seruice, the daintie dishes, the pleasant 
conceiptes, the costly wines, the swete Armony, the Musical instrumentes, vvhiche wer : sene 
and shewed at that feast, sith all men maie coniecture, that nothyng was omitted, that 
might be bought for golde, nor nothyng was forgotten, that by mannes witte could .be 
inuented. Yet this high and ioyous feast, was not without a spotte of displeasure, for;tVte 
Cardinal! of Wynchester, whiche at this tyme, would haue no man to hym egall, com- 
maunded the duke of Bedforde, to leue of the name of Regent, duryng the tyme that the 
kyng was in Fraunce: affirmyng the chief ruler beyng in prcEceej the authorise of the sub- 

Y stiiute, 



162 THE. X. YERE OF 

stitute, was clerelj"dferogate : accordyng to the comon saiyng, in the presence of the high 
power, the smal authoritie geueth place. The duke of Bedford, toke suche a secret dis- 
pleasure with this dooyng, that he neuer after fauored the Cardmall, but repugned and dis- 
dained at al thynges that he did or deuised. And so because the Cardinal! would haue no 
temporall Lorde, either to hym superior, or with hym egall, he set furth this proude and 
arrogant conclusion, thorowe whiche vnhappie deuision, the glory of thenghshemen within 
the realme of Fraunce, began first to decaye, and vade awaie in Fraunce. 

THE next daie after this solernpne feast, wer kept triumphant lustes and Turneis, in the 
whiche, Erie of Arundell, and the Bastard of Sent Polle by the Judgement of the Ladies, 
wan the price and gat the honor. When he had kepte open hous to all comers, by the space 
of. xx. daies, because the ayre of Paris, was somwhat contrariaunt to his pure complexion, 
he was aduised by his counsaill, to returne to Roan. But before his departure, he caused 
al the nobilitie, the presidelz of the parliament, the prouostes of the citee and of the Mar- 
ctiauntes, and the chief burgesses of the toune and citee, and al the doctors of the vni- 
uersitie, to be assembled iu his presence : to whom the duke of Bedford said in this 
maner. 

IT is not vnknowen to you all my lordes, aswell spirituall as temporall, how this noble re- 
gion and famous countrey, of antiquitie called Gaule, and now Fraunce, sith the tyrae of 
Charles surnamed the Greate, beyng bothe Emperor of Rome, and kyng of this realme, hath 
bee accompted, reputed, and renoumed, the moste christen region, and famous seigniory, 
within the circle of al christendo, yea, and within the whole part of Europe, and not vn- 
deseruyngly, for. iij. causes. First, for your sincere faithe and obedient loue, toward your 
sauidr and redemer lesu Christ. The second, for obseruyngyour fidelitie & due obeysauce, 
to your kynge* and soueraigne Lordes. Thirdly, for kepyng and performing your promises 
and agrementes > aswell by woorde as by wrytyng: from the whiche no Pagane, nor honest 
Christian will or should disagree. This famous renoume and immaculate honor, so long 
coivtiaewyng without reproche or blotte: I thinke, yea, and doubt not, but you will to the 
death, kepe, defend, and obserue, as your noble parentes and auncient progenitors, before 
you (to their ineffable praise) haue vsed and accustomed. Wherfore, sith it is not vnknowen 
to all you, that the noble and vertuous prince, kyng Henry the fifth, my moste derest and 
welbeloued brother, was the very true inheritor, and the vndoubtfull successor to the croune 
of this realme of Fraiice, as cosin and heire to Lady Isahell, daughter and sole inheritrice, to 
kyng Phillippe the Faire. For the recouery of whiche right and title, what pain he tooke, 
and what charge he was at, 1 well knowe, and some of you haue felte, as a greate scourge 
to your nacion, onely prouided by God, to afflicte and punishe them: whiche will withhold 
& vsurpe, other mennes rightes, possessions, and inheritaunce. But God oure sauior and 
redemer, (whiche wil not suffre his people, intendyng to conuert, to be dampned for euer, 
but gently calleth them to mercy and saluacion) of his greate good nes & gentlenes, willed the 
holy ghost to shed and poure into the hart of the noble prince, kyng Charles, your late wel- 
beloued and most drad souereigne lord, the knowledge of the lawfull line, and of the true 
pathe of the inheritaunce, of the croune & scepter of this realme. Which vertuous man, 
hauyng neither an harte hardened in his awne opinion, nor a mynd ambicious of Empire 
(as many tyrauntes, and couetouse princes, before this daie haue had, vsed, and accustomed) 
for aduoydyng farther effusion of christen bloud, and for the saluacion of his soule, without 
battaill, or stroke of weapon, was content (vpon an honorable coposicion) to restore the 
awful mheritauee to the true heire and to rendre his title to the right lignage, & vndoubted - 
Jyne. v hiche treatie and finall composicion, was nether wantonly ouerlooked, nor vn- 
& 18 t e he y nZ Sene ; * r al < h f. ob ' Pes, of this realme, bothe spiritual & tempoWll, yea, 
Most part of thenobihtie, (except a certain wilde and wilfull persones) with the whole 
'hie (in who the very base and burden of the realme doth consist) not onely by 
by auncient writyng signed with their handes, and strengthened wkh the scales- 
mes, here redy to be shewed, baue frankly and frely with out scruple or contra- 

diccion 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. IC3 

diction, agreed, and affirmed thesame. By whiche composicion, (as the mirror and plain 
shewe and token of kyng Henries right) he was by the three estates, assigned, and allowed, 
as heire apparant to thesaid kyng Charles, lately deceassed. But cruell death seperatyng 
his body from his soule, long before the expectacion of his people, suffered him not to 
possede and enioye the title and regalitie of this his due inheritaunce, and succession royall. 
Yet, God willyng not the stocke, of so noble, so famous, and so vertuous a prince, to re- 
mayne bareyn without buclde or flower, hath sent to hym, and fro hym to you a florishing 
child, a goodly prince of bothe the noble houses, of England & Fraunce indifferently dis- 
cended: as who would saie, that by nature, he is neither perfect Englishe, nor perfect 
Frenche, but a man indifferent, called an Englishe Frencheman, and a Frencha Englishman. 
Whiche noble prince, and your soueraigne Lorde, you may with glad hartes, and louyng 
countenaunces, se, heare, and behold. And as for his honorable behauor, & princely ma- 
iestie: fewe princes of full & ripe age, be to hym comparable, or equipollent. As for his 
beautie and other giftes of nature, scace Absalon can He to hym assembled. But hauyng res- 
pect to the vertuous disposition the Godly mynd, and sincere conscience, of so noble a child 
and princely infant, I surely thinke, and perfectly beleue, that he is aboue all other, the bla- 
syng Starre, and the vnmatched Paragon. This precious stone and noble luell, is not onely 
come out of his naturall conntrey, and norishyng Region, to receiue the Croune and pos- 
session, of this his realme and dominion, but also, (fike a good shepherde) to vieue, se, 
and knowe you, as his welbelor.ed flocke, and moste desired subiectes: and you likewise,. (as 
louyng and obediet vassals) to behold, and knowe your soueraigne lord and prince, to the 
intent, that as you, aboue all other nacions, aswel christen as Ethenicke, haue serued, loued, 
and obeyed, your rulers and Kynges, before these daies: so he now doubteth not but to find 
you as louyng to hym, as the Turtle to her make, as sure to hym as the Adamant to the stele, 
and as permanent in his obedience, as the hard mountayne of Olympe, which, neither craft 
nor engyne can either consume, or remoue. And all mistrust of your ingratitude, is clerely 
banished from his harte : consideryng, that he knoweth, that you daily heare it preched, that 
you should feare God, and honor your kyng, and that he, which is in stubburnesse and ob- 
stinacie toward his prince, is disobedient towarde God. For the Prince in yearth, is the \ 
Vicar of GOD, and hedde and shepherde of Christes flocke: to who bothe spiritual! persones \ 
and temporal, be subiectes, and inferiors in al causes of rule & gouernaunce. And although ^ 
some persones within this realme, seduced more by phantastical error, then obstinate arro- 
gancy, haue take part, and entered into amitie with Charles de Valoys, vntruly callyng him- 
self the French kyng: yet the verie true and vndoubtful prince, and our souereigne Lorde, 
here bcyng present, is resolned and content, to remit and pardon their offences and crimes, 
so that they within twelfe daies, returne to the true folde, and forsake the infected flocke, and 
sedious company. Wherefore, his request is at this tyme, that you, for the fidelitie, whiche 
you haue euer borne to hym, and for the loue, that he hath, and styll intendeth to beare to 
you, will vouchesafe hereafter without letlyng of tyuie diligetly study and busely take pain, 
bothe to kepe his louyng subiectes in good oidre, and due obeysaunce towarde hym, and 
also tose theim liue in mutuall amitie and brwtherly concord, betwene theim selfes: not for- 
gettyng, that the olde proueibe, whiche saieth: inward discord, bryngeth realmes to ruyne. 
Which honorable requestes, if you accoplishe and performe, (as of your very bounden duety, 
you bel)ound in deede) you shall deserue so umche fauor, of your kyng and soueraigne 
Lorde, that to all your honest requestes, his eares shalbe open, & to al your reasonable de- 
sires, his mouth shall not be stopped. And thus he wisshethyou, health in bodies, increace 
in your substau nee, and to your soules, ioye and felicitie without ende perpetually. 

WHEN the duke had finished and ended this his oracion, the people beyng glad and re- 
ioysyng at his saiynges, cried: Hue kyng Henry, liue Kyng Henry. After which crie passed, 
the noble men, aswell of Fraunce and Normandy, did to hym homage, find the common 
people, sware to hym feaultie: to whom, (although he were a child) he gaue botb ple^saunt 

Y 2 and 



THE. X. YERE OF 

ami faire wordes, withjiartie thankes, and many gratificacions, to the great admiracion of 
the Frenche people. 

AFTER he had feasted, the nobles and commons of Fraunce within the citee of Paris, he 
with a great company, departed from thence, and by small iorneis came to Roan, where 
he celebrated with great solempnitie, the high feast of Christmas. While these -noble Cere- 
monies wer thus in doyng, in the citee of Paris, sondery chauces, diuersely hapned in se- 
ueral places, to the displeasure of the one part, and to the gain of the other. For sir Frances 
Surrien Arragnoys, a noble capitain in Normandy, toke by force and pollicie, the touneof 
MoMntarges, with a greate prey of treasure and prisoners, and therein he put a garrison* 
and vitailed the toune, to the greate displeasure of the Frenche Kyng. Aboute thesame 
season, the Erie of Arundell, beyng truly informed, that the lorde Bousac, Marshall of 
Fraunce, was come to Beauoys, intending to do some feate in Normady, assembled the 
noinbre of thre and twentie hundred men, and laied hymself priuelie, in a close place, nor 
farre from thesaied toune, and scni a ^reat nombre of light horssemen, to ronne to the bar- 
riers of the citee. The Frenchmen like valiaiit men of warre, issued out, and manfully 
fought with the Englishemen: whichesodainly fled, towarde the stale. The Frenchmen, co- 
ragiously folowed thinkyng the game gotten on their side: but when they wer entered into the 
straight, therle set freshly on them, so that after long fightyng, there wer slain and taken, iu 
maner al the Frenchmen, saue a few, whiche fled into the toune, with the Marshall. Emo^est 
the capitaines was found prisoner, the ,vali'iunt capitain, called Poynton of Sanctrayles, 
(which without delay,) was exchaunged for die lorde Talbot, before taken prisoner, at the 
battaill of Patay. There was also taken one, called the shepherd, a simple ma, and a scly 
soule, whom, the Frenchmen reputed, to be of suche a holinesse, that if he touched the 
walle of a toune of their enemies, that incontinent, it would fall to the grounde, and 
ouerturne. Suche false phantastical fainers, were at that tyme much regarded, and no lesse 
beleued in Fraunce. 

THISchauncesucceded not, fortunatly alone: for Richard Beauchampe Erie of War- 
wicke had agreate skirmishe, before the toune of Gourney, where he discotited and repulsed 
his enemies, and beside thecarions, whiche wer leftdedde on the ground, he tooke prisoners 
thre score horssemen, all gentlemen of name and arrnes. Like chaunce of infortune hap- 
pened at thesame tyme, to Renate or Reyne duke of Barr, a greate frend to Charles the 
French kyqg, bothe in lendyng hym money, and also in ministeryng to hyru aide and succors.~ 
This duke bearyng displeasure, to Anthony Erie of Vaudemont, his cosyn and kynsman] 
gathered together a greate armie, and besieged the toune of Vaudemont. Therle, before 
the dukes approchyno, to thentent y he would not be enclosed and compassed about by his 
enemies within a wall, leauyng behynde hym a conuenient crue of men of warre, to defende 



.it, ouutuy gumm uyin, nauyng in ins company sixe hundred Ar- 
chers, and the duke of Burgoyne sent to hym, his Marshall, called sir Anthony Douloneon 
with. xv. hundred men. The erle of Vaudemont thus beyng accompanied, marched toward 
Duke Reme, hearyng of his commyng towarde hym, was somewhat dismayed 
iearyng, least if hisenemiesshould approehe to the walles, and be espied by the garrison within 
lie toune,. 'hat, at one tyme he should be assailed before, by them that would issue out of 
oune, and I clund by therle and his armie. Wherfore, like a hardy capitain, he brake vp 
d ^ 6> I !, met ' ace ' ' ace > w ' tn therle and his company i betwene whom, was a cruel!" 
s MluS VhP \% horsemen indured long, but in conclusion, the Englishe Archers, 

elfedt fit h a r ? W Unded , the mei1 ' that the Bwroysand theil> ^endes, wer co- 

rn .whiche chace was taken, thesaied duke of Barr, the bishop of Myes the 



T^ i ' ~ * * " ^ **j v i *** t-*iij^/ HO 16536 UL. v_.(is tun 

Englishmen, beyng in'another parte, if when the pigge had been 

profered 



KYNG HENRY THE; VI. 185 

profered, thei had opened the poke: for Robert, Lorde Willoughby, and Mathew Gotigh 
a valiaunt Welsheman, with. xv. hundred Englishemen laied siege to a toune in Aniow, beyng 
bothe by situacion, and pollicie, verie strong and defensible, called sainct Seueryne. The 
Englishmen assailed it not so couragionsly, but they within, with egall audacitie, boldely made 
defence: so that fortune semed, to waie bothe the parties in egall balance. Charles the 
French kyng, beyng thereof aduertised, sent with all spede, the lorde Ambrose de Lore, with 
many noble and valiaut personages, to aide and releue his frendes, inclosed in the toune by 
his enemies. This lorde de Lore, beyng capitain of the toune, made muche haste to comfort 
his deputie and capitain within thesame, and so marched forward with greale spied: but fear- 
yng to besodainly compassed aboute he taried still at Beaumont, lokyng for the armie and 
capitaines, that should folow, and then altogether to set on their enemies, and so to reyse 
the siege. Whiles he there made his abode, and toke his leysure, the Englishmen, by their 
espialles, were assertened and aduertised, what progresse their enemies made, and what they 
intended. Wherfore, they pollitiquely prouided, to fight with the one parte, before the 
whole puyssaunce wer ioyned. And so a greate parte of them, departed secretly in the night, 
toward their enemies, and found the watch so out of ordre, and ouersene, that a thousande 
men wer entered into the camp before thei were espied. But the slaiyng of men. and cuttyng 
doune of tentes, awaked the capitaines, whom this sodaine feare, and vnlooked chaunce so 
greately abashed, that no man in tnaner, either could heare his felow or hymself, or could 
make signe to expulse and driue out their enemies out of their campe. But when the day be- 
ganne to appere, and the sone had setfurth his bright beames, that all.thyng might be sene 
and perceiued, the Englishemen, geuen to couetuousnes of spoyle and desire of Rauyne, 
neither chaced, norfolowed their enemies, but beyng content with their prey and gayne, began 
to retraite toward the siege again. But se the chaunce: the Frenchmen which wer com- 
niyng after, heard by the noyce of the people, that some fraie was then in hand, put the 
spurres to the horse, and set on their enemies, beyng laded with bagges and wallcttes, of 
preys and spoiles. The other part, whiche before fled, returned again, and assailed their 
enemies. The Frenchmen egerly assailed, and the Englisheinen manfully defended, whiche 
beyng out of ordVe, wer compelled to flie, of whom, Matthew Gough and diuerse other wer 
taken prisoners, and yet of the other parte, many were slain, and a great nombre taken, 
emongest whom, was the lord of Lore, which, for all the battaile, was kept and not de- 
liuered. 

THE lord Willoughby, hearyng of this cliaunce reysed the siege & departed verie sore 
displeased. Therefore- let euery capitain take good hedc of victorie, the whiche as she is harde 
to obtain, so she is quicke to rlie awaie: for it is daily sene, that he, whiche thynketh suerly, 
thathe hath her in his handes, before he can catche her, isdeceiued, ronnelh into a great 
losse and danger: and on the otherside, when she is gotten, (except good watche behourcly 
kept) she will steale awaie, with muche hurte and detriment, to the first gainer. Thus the 
Englishmen, for the gredy appetite of gain, lost the triumphaunt victorie, whiche they had in 
their handes. While the Englishe and Frenche nacions, thus strouc and contended, for 
preeminence, principalitie, yea, & for the superior power of life, by the vnreasonable rage 
of warrein Fraunce, the rich men were spoyled of their goodes, the spiritual! persones, were 
taxed and brought low, the comon people wer slain, murdred, and trode vnder the foote, 
women wer defiled, virgynes wer ranished, tounes wer destroied and wasted, toune duellers 
and citezens, wer robbed and exiled, beautiful buyldynges, wer cruelly brent, "nothing was 
spared, by the crueltie of Mars: whiche by fire, hloud, or famyne, might be catched or de- 
stroied, beside a hiidred more calamities, that daily vexed and troubled the miserable French 
nacion. Although France, wer at this tyme, thus miserably aflicted: yet Englande, was 
not without doloure and trouble: for daily Englishmen, asvvel noble as meane personages, 
wer, slain taken, \vounded, or hurte, their substance was cdtinually exacted, and cosumed 
for maintenaunce of ihe warres, so that mischief and calamitie, was indifferent to bothe the t 
nacions, and qujetnes and gayne, were expulsed banished from ihean both : in so muehe 
'..v'-i.^ that: 



THE. X. YERE OF 

to scourge, pidguc --M,,! u.-ai-1-p to a frendlv neace. sent his 



cord and ^uadyng vn tie, shewyng, declaryng and arguyng, peace to be moste honorable 
and 'mo e Fofitab e to Christian princes, then mortall warre, or vnchantab e d.scencion. 
^dmran of Christes people, ought to baue an iye, to the profile of their people to 
lusuce duly ministered, to rule theseifes by reason and not by w,l and to abstain fro 
malice, and abhorre all wrong and iniury, to whiche thynges, warre is cuer eiiemie & cleane 

'WHFN the Le^te had thus persuaded the princes on euery part, bothe gently aun- 
swered 'that they wer content to come to a reasonable ende. But when the first commum- 
cacionwasmoued, and by comissioners treated, their dooynges were so farre disagreeable, 
from their vvordes, that not onely reasonable and honest eondiciens of peace, could be nei- 
ther heard nor accepted, but more frowardnes, pertinacie, & malice was kmdeled and 
B P ron<T in their stumackes, then before that time had been sene. The Cardinal beyng in. 
vtter dispaire, of cocludyng a peace betwene the two realmes, (least he should seme to de- 
pal te empty of all thynges, for the whiclie he had taken so muche trauaill) desired a truce 
for sixe yeres to come, which request, as it was to him, by bothe parlies hardly graunted, so 
was it of the Frenchmen, sone and lightly broken, after his returne : For the Bastarde of 
Orleaunce, newly made Erie of Dumoys, tooke by treason the toune of Charters, from the 
Englishemen: affirmyng by the lawe of armes, that stealyng or biyng a toune without in- 
uasio, or assaute, was no breach of league, amitie, nor truce. In the whiche toune, he slews 
the bishop, because he was a JJurgonyo, through which occasion, newe malice increased 
and mortal warre began again to rise and spryng. 

WH I LE these thynges wer doyng in Fraunce, Henry Beaufforde Cardinal] of Winchester, 
was sailed again into Englande, to appeace and represse certain diuisions and commocions, 
sprang vp, by mischeuous and pernicious persones, within the realme, whiche vnder the 
colour of a newe sect of religion, coniured together, to disquiet vexe, the whole quietnes 
of the realme. But after that Willia Maundeuile and I ho Sharpe wer taken, and executed 
by the gouernor and the kynges Justices, the remnaunt yelded, and cofcssed their offences: 
wherof two articles wer these, as some men write: that priestes should haue no possessions, 
and that all thynges, by the ordre of Charitie, emongest Cliristen people, should be incommon. 
After this sedicious coniuracion, by diligent enquirie, was thus queened out, the Cardinall 
began to commen with the duke of Gloucester, concernyng the affaires and husines of 
Fraunce: and suspecting that the truce would not long continue betwene t)othe j? realmes, 
(as it did not in dede) diuised, how to send more aide, and men to the Duke of Bedforde, 
and gathered vp more money, and treasure, for the further maintenance of the warres, and 
resistence of their enemies. "VVherupon the Duke of Gloucester, called a Parliament, in 
the whiche, money was assigned, and men wer appointed. Duryng whiche Parliament, 
lames the kyng of Scottes, sent Ambassadors, to conclude a peace, with the duke of Glou- 
cester, which, (because the kyng was abscnte) referred the matter to the. iij. estates. After 
long consultacion, (not without greatc argumentes) a peace was graunted and concluded, 
which all men iudged, long to continue, because kyng lames, was then vexed with ciuil 
warre and intestine discencion, and also the Frencheuaeu had taken truce, (as you haue hard) 
for. vi. \eres. 

WHEN the parliament was finished, the Cardinall well garnished with men and money, 

departed 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 167 

departed out of Englande, and came to Roan to the kyng, to whom also resorted from Paris, 
Ihon, Duke of Bedford, to debate and consult of thynges,- not vnlikelyto happen and chaunce. 
Wherfore, a greate counsail was celebrate, within the Castle of Roan, and many doubt* 
wer moued, and fevve waighty thynges out of hand concluded. Some imagined, that their 
enemies, would not longkepe promise, nor yet obserue the truce, by them solemply graunt- 
ed: consideryng, that the Frenche hartes brente, and their iyes were very sore, lose the 
riche Duchie of Normandy, the faire citee of Paris and thepleasaunt Isle of Fraunce, to be 
brought and reduced, vnder the obeysauce and subieccion, of thenglish nacion. Wherfore, 
thei would not omit, or ouerse one thyng, that souded to defence, least the Frenchmen so- 
dainly, (not keping their promes, & brekyng the truce,) might cause thenglishmen to be in 
greate & perilous ieoperdy, not knowyng what coiisaill to take, nor sodainly to prouide a 
remedy for a mischief*, bothe for lacke of men and substaunce. Oiher wer of opi- 
nion, that nombres of men, could not long be maintained and kepte together, without 
breache of truce, and violatyngof peace: knowyng that the handes of men, be properly geueu 
to spoyle, and euer redy to gain, and moste especially, when they be daily redy in harneis, 
prone and quicke to set on their enemies. And therfore, thei would the walled tounes, to 
bewel manned and defected, and the rest of the army, to be sent into England, again,, 
there to remain and tary til the tyme of the truce wer expired and ouer passed. 

AFTER this disputacion, with many argumetes ended, the dukes of Bedford and Yorke, 
and Edmond late erle of Mortayn, and now by the death of Ihon duke of Somerset, (which 
died without heire male, leauyng behind hym, a sole doughter called Margaret, after, coun- 
tesse of Richemod) erected to the name and title, of duke of Somerset, liked and approued, 
the first argument, & first moued reason: affirmyng best that warre must be prouided for, 
and that money out to be disbmssed, and to aduoyde all doubles, that a greater army, was 
necessary to be gathered together and assembled. When al thynges wer agreed, kyng Henry 
departed to Calice, and from thence to Douer, and so by easye iorneis he came the. xxi. daie 
of February, to the citee of London, where he was receiued, not onely with greate pompe 
and triumphe, but also highly presented with giftes and money, as in the Chronicle of Robert 
Fabian, you maie rede at large, whiche thyng I ouer passe. 

AFTER that the kyng, was departed into Englande, the Duke of Bedford, Regent of ' 
Fraunce, and capitain of Calice, taried behynde in the marches of Picardy: where he was 
informed, that certain souldiors of Calice, grudgyng al the restrainl of wolles, beganne to 
mutter and murmure against the kyng and his counsaill, so that the toune of Calice, was like 
to stand in ieoperdy. Wherfore the duke, forseyng the mischief that might insue, & thinkyng 
it wisedom, to withstand the first mocion, caused the chieftaynes of this faccion, to be ap- 
prehended, and after due examinacion had, diuerse were put to death, and many banished 
& exiled the Marches for euer. After that he had purged the tonne of that vngracious and 
sedicious company, and had furnished it, with new souldiors & discrete men of war, he was 
determined, first to repaire again to Paris, but his liarte would not serue hym for sith his de- 
parture, Lady Anne his wife and Duchies, was departed to God, and honorably enterred in 
the Celestyns at Paris: by whose death, and for other causes, (as partelyyou haue hard) the 
sureloue, and approued fidelitie, betwene the duke of Burgoyn, his brother in lawe and hym, 
began to waxe fainte and colde. For whiche cause, he beyng persuaded by the lorde Lewes 
of Luxenborough, bishoppe of Tyrwyne and Ely, and ChaunceHor of Fraunce for kyng 
Henry, agreed to marye the Lady laquet, doughter to Peter Erie of sainct Paule, and niece 
tothesaied bishop, and to lorde Ihon of Luxenborough: to the intent, that by this newe af- 
finitie, the olde acqua'mtaunce and familiaritie, whiche he had wirh that noble familie of 
Luxeborough, should be reaeued and inforced, and with a more surer knot, knit and con- 
firmed. Wheruppn he departed from Calice to Tirwyne, where, he was highly receiued of 
the Erie ofsainct Paule, and of his brethren, and there hemaried, the faire and freashelady 
laquet, of the age of. xvii. yeres, with all triumphe and nupciall solempnitie. After whiche 
Ceremony ended, he returned with his newe spouse to Calice, and so into Englande, where, 

1 he. 



The. xi. 
yere. 



, 6j THE. XL YERE OF 

he with hi3 wife remained, vntil August next, and then returned again to Paris. The Duke of 
lLaovnc, ( vLose mvnde began to incline, a litle and litle toward kyng Charles) was sore 
u S and an.ry, that the duke of Bedforde, was ioyned in affinitie, with the noble and 
famou housofLuxeborough: by the whiche he savve, that the power o the Englishmen, 
should be greatly aduaunced. But the manage was fully ended, and he could hnde no 
remedy. 

IT THE ELEUENTH YERE. 

\VHile these thymes weredoyng thus, in other places the French souldiors lackyng wages, 
faad emSaest tbeim, a greate nombre, whiche in hope of prey, and desire ofspoile, had 
cast vp the plough, and left their labor,) began priuely, (as tyme serued, and occasion gaue 
place) to take bothe Englishmen and Burgonyons, and raunsomed and spoyled thenu, at 
their pleasures. And although they were prohibited thus to do, (duryng the tyme of truce & 
peace) yet inconclusion, they spared not openly to robbe, spoyle, and burne: yea, & to 
steale tounes, whiche they affirmed to be no breache of truce. The Englishmen, pricked and 
vexed, with these open wronges, and manifest iniuries, prepared for warre, after the sixe 
monetb, that the truce was taken and concluded. And by this meanes, the war was rencued 
and bcgonne again. The vntrue Frenchemen, breakers of peace, and not kepers of truce, 
rcysedacreweofmen, and sodainly tooke the toune of sainct_Valerie, standyng in Nor- 
mandy, on the Riuer of Soame: and another army, vnder the coduict of sir Ambrose, lorde 
of Lore, wasted and destroyed all the countrey aboute Caen. The Duke of .Bedford, not 
niyndyng to lie still in ydlenesse, sent the Erie of Arundell, the Erie of Warwickes sonne the 
Lorde Lisle, Adane Marshall of Fraunce, for kyng Henry, and. xii. C. men, with ordinaunce 
and municions, to besiege the toune of Laigny, vpon the Riuer of Marne. Whiche Erie, 
with the shot of a Canon, brake the archeof the bridge, and gat from ths Frenchmen, their 
bulwarke, and set it on fire. Diuerse assautes were attempted, but the toune was 
well defended: for within, wer shut vp, eight hudred men of armes beside other meane 
souldiors. 

THE duke of Bedford, beyng therof aduertisecl, gathered an armie of sixe thousande 
men of warre, wherof wer capitaines, Robert, Lorde Willoughby, sir Andrewe Ogard, 
Chambcrlein to the duke, sir I lion Saluaine, Baylife of Roan, sir Ihon Montgomerie, 
Bailife of Caux, sir Phillip Halle, Baylife of Vernoyle, sir Richard Ratclife, deputie of 
Calice, sir Raufe Neuell, sir Raufe Standishe, sir Ihon Hanforde, sir Richard Euthin, 
sir Richard Harryngton, Bailife of Eureux, sir William Fulthorpe, sir Thomas Griffyne 
of Irelande, Dauy Halle, Thomas Stranguish, Leonard Ornesto, Esquiers, and Thomas 
Gerard, whiche solde the toune of Mounstrean Faultyon, to the Frenchemen : and with 
all thyngcs necessarye, came to the siege before Laigny. He, there, made a bridge of 
boates, and brought his ordinaunce so nere the tonne, that to all people, it seined not Ion 
able to resist. But the Erie of Dumoys Bastard of Orleaunce, with diuerse hardy capi- 
taines, as valiauntly repulsed, as the Englishemen assautcd. This siege contyneued. as fire 
against flame, and sometyme ilame against fire. For although the Englishemen slewe more 
uombre, yet they gat neither prey, nor boty: and although the Frenchemen, kepte va- 
leauntly the walles, and defended the loupes/ yet they loste bothe men and capitaines, and 
wer long secluded from their aide and succors, til Charles the French kyng, perceiuyng 
this toune, to be the thre corner key, betwene the territories of the Englishemen, the Bur- 
gonyons, and his awne, and that the losse therof, should turne hym to innumerable da- 
mages and incredible hurtes, sent the lorde of Rieux, Poyton, the Heire, the-lorde Gan- 
cort, and sixe thousand men, with great plentie of vitailes, to thentent, either to reise the 
sjegc, or to vitaile the toune. The French -capitaines, made a bragge, as though thei 
Wild fight with thenglishemen, within their felde and'Campe. The ^Englishmen would 

not 



KYNG HENRY THE. Vl. 169 

not issue out, but kept themselfes in good ordre, euer lokyng for, their entrie and inuasio. 
The Regent perceiuyng, that thei approched not, sente to theim an herault of Armes, de- 
claryng his intent, and the corage of his company, whiche nothyng more desired, then 
battaill. And to sliewe hymself as a capitain, rneanyng that, which he offred, & not dis- 
simulyng that, whiche he spake: he incontinent, diuided his men into three battailes, no 
more wisely ordered, the pollitiquely gouerned : as who would sale, come on Frencheman, 
if thy harte will serue. But his aduersarie, more craft ie then hardy, more pollitique then 
coragious, framed themselfes in suche ordre of battaile, as thei wer able to do all thyng, 
and yet inconclusion, (concernyng marciall feat<?s) thei did nothyng. For, while thei 
made a proudc bragge, and a stoute skirmishe with the Englishemen, thei appoynted di- 
nerse rude and rustical! persones, to conucye into the toune, xxx. oxe and other small vi- 
taill, but this swete gain, wassowerly paied for, if the losse with the gain, be pondered in 
one balaunce: for hauyng regard to. xxx. leane oxen, in the conflict were slain, the lorde 
Sentrayles, brother to Pothon, the valeaunt capitain Ihon, brother to the lord Gawcort, 
and fiftie other noble and valeaunt personages, beside other common people, whiche bought 
that bargayne, aboue the price of the common Markeite. The Frenchemeri, perceiuyng 
, their intbrtunate chaunce, and not only consyderyng, the vnspekeable heate, whiche then 
weried their people, beyng in the beginnyng, of the hole moneth of August: but also, 
perceiuyng the Englishmen, to be planted and settled, in a place vnable to be wonne, and 
in a grounde, bothe dangerous to inuade, and hard to assaile, like men desperate of gain, 
and without hope of victory, departed to Fort vnder Yerre, where, by a bridge of tunnes, 
they passed into the Isle of Fraunce. The Duke of Bedforde, (like a wise prince) not 
myndyng to lease the more for the lesse, 'nor the accident for the substaunce, fearyng that 
Paris and other tounes, more necessary to thenglishemen, and of more estimacion, would 
returne to his aduersaries, thynkyng if the greater power were holden, the lesse should be 
sone obtained, reysed his siege, and returned to Paris, nothyng lesse myndyng, then to 
trie his querell with dent of sweard, against his enemies: and so sent Bedford his herault, 
to the lorde Gawcort, and other chieftaines of his army, offerynghym battail, and a pitch- 
ed feld, within a conuenient grounde, where so euer he would, within the Isle of Fraunce, 
assigne or appoynt. To the whiche officer of Armes, the capitaines aunswered, that bat- 
taill they feared not, nor the Englishe puyssaunce, thei not muche regarded, but thei 
saied: that tyme was to gain, and tyme was lo lose, of the whiche twoo, thei doubted not 
to espie the one, either to their greate gain, or to their apparaunt losse. Wherupon thei 
sent the lorde Ambrose de Loyre, with. vii. C. horsemen, to robbe and spoyle the poore 
people, commyng to the faier, on the day of sainct Michaell the Archangel!, kepte in the 
suburbes of the toune of Caen. But whe Dauy Halle Esquier, capitain of the touhe, for 
the duke of Yorke, issued out to fight with liym, he departed by flight, without any either 
botie or gain of the faier. The Frenchmen perceiuyng, that neither power, force, nor 
pollicie, could auaile against the Englishe nacion, determined to trippe and deceiue them 
by their accustomed seruaunt, called master Treason, and so by money, corrupted Piers 
Audebeuffe, Constable of the castle of Roan, that the Marshall of Fraunce, and the lord 
Fountaynes, with twoo hundred persones disguised, entered into the Castle, but thei wer 
sone espied, and driuen to the dongeon, where thei wer taken and yeldcd: wherof some 
wer hanged, some bedded, and some raunsomed at the pleasure of the Regent: and suche 
ende had the tray tors, whiche would by treason, rather then by buttaill, obtained their prey 
and desired purpose, 

THIS pageaunt plaied, the Regent sent Peter of Luxenborough Erie of sainct Paule, 
and Robert, lorde Willoughby, with a competet crue of men, to besige the toune of Sainct 
Valerie, whiche the Frenchemen alitle before had taken. These valeaunt capitaines, not 
myndyng to slepe their busines, enuironed the toune with a strong siege. Within the toune 
wer sir Lewes de Vancort, sir Phillippe de la Toure, and sir Reignold de Verseilles ca- 
pitaines, with three hundred good fightyng men, which by the space of iii. wekes, manfully 

2 defended 



170 THE. XII. YERE OF 

defended the same. But at the. xxi. daie they perceiuyng the fiersenes of tbenglishemen 
and the weakens of themselfes, (hauyng no hope of relief nor confidence m any aide) 
rendered the toune, their horsse and harneis onely saued. The trie put, in the garrison 
of the tonne, freashe and valeaunt souldiors, and appoynted capitam there, sir Ihon Aw- 
bemond: in vvhiche toune sodainly, (whether it wer by infeccio 01 the ayre, or by corrupt 
vitail by Ion* liyne, whiche the tonnes men did eate.) a great pestilence sprang, in the in- 
fortunate cofitrey. Whiche, after so many calamities and euill chaunces, beyng twoo tymes 
besieged by the Frenchemen, and thryse recouered by thenglishe nacion, was now infected 
and corrupted, with the pestilent plague: whereby twoo partes ol the people, within snorte 
space, wer destroyed and consumed. 

AFTER this toune tjotteh, the Erie of sainct Panic, and the Lorde Willoughby, return- 
ed to the Repent, where, they wer well welcomed. And after, thesaid Erie departed from 
Paris, to hue siege to the Castle of Monchas, but beyng encamped, nere to the toune of 
Biaim- he, by a sodain maladie, finished his daies, and departed the worlde, leauyng his 
seigniories, to Lewes his sonne and heire. For whiche dedde Erie, wer solempne obse- 
quies kepte, bothe in Paris and in London, because he was father in lawe to the Regent. 
In the meane season, the Frenchmen entered into the costes of high Burgoyne, and brent, 
toke, and destroyed tonnes : for whiche cause, the Burgonyons beyng sore displeased, as- 
sembled a greate army, bothe to reuenge their querels, and also to recouer again the tounes, 
from theim iniustely taken: to whom, (as to his frendcs) the duke of Bedforde, sent Ro- 
bert Lorde Willoughby, and sir Thomas Kiriel, with a comienient company of souldiors, 
whiche enteryng into the laundes of Laonoys, wer encoutred with a great nobrc of their 
enemies: but by whose force, (after long fight) the Frenchmen wer slain and dispersed: 
wherof wer left dedde in the feld, an hundred and sixtie horsemen, beside prisoners, whiche 
after in. a fury, wer all killed and put to destruction. 

f THE. XII. YERE. 

T jr' WHile these chaunces thus happened in Fraunce, Iho lord Talbot, gathered together, 
a crue of chosen men of war in England, to the nombre of viii. C. & sailed into Norman- 
dy, and passed by Roan toward Paris, and in his way, he toke the strong Castle of loing, 
betwene Beauoys and Gisors, and caused all the Frenchmen within to be hanged on the 
walles, and after, raised and defaced the Castle, and came to the Duke of Bedford, to 
Paris. The presence of which renoumed capitam, (a maruelous thyng it is to se) so incora- 
ged the hartes of the English nacion, that thei thought, nothyng able to resist their puys- 
saunce, and so discoraged the hartes of the Frenchemen, that thei wer in doubt, whether 
it wer better to fight, or to flic. And this was not without a cause : for surely, he was a 
chosen capital n, & in marcial feates, a man fully instructed, and his corage and practise in 
warre, was fearfull to the Frenche nacion, and to his awne coutremen, an especial hope 
and a sure defence. When this hardy Baron, had commonecl with the Regent, and agreed 

i i i 11.1 * i .1 i 




, vpon 

condicio. After that, he regained without long siege, the tounes of Creile, the bridge of 
sainct Maxens, the new toune in Esuioy, Crespy in Valoys, and Cleremout in Beauoys : 
and so with greate riches, and fatte prisoners, he returned again to Paris. Thus, pros- 
perous successe happened, not to the lorde Talbot alone : but also thesame very sear 
son, therle of Arundell, toke the Castle of Botnelyne, and raised it to the ground, and 
after, tooke by force the Castle of Doric, and from thence came to sainct Seleryne, where 
the lorde Ambrose of Lore, was capitain, which issued out, and fought with the Eng- 
lishenien so egerly at the firste, that he droue theim backe an arowe shflt by fine 

force.' 



- 

-V 

. ' f . * - 

KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 171 



force. But the Erie so incoraged his men, that they toke newe corages to them, and set 
so fiersly on the Frcnchemen, that they slewe a greate nombre, and droue the remnaunt 
into the toune. 

AFTER this victory, he besieged Louiers, wherof was capitain, the Heire, and hb brother, 
which rendered the toune, without stroke or assaute. For all this good lucke, therle forgat 
not toreturne, to the toune of S. Seleryne, but assembled a great army, and enuironed the 
toune about with a strong siege. Whe he had lien there almoste. iij. rnonethes euery daie at- 
temptyng or dooyng somewhat, for the performaunce of his enterprise, in conclusion at 
the thre monethesende, he gaue so fierce an assaut, that by force he entred the toune, and 
slewe Ihon Allemagne and Gulliam sent Aubyne, the chief capitaines, and. viii.C. other men 
of warre, and the Children of the lorde Lore, wer taken captiues: he replenished and fortified 
the toune again with newe men, andmunicios, and made there capitain, sir Ihon Cornwale. 
Whiche acte thus accomplished, he departed, and came before the strong toune of Sillye, and 
there pitched his campe. The inhabitauntes of thesame, somewhat dismaied with the 
chaunce that late happened to the toune of. S. Seleryne, deliueredto him pledges, vpon this 
condicion: that if thei wer not rescued, within, xxx. daies nexte insuyng, then ihcy, (their 
lifes saued) should rendre the toune, into his possession: whiche offre was taken. The capi- 
taines within the toune, sent a post to the French kyng, to aduertise hym of their hard 
chaunce, which incontinent sent to them, Arthur, Erie of Richemond, (but after some wri- 
ters, Ihon duke of Alaunson) with a greate company of men. When therle sawe the 
Frenche succors appere, he restored again y pledges to the gouernors of the toune, and 
issued out of his campe, takyng a place moste mete and conuenient for to abide battaill, for ' 
whiche he sore thirsted and longed. The Duke or the Erie, (take whiche you list) 
liyng by a brooke side, whiche a man might stride ouer, seyng the Englishemen, so war- 
like and strongly embattailed, thought it not for his profile, to gene battaiil, or to sette for- 
ward: but in the dedde time of the night, cowardly fled, and with shame returned: although 
some Freche writers affirme, that he loked that the erle of Arundell, should haue geuen hym 
battaill, and because he profcred not forward, therfore the Frenchmen departed. This ap- 
pereth to be an apparaunt lye, and a Frenche bragge: for if they came to rescewe the toune,. 
why did not they geue battaill, & so driuc awaie tbenglishmen from the toune? If they came 
to fight, why departed they without any stroke striken? But it setneth that thei came, to 
make a Frenche face, and for to do nothyng. For thei without skirmishe or succoryng the 
toune, departed in the night secretly, (as you haue hearde.) When thei within the tonne 
knew, that their succors failed, thei rendred themselfes, to the mercy of therle of Arundel, 
which gently receiued the, & leauyng a garrison in the toune, departed to Mauns, and in the 
meane waie, tokc the Castles, of Mellay and sainct Laurece. About this tyme, the lord 
Willoughby, and sir Thomas Kiriell, returnyng with great victories out of the parties of Bur- 
goyue, tooke in their waie, the toune of Louiers, and furnished it, bothe with men, and 
munitions. 

EMONGEST so many good chaunces, some euill arc accustomed to fall and happen, or 
els the gayners,, will not knowe themselfes.. So it happened that a greate nobre, of rude and 
rustical persones in Norrnady, dwellyng by y sea coast, either prouoked, or intiscd thenmto, 
by the Frenche kyng, or desirous of altcracion and change, (whiche thyng the commerr 
people muche couete and desire) made an insurreccion, and put on harneis, & by force ex- 
pulsed certain garrisos, out of their houKles, and toke certain tonnes: publishing and pro- 
claimyrig opely, that their onely purpose and intent was, to expel and banish, the whole En- 
glishe nacion, out of their coutreys and eoastes. Wherfore, it maie euidently appere, that 
the blacke Ethyopian, or the blacke coloured rauc, wil soner turne their colours, than the 
vniuersal people, bred in Frauce will hartely loue, or inwardly fan or, an Englishe borne child. 
And yet, the Normans of long tyme, louingly and gentely, haue obeyed to the 'subjection of 
Englande, and haue of the Englishe nacion, been wel accepted and regarded, but now thei, 

Z 2 forgettyng 



THE. XII. YERE OF 

forgettyng their duetie, and remebryng their hurtes, did not doubt, to rebell against theii 
prince and soueraigne Lordc. 

THIS mischeuous copany, thus frantiquely gathred together, with all spede marched to- 
ward Caen, to the intent there, bothe to assemble a greater nornbre ot people, and also to 
consult, what way thei should folow in their newe begon atteptate. 13ut the dukes of Yqrke 
& Somerset, which then wer liyng in Normandy, hearyng of this vngracious iaccion & 
troubelous comocion, & hauyng knowledge by their espials what iorney they intended to take : 
incotinent without delay, sent therle of Arundell and the lorde Willoughby, with. vj.M. ar- 
chers, and. xiij. hundred light horsses, to staie and kepe them, either for settyng furthe, or 
niakyng farther progresse. Therle of Arundell goyng one waie, appoynted the Lorde 
Willoughby, with twoo thousande Archers, and a certain nombre of horsemen, to go afore 
hym, to lye in watche and stale, secretly by the waie, to stop the iorney and passage of the 
rebelles, whe they should approch. The lorde Willoughby, couertly couered hymself and 
his company, sendyng worde to the Erie, of the place where he lay, to thentent that he might 
make a signe and a token, (when tyme should be most luckey and fortunate,) to inuade & 
set on their enemies. Whiche thyng doen, therle folowed at the backe, the ragged route and 
mischeuous multitude, as a man, that draue the deare before him into the ImckestalJe, or the 
sely coneis into the secrete hay. When the ignoraunt multitude, approched nere to the 
place of the stale the Erie made a token, and shot a gonne for a signe. Then the Lorde 
Willoughby, set on them before, and the Erie behynde, shotyng so fiersly, that the dastarde 
people, partly amased with the sodain chaunce, and partly, galled and wounded with the shot 
of the arrowes, threwe awaie their harneis : desiryng nothyng but death. Therle of Arun- 
del, (moued with compassi5) caused his souldiors to leaue of staye, from farther murther 
or bloud shedyng, & apprehendyng such, as he thought, to be the ledars and chief stirrers of 
the people, let the other returne home frankly & frely: but yet there were a,M. and more 
slain, before the souldiors, could be brought again vnder their standerdes. 

AFTER this cominocion appeaced, and the sodain rage in the beginnyng staied and bri- 
deled, diliget inquirie was made of the malefactors, and suche as wer found gilty, by diuerse 
terrible executions, (accordyng to their desertes,) miserably ended their traiterous lifes. 
Duryng which rebellion, Peter Rokefort and his copany, gat by treason the toune of Deape, 
& diuerse other houldes, therunto adioynyng. After the Erie of Arundell, had obtained so 
many conquestes, and notable victories (as you haue heard) he attempted another, which 
was the last worke and extreme labor, of his liuyng daies. For the duke of Bedford, beyng. 
informed, that his aduersaries, had sodainly surprised & take the toune of Rue, and therin 
had put a garrison, which sore vexed the coutreis of Ponthiew, Arthoys, andBolenoys, sent 
word to therie, that he without delaye, should besiege thesaid toune. Therle obeyed to his 
comaundement, and incontinent, sente for all the people vnder his gouernaunce, & in his 
marchyng forward, came to Gourney, where he heard tel, how y there was a certain Castle, 
nere Beaupys, called Gerborye, whiehe either by force of rasyng, or violence of weather, 
was .sore decaied and defaced. And because this place was opportune and very necessarie, 
to prohibite, let and stop thenglishmen, to make sodain runnynges in, or rodes into the coun- 
trey of Beauoys: Charles the Freche kyng commaunded sir Stephen de Veignolles, commonly 
calted the Heire, tose the castle reedefied and fortified. Thesaid sir Stephen with a great 
company, came to thegrounde, andlackyng neither stuffe necessary, nor artificers sufficient, 
in small tyme erected the Castle, and began to defend the fortresse. The erle of Arundell, 
beyng crediblie informed of their dooynges, and perceiuyng that this newe edificacion, was 
very prejudicial to the Englishe part, determined first to take the. Castle supposyng litle or 
no resistence, therin to beshutte vp, but he wasdeceiued, for there was the Heire, with many 
good and valeauntecapitaines. The Erie with fiue hundred horsemen, encamped hymself in 
a hue close, not farre from the Castle : the Frenchemen, which wer thre thousande men, 
perceiuyng that the Erie and his horses werwery, and that his archars wer not yet come, de- 
termined for their aduauntage to set on him, before the comyng of his footmen, whiehe they 

knewe 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 173 

knewe to he-litle more, then a mile behynde the Erie. Wherfore, for a pollicie, they set 
furthe fiftie horssemen, as though there were no ino in the Castle. The Erie perceiuyng 
that, sent furth sir Randolfe Standishe, to encountre with them, hauyng in his company a 
hundred horsses: the Frenchemen fought coragiously a while, and sodainly came out all the 
rernnaunte, and slewe sir Randolfe Standishe, and all his company, and boldly set on the 
Erie and hisbande, whiche manfully defended them, so that the Frenchmen gatlitle aduaun- 
tage, for al their great nombre. The Heire perceiuyng. the hartes, corage and defence of the 
Engiishe people, caused thre Culuerynes to be shot emongest theim, wherof, one strake the 
Erie 'on the ancle, and so brake his legge, that for pain he fell from his horse, then the 
Frenche men entered emongest the Engiishe army, and tooke the erle, beyng on the grounde, 
prisoner, and sir Richard Wooduite, and sixe score more, and there wer slain almoste twoo 
C. The remnaunt saued them selfes aswel as thei might. The Erie was caried to Beauoys, 
vher, of this hurte he shortly died, and was buried in the friers Minors. He was a man of 
a singuler vertue, constancie and granitic, whose death in so troubelous a worlde, did sore 
appall the hartes of his nacion. By this infortune, Rue was not besieged, nor Gerborie ta- 
ken, suche is thechaunce of warre, thus Lady Fortune daily turneth her whiele, and migh- 
tie Mars, often varieth his countenaunce, so that one tyme the Englishemen gat by assaut 
and yieldyng, diuerse strong tounes, Castles, and piles. At another season, the Frenche 
people, somtyme by bargain, somtyme by assaut, obteined thesaid citees and fortificacions 
again, or other in their stede. Whiche daily altemptes, lomitandouer passe, because in 
the, no notable acte, nor greate Warlike feate was doen or committed. For small thynges, 
require litel writyng, and fewe actes, require lesse speakyng. For I assure you,, that he, 
which should write the negligent losses, and the pollitique gaines, of enery citee, fortresse, 
and turrett, whiche were gotten and loste in these daies, should fatigate and wery the reader, 
more with volumes, then queares and the hearer, more with triflyng woordes, then with nota-r 
ble matter. Wherfore sithe in all myne authors, I finde no matter, either greatly necessarie, 
or muche conuenient to be spoken of concernyng any high enterprise: I therfore, leauyng 
bothe the nacions, daily studiyng how to greue, and gain of the other, will turne againe. to. 
other thynges accidental! whiche chaunced in this. xii. yere. 

ABOVT the moneth of June, Ihon duke of Burbon and Auerne, taken prisoner at: 
the battaill of Agyncourte. xviii. yeres paste, (as you haue before heard ) now paiyng his , 
raunsome, whiche was. xviii. M.I. sterlyng and hauyng ready prepared all thynges necessary, 
for his triumphaunt returne into his countrey, was taken with a mosle sore and greuous feuer r , 
whiche shortely vnbodied.his soule, in the citee of London, on the daie appoynted, for hi& 
departure into France: whose corps wasenterred, in the Grey Friers of thesaied citee. So- 
by this, euery creature maie se: that man purposeth & God disposeth.. I may not forget a,. 
chaunce whiche- happened this yere, to the example of princes, and a spectacle, of. goueniors.. 
For thedeuill hymself, to set farther diuision betwene the Engiishe and Frenche nacion did 
apparell certain catchepoules, and Parasites, comonly called titiuils and tale tellers, tosowe 
discord and dissencion, betwene the dukes of Bedford and Burgoyne, not fainyng trifles- 
nor phatasies, but tliynges of reproche, repugnant to bothe their honors, estates, and digni- 
ties, with the whiche, cache of them was as well pricked, as hastely spurred, so that all loue* 
betwene theim ceased, all affinitie was forgotten, and all olde familiaritie was cast by disdain, 
into the caue of oblivid. Suche a pestilent breath hath Flattery, and suche mischif ensueth, 
of Princes light credence. This grudge was perceiued, by their mutuall frendes, whiche by. 
charitable exbortacion and Godly aduertisement, exhorted theim, to renewe their old loue 
and familiaritie, and to mete and enteruieu, in some place decent and conuenient. The 
Duke of Bedforde, gladly condiscended, to come to sent Omers, beyng the duke of Burgoyns 
toune, and thither, accordyng to his appoyntment, he in honorable estate, came and resort- 
ed, and likewise did the duke of Burgoyne. The duke of Bedford, beyng Regent of Fraunce, 
& sonne, brother and vncle to kynges, though that the duke of Burgoyne, should first haue 
visited and saluted him: duke Phillip on. the other part, beyng Lord & soucreigne of the 

6 toune,, \ 



THE. XIII. YERE OF 

toune, judged knot mete, nor to stande with his honor, to go to hym, where he was lodged, 
but was content, by entreatie of frendes, to mete with him in a place indifferent, betwene 
bothe their harberowes : whiche offer was not accepted, & so, bothe parties departed dis- 
content, & neuer after sawe or commoned with other. What should I speake of the corage 
of these twoo proude princes, the duke of Bedford myndyng to haue no pere, and the duke 
of Burgoyne, willyng to haue no superior, by whose proud disdain, and enuious discord, 
shortly England lost, and Burgoyne gayned not long, as you shall perceiue, in this history 
ensuyng. 

If THE. XIII. YERE. 

rhc.xiii. T[j e Bastan'- of Orleaunce, called the erle ef Dumoys, the lorde Rocheford Marshal 
yc "' of Frauncc, with other in the beginnyng of this. xiti. yere, tooke the toune of saincte 
Denise by treason, and skirmished with theim of Paris, and leauyng behynd hym a greate 
garrison, tooke the tonne of Howdone, and the bridge of saincte Maxence by composition, 
and at that tyme was taken the toune, of Fount Meulane, by sodain scalyng of twoo 
fishermen: which entered vp at a common prime, standyng on the walle. Thus tounes vn- 
walied, wer preys to rauenous men of war, so that the poore inhabitauntes within theim, 
(not bcyng able to kepc their fidelitie or allegeaunce, when sheilde and defence lacked,) 
were constrayned and compelled, to yeilde and rendre theimselfes, to the more power, and 
vpper hande: least they beyng nedy and innocente people, should be vexed and lurmcnted, 
with the vnreasonable men of warre: So that in all Cliristendome, no Region was more vn- 
quiete, more vexed, more poore, nor more to be pitied, then the coutrey of Frauce. And 
although the rude and poore people, suffrcd many plagues and aduersities : yet the souldiora 
prospered not in all thynges. For although prey & spoyle sometyme refreshed their mindes, 
and did comfort their stomackes, yet some tyme they wer slain, taken, and licked vp, or tiiei 
were ware. For eucry prince studied, and circumspectly compassed, how to kepe, defende 
and releue, the citees and tounes, of their seuerall faction, and priuate fidelitie. Wheifore, 
when sacietie of slaughters, and abounclaunce of murthers, had replenished the stomackes, of 
bolhc the nacions, and that bothe m general!, perceiuecl their hurtes, pondered tlieir losses, 
and considered tlieir ruynes, and daily afflictions: although their stomackes wer haute, and 
their hartes stony, yet they waxed sot'te, priuely inclinyng to peace, and wishyng concord, 
and not without an vrgente cause: For all thynges necessary to mans liuvn, penurie 
shewed her self furth, and aboundauce was hidden in a caue. The corne feldes laie vntilled 
the meddowos wer ouer trodcn, the woodes wer spoyled, so that all men went to harneis, 
and no man to the plough. The churches were seldome vsed for denocion, but many 
tyemes spoyled, for desire of gayne. These, and suche innumerable mischiefcs, caused 
bothe the people, bcyng enemies, to desire peace, and yet the one part, disdained opely to 
offre it, or the other priuatly to receiue it. 

THE crie and noyse of this perillous and insatiable warre, was blasted through Europe, 
detested through Cliristendome, and especially, at the Counsaill of Basill, where then them- 
ptror Alberte, and all the princes and potestates of Cliristendome, or their deputies, were 
assembled, for the vnio of the vngraciousscisme, in the vsurped sea of Rome vntrulv, and 
against all scripture, called sainct Peters sea. Wherfore the Emperor and the temporall 
princcis, stipposyng the exhortation of Spirituall fathers, should more profite emongest the 
twoo high stonyicked, and proude encoraged nacions, of Englande and of Fraunce, dcsyred 
Eugeny then bishop of Rome, to be the author and arbitrer, of that great strife and conten- 
cion: so that by his meanes, counsail and.' exhortation, the weapon might be taken out of 
the handes, of twoo so inuincible nacions, which neuer would yeild or bowe the one to the 
other, neither yet, once heare of abstinence of fightyng, or refusyng from warre: so much 
were their hartes hardened, and so princely were theh- stomackes. And one thyng, muche 

put 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 175 

put them in hope, of some good conclusio, because the duke of Burgoyn was willyng, (so 
that it wer not of his awne suite,) to returns and reconcile himself, to Charles, his mortal 
cnemie and auncient aduersary. Wherforc, by authentic of this generall Counsaill, two 
discrete persones, called the Cardinalles of sainct Crosse, & Cypres, came to the tonne of 
Arras in Arthoys, whither, were sente for the kyng of Englande, Henry Beautfbrd Cardinall 
of Winchester, Henry, Archebishopof Yorke, Willifi de la Pole Erie of Suffolke, and Jhon 
Hollande Erie of Huntyngdon, with diuerse other knightes and Esquiers :. and for the 
Frenche kyng, were there present, Charles Duke of Burbon, Lewes Erie of Vandosme, Ar- 
thur of Brytayne Constable of Fraunce, the Archcbishop of Reyns, and sir Phillip Harcort. 
There, was the duke of Burgoyne, in proper persone, accompanied with the duke of Gel- 
deps, and the Erles of Estampes, Lygnye, sainct Panic, Vaudemont, Neuers, Daniel., 
sonne to the prince of Orange, with a great gard and a gallaunt company. 

VPON the daie of the first session, the Cardinal of sainct Crosse, declared to the thfe 
parties, the innumerable mischiefes, the multitude of incouenienccs, whichc had succcded, 
through al Christendom, by their daily discord and continuall discencion : exhorting and, re- 
quiring the for the honor of God, for the lone that they bare to thesettyng furthe of Christes 
religion, and for the aduaucement, of the publique wealth of all Christendo, that they would 
laye all rancor apart, represse all wrath and anger, and conform thernselfes to reason, and to 
Godly concorde, by the vvliiche, they should receiue, honor, profite, and continual}' quiet- 
nesse, in the worlde, and of God, a reward euerlastyng. After whiche admonicion y thus to 
them geuen, and after diuerse daies of communicacion, eucry part brought in their de- 
itiaund, whiche wer moste contrary, and hard to come to a good conclusion. The En- 
glishemen required, that kyng Charles should haue nothyng, but at the handeof the kyng of 
Englande, and that not as duetie, but as a bencfite, by hym of his mere liberalise geuen, and 
distributed, to whiche the Frenchmen aunswered, that kyng Charles would haue the kyno;- 
dom, frakely & frely, without begging it, of another man: requiryng the kyng of England, 
to leaue the name, Armes, and title of the kyng of Eraunce, and to be co,ntent with the 
dukedornes of Aquitain andNormady, and to forsake Paris, and all the tounes, whiche thev 
possessed in Fraunce, bet\vene the Hiuers of Loyre and Soame, beyng no percell of the 
Duchie of Normandy, The Englishemen, loth to lease so good a boty as Paris, did not 
esteme and allowe, the demaundcs of the French Ambassadors and they on the otlierside, 
couetyngand desiryng, toobtein again the renoume and glory of their Region, whiche was 
Paris, would in no wise condiscend, to any part of the Englishe requestes. Thus, the pride 
of the one part, and the ambicion of the oilier, letted concord, peace, and quietnes. The 
Cardinals, seyng the frostie hartes, and hardened myridcs of bothe parties, determined not, 
to despute th titles, but offered to them, honest and reasonable coudicions, of truce and 
peace, for a season: whiche articles bothe parties, either for frowardnes, or for disdain open- 
ly refused : In so muche as, the Englishmen in greate displeasure, departed to Calice, and 
so into Englande. One writer affinneth, that they beyng warned of a secrete conspiracie 
moued against theim, sodainly remoued from Arras, and so sailed' into their countrey. 

WHILES this treatie of peace, was thus in comunicacion at Arras, the lorde Talbot, 
the Lorde Willoughby, the lorde Scales, vvitli the Lorde Lisle Adame, and fiue thonsande 
men, besieged the tonne of S. Denise, with a strong bande. The Erie of Dumoys hear- 
yng therof, accompanied with the Lorde Lohac, and the lorde Bueiil, & a great company 
of horsemen, haisted thitherward, to rayse the siege, and in the meane waie, they encoun- 
tered with sir Thomas Kiricll, and Matthew Gouthe, ridyng also toward S. Denise, be- 
twene whom, was a great conflict, and many slain on bothe parties: but sodainly came to 
the aide of the Frenchmen, the garrison of Pout Melance, which caused thenglishe- 
men to returne, without any greatarme or damage, sauyng that Matthew Couth, by foun- 
deryng of his horsse, was taken and caried to' Fount Melance. Duryng whiche fight, the 
toune of sainct Denise, was rendered to the iorde Talbot, and the other lordcs, whiche 
caused all the walles to be raised, and abated doune to the ground, sauyng the \valles of 

1 the 



176 THE. Xm. YERE OF 

the Abbay, and a toure called Venyn. After this toune gotten, the Lorde Wiliotighby, 
left sir Ihon Ruppelley at Pounthoyse, & departed to gouerne Paris, whiche then began 
to smoke, and sone after, brast out' in flame, (as yeu shall shortly, apparautly perceiue). 
After whose departure, thenhabitaines of Pounthoyse rebelled, & droue out thenglishmeu 
by very force, and rendered themselfes subiectes to king Charles. This toune was small, 
but the losse was great, for it was the very conuenient kaye, betwene Paris and Nonnandy, 
so that now the gate betwene them bothe, was set open and the passage at large. 

LET vs now again, returne to the counsail at Arras. After the Englishe Ambassadors 
wer departed, the 'prenchemen and the fiurgonyons, began familiarly to common of a peace, 
and talke of an amitie, to the whiche motion, Phillip duke of Burgoyne, was neither deiffe 
nor straunge : for he in the begmnyng of his rule, being muche desirous to reuenge and 
punishe the shamefull murder doen to his father, and to kepe hymself in his high estate, 
and preeminence, began to be associate, and to reigne with thenghshe power, and to serue 
the kyng of Englad thinking, that by his amity and ioynyng, that he should neither harme 
nor hurte, the common wealth of the countrey, whereof at that tyme he bare the whole 
rule, nor yet lose one iote or poynt, of his authoritie, or gouernaunce. But when it hap- 
pened, contrary to his expectacion, that the kyng of Englande, by the right course of in- 
heritaunce, tooke vpou hym the whole rule and gouernaunce, within the realrne of Fraunce, 
and ordered by the aduise of his cousaill, all causes, iudgementes, warres, and c5cordes, 
& that the duke Judged, that he was not had in great confidence, nor in perfite truste, as 
he thought, because the Duke of Bedforde, would not suffre the toune of (Meaunce, to 
be rendered to hym, (as you before haue heard) : He therfore imagined, & determined with 
hymself, to returne into the pathe again, from the whiche he had straied and erred, and to 
take part, and ioyne with his awne bloud and nacion: so that some honest meane, might be 
sought by other, and not by hymself, least paraduenture by his awne sekyng, he might bind 
himself in conditions hurtfull, & sore inconueniences, to the Frenche kyng, and also be 
noted of vntruth, and traiterous behauor, toward the king of Englande and his nacion : to 
whom he had done homage, leage, and sworn fealtie Now this Counsaill, was to hym a 
cloke for the rayne, as who should say, tliat he sought not arnitie, of the Freche kyng, 
(whiche thyng in his harte, he moste coueted and desired) but was therunto persuaded, by 
the general! counsaill, and by the bishop of Rome, whom it was reason, in all honest re- 
questes, that he should submitte hymself, and humbly obey. And so, shadowed with this 
counsaill, without long argument or prolongyng of tyme, he tooke a determinate peace, 
and a finall conclusion, vpon these condicios: that he should haue to hym deliuered, the 
counteis of Arthoys, Pontbiew, and Bullonoys, and the tounes of Amience, Curby, Mon- 
didier, Heron,.^sainct Quintyne, & Abbeuile, with many other seigniories, & superiorities, 
whiche be not for my purpose to reherse. Prouided alwaie, that the French kyng, paiyng 
in redy money, to y duke or his heires, iiij.C.M. crounes, should haue thesaied tounes and 
countres, to beredeliuered again : and many other thynges, the Frenche kyng graunted, , to 
the duke of Burgoyn, whiche after, he was not able to performe, nor accomplishe, for he 
had no power, to make deniall to the duke, of any demaund or request, whiclie the Duke 
either phantasied or moued : as who would saie, that he thought in himself, that suche an 
aduersary, whiche desired so honest, and so reasonable conditions, (considering the state 
of the tyme, and the occasion, of concorde, moste apparauntly offered to hym,) oudit nei- 
ther to be refused nor cast away, the whiche chaunce, .was to hym lucky and fortunate : for 
surely, y thyng forsene and loked for, surceded and toke place, as you shall perceiue. This 
concorde, was so pleasaunt to the Frenche kyng, that he not only set for hym: but as a 
swane that swimmeth after_her make, met hym in proper persone, at the citee of Reynes 
and (after long comunicatio) standing vp vpo his fete, said to him these wordes. 
JfthT" .DVKE Philhpp cosin, and pere of Fraunce, with all my harte welcome, and-at your com- 
Fr,ch mmg, my harte is fulfilled with ioy, and my spirites be refreshed with solace, for now all 
Kyngto f ,he doubte of the rec0 uery, of my lande and seigniory, is clerely banished, and fully abandoned : 
Bursoyn <- consideryng 



KYNG HENUY THE. VI. 177 

consideryng that I haue now, ioyned and vnited to me, the principall pere, the moste noble 
prince, (nexte to the Croune) and the moste valeaunt capitain, that hath been, or is, in our 
dales, sene, or knowen, whom the nobilitie honor, the chiualrie fauor, and the poore con> 
mons loue, and daily desire to beholde : So that all men loue, and embrace you, aboue all 
creatures, and worship and reuerence you, aboue all Lordes, because you, beyng a straiyng 
shepe, are now returned, to your olde flocke, and like a man wanderyng out of the pathe 
are now brought again, to the right waie, and true liniite. For surely, this text was euer 
beaten muche in my hedde: that euery realme, deuided emongest theimselfe, should turne 
to desolacio, and that all discord, should bring pouertie, and that of all discension, should 
succeade misery : whiche intollerable calamities, I euer Judged to ensue, by the discorde 
and contrauersie, betwene vs twoo. But now the sore is cured, and the ship brought into the 
sure hauen : trustyng perfectly, and nothyng mistrustyng, but by your healp and aide, we shall 
expell, cleane pull vp by the rootos, and put out, all the Englishe nacion, out of our realmes, 
territories and dominions. And if you helpe vs. (as you male) and if you aide vs, (as you 
be able) we here promise you, in the tvorde of a prince, to be yours, yea, so yours, that al 
ours, shalbe yours, at your commaundement and desire, not as ours, but as yours, to doo and 
spende at your pleasure. To the whiche, the duke of Burgoyn aunswered, that he would 
let scape nothyng, that appertayned to his duetie, nor forget any poynt, whiche might turne 
to his dishonor. 

WHEN this league wassworne, and this knot was knit, the duke of Burgoyne, to sette a 
vayle, before the kyng of Englaudes iyes, sent Thoison Dor, his kyng at Armcs, to kyng 
Henry with letters: that he, beyng not only waxed faint, and weried, with continual warre, 
and daily conflictes, but also chafed daily, with complaintes and lamentacion, of his people, 
whiche, of the Frenchemen, suffered losse and detriment, embraydyng and rebukyng hym 
openly, affirming that he onely was the supporter and mainteyner, of the Englishe people, 
and that by his meanes and power, the mortall warre was continued and sette forward, and 
that he more diligetly studied, and intentiuely toke pain, bothe to kepe, and maintein then- 
glishemen in Fraunce, and also toaduaiice and promote their desires, & intentes, rather then 
to restore kyng Charles his cosyn, to his rightful inheritaunce, paternal possession : by reason 
of whiche thynges, and many other, he was in maner compelled and constrained to take a 
peace, and conclude an amitie with kyng Charles, exhortyng kyng Henry, with many flatteryng 
wordes, when honest and reasonable condicions wer offered, to take the, and to make an ende of 
the warre, which so long had continued, to the decay of bothe the realmes, and to the effusion, 
of Christen bloud, be side the great displeasure of almightie God, whiche is the author of 
peace and vnitie: promising hym his aide, and furtheraunce in that behalfe, with many glo- 
syng and flatteryng wordes, whiche I passe ouer. 

HERE is to be noted, that the Duke of Burgoyne, which thought hymself by this concord 
in maner dishonored, and spotted with infamy sente his letters to the Kyng of Englandc, 
rather to purge and excuse hymselfe, of his vntruth and infidelitie, (yea of perinry, if a 
poore man maie vse that terme, of so greate a prince) to thentent that it should appere, 
that he, by copulsion, and not by voluntarie afteccion, was turned to the French part: not 
for any malice or displeasure, whiche he bare to kyng Henry, or to the Englishe nacion. This 
letter was not alitle loked on, nor smally regarded of the kyng of England, and his sage coii- 
saill: not onely for the waightines of the matter, but also for the sodaiu chaunge of the man, 
& for the strange superscripcion of the letter, which was: To the high and mightie Prince, 
Henry, by the grace of GOD Kyng of Englande, his Welbeloued cosyn : Neither namyng 
hym kyng of Fraunce, nor his souereigne lorde, accordyng as, (euer before that tyme) he 
was accustomed to do. Wherfore all they, whiche wer present, beyng sore moued with the 
craftie deede, Sc vntrue demeanor of the duke, (whom they so muche trusted) could neither 
temper their passions, nor moderate their yre, nor yet bridle their toungues : but openly call- 
ed hym traytor, deceiuer, and moste inconstant prince. But when the rumor of the Dukes re- 
turnyng, was published emongest the common people, they lefte woodes and went to stripes: for 

A a they 



178 THE. XIIIJ. VERE OF 

they beyng moued and pricked, with this vnliappie tidynges, ran fiersiy vpon all the Flem- 
vn^es Hollanders, and Burgonyons, which then inhabited within the cilee of London, and the 
suburbes of thesame, and sleweand hurte, agreate nombre of them, before they, by the kynges 
proclamacion, could be prohibited, to leaue of and abstain, from sucb violence, and iniimous 
doyng: for the kyng nothyng more mynded, then to saue innocent bloud, and defend e them, 
whiche had not offended. 

AFTER the letter twise redcle, and wisely brooked, he willed the officer at Armes, to tell 
his master, that it was not conuenient, nor honorable for hym, to be ene.nie to the Englishe 
nncion, without cause or occasion geuen, but his duetie, (all thynges consydered) was to 
haue kept his auncient truthe and oulde allegeaiice, rather then to be the occasion, of nevve 
warre and freashe discencion: aduertisyng hym farther, that it was not the poynt of a wise 
ma, to leaue and let passe, the certain for the vncertain, admonishyng hym also, not to myn- 
gle and mixte his safetie and surenesse, with the vnstablenesse and vnsuretie of his newe 
alye, and cosyn, kyng Charles When the messenger was departed, the kyng of England 
arid his counsaill, thought and determined, to worke some displeasure to the duke, ami to 
set some conspiracie, against hym in his awne coutrey. Wherfore by rewardes, they did 
suborne and corrupt certain gouernors and rulers, of tounes and cities, within the dukes 
countreis and dominios, (which nacions surely, be euer procliue & ready, to commocion and 
rebellion.) Hut the Gantoys, whiche of that feate euer bare the bell, and wer the common 
rysers, against their souereigne lordes, some of them imagenyng, that the power of the En- 
glishmen, was not long like to continue, within the realme of France, more for feare, then 
loue of their Duke, sat still and mooed not, but let other tounes alone, whiche sore troubled 
the Dukes wittes, and agreate while, did disquiet and vexe his senses. 

THIS yere the. xiiij. dale of September, died Ihon duke of Bedford, Regent of Fraunce, a 
man, as pollitique in peace, as hardy in warre, and yet no more hardy in warre, then 
merciful!, when he had victory, whose bodye was, with greate funerall solempnitie, buried' 
iu the Cathedral! churche of our Lady, in Roan, on the Northside of the high aulter, vndor 
a sumptuous and costly monument: whiche tombe and sepulture, when kyng Lewes the. xj. 
sonne to this kyng Charles, which recouered again Normandy, did well aduise and behoulde, 
certayne noblemen in his company, hauyng more youthe then discrecion, and more enuie'in 
their hartes, then consideracions of their parentes, counsailed hym to deface and plucke. 
doune the tombe, and to cast the deede carcasse into the feltles: affirming, that it was a 
greate dishonor, bothe to the kyng and to the realme, to se the enemie of his father, and theirs, 
to haue so solempne & riche memorial. Kyng Lewes aunswered again, saiyng : what honor 
shall it he to vs, or to you, to breake this moimmet, and to pull out of the ground and take 
vp, the deed bones of hym, who in his life, neither my father, nor your progenitors, with all 
their power, puyssaiice, and fredes, wer once able, to make flie one foote backward, but by 
his strength, witte, and pollicie, kepte theim all out of the principal! dominions, of the realme 
of Fraunce, and out of this noble and famous duchie of Normandy : wherfore I saie, first, 
God haue his soule, & let his body now lye in reste, whiche, when he was a Hue, would 
haue disquieted the proudest of vs all : and as for the tombe, I assure you, is not so decent, 
nor conuenient for hym, as his honor and Actes deserued, although it wer ixmche richer, and. 
more beautifull. 



The. liiii. 
yre. 



i THE. xiiu. YERE: 

AFter the death of this noble prince, and valeaunt capitain, the bright sunne that 
commonly shone in France faire and beautifully vpon the Englishmen, began to b? cloudie 
and daily to waxe darker: for the Frechmen seyng the chief capitain taken awaie. began not 
only to refuse their ooedience, and loyaltie, which thei had sworne, and promised to the 
kyng of Lnglande, but takyng swearde in hande, rebelled, persecuted, and openly defied the 

Englishmen, 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 179 

Englishmen, yet all these mischaunces, not one poynt abated, the valeaut corages of the En- 
glishe people: for theynothyng mistrustyng God, nor good Fortune, set vp a newe saile, 
and began the warre new again, and appoynted for regent in Fraunce, Richard duke of 
Yorke, sonne to Richard erle of Cambridge. Although the duke of Yorke, bothe for birthe 
and convge, was worthy of this honor and preferment, yet he was so disdained of Edmond 
duke of Somerset, beyng cosin to the kyng, that he was promoted to so high an office, (whiche 
he in verie decde, gaped and loked for) that by all waies and meanes possible, he bothe hin- 
dered and detracted hym, glad of his losse, and sory of his well dooyng, causyng liym to 
linger in Englande, without dispatche, till Paris and the floure of Fraunce, were gotten by 
the Frenche kyng. The duke of Yorke, perceiuyng his euill will, openly dissimuled that, 
which he inwardly thought priuely, eche workyng thynges, to the others displeasure. This 
cancard malice, and pestiferous diuision, so long continued, in the hartes of these twoo 
princes, till mortall warrc consumed theirn bothe, and almoste all their lynes and ofsprynges, 
as within few yeres you shall perceiue and se. 

THE Normans of the countrey of Caux, bcyng somwhat hartened, by the death of the 
duke of Beclforde, began a newe rebellion, and slewe diucrse Englishmen, and robbed many 
praty tounes, whiche wer of kyng Heries faccion & part, & toke the toune of Ilarflew by 
assaute, and diuerse other tounes. The lorde Talbot beyng aduertised, of thys rebellion, 
sent for the Lorde Scales, sir Thomas Kiricll, and the lorde Hoo, whiche afflicted and 
plagued the people of Caux, that they slew aboue fiue thousand persones, and brent all the 
tounes, and villages in the countrey, not beyng walled, so that in that parte, was neither 
habitacion nor till.ige, for all the people fled into Britayne, and all the beastes of the coun- 
trey, wer brought to Cawdebec, wher a good shepe was sould for an Englishe peny, and a 
kowe for xii. pence. Daily was skirmishyng & fightyng in euery part, in so mnche that the 
Lorde Scales with foure hundred Englishemen, discomfited at the Rye beside Roan, the 
lleire and fiftenc hundred valeaunt Frcnchernen, and sir Richaide Reignold de Fountaynes, 
sir Aleyne Gerond, Alayne de Monsay, and Geffrey Grame capilain of the Scottcs, and 
thre hundred, and mo wer taken prisoners, beside seuen fa ire and pleasant coursers. But 
this victorie staied not the hartes of the Frenche nacion, for their myndes were so full of 
treason, and their malice so greate against the Englishemen, that many tounes turned, to the 
parte of kyng Charles, without conquest or desire, and diuerse were sould for couetousnes, 
and many were deliuered by treason, as Dcpe, Boys de Vynceimes, and other. 

HERE is one especiall poynte to be noted, that either the disdayne ernongest the chief 
peres of the realme of Englande, (as you haue hearde,) or the negligence of the kynges 
counsaill, (whiche did not with quicke sight, forese and preuent thynges for to come) was 
the losse of the whole dominion of Fraunce, beUvcnc the riuers of Soame and Marne, and 
i especiall of the noble citee of Paris. For where before tymes there were sent ouer, for 
the aide and tuicion of the tounes, and citees, brought vnder the obeysaunce, of the Eng- 
lish nacion, thousandes of men, apte and mete for the warre, and defence: now were sent 
into Fraunce, hundrecles, yea scores, some rascal 1, and some not able to drawe a bowe, or 
cary a bill. For the lorde Willoughby, and the bishop of Tyrwyne, whiche had the go- 
uernaunce, of the greate and large citie of Paris, had in their company, not two thousande 
Englishmen. Whiche weakenes kyng Charles well perceined. Wherefore he appoynted 
Arthur of Britayne, the Erie of Dnmoys Bastarde of Orleaunce, the Lordes de la Roche, 
and Lisle Adame, and other valeaunt capitaines, aswell Burgonyons as Frenche, to go be- 
fore Paris, trusting by the fauor of certain citezen?, with whom he had greate intelligence, 
and knewe thenglishemennes power and doynges, shortly to be lorde of the citee and toune, 
without any greate losse or battaill. So these capitayncs came before the citee of Paris, 
but perceiuyng, that all thynges succeded not, accordyng to their expectacio, returned to 
Mount Marter, and the next daie, sodainly set on the toune of sainct Denise, where, the 
Englishemen manfully defended theim selfes, but beyng oppressed with so greate a multi- 
tude, they wer compelled to flie into the Abbaye, and into the Toure of Venyn, for succor 

A a 2 and 



THE. XIIIJ. YERE OF 

1 V 

and refuge: in whiche conflicte two hundred Englishemen wer slainj and the rest, vpon a 
reasonable composition, rendered the toune, and departed to Pans. 

THOMAS Lorde Beaumond, whiche of late was come to Pans with eight hundred 
men issued out of Paris, with sixe hundred souldiors, onely mtendyng to se, and vieue 
the dbyogea and nombre of the Frenche armye, but he was sodamly espied, and compass- 
ed about! : so, that within a small space, he was discomfited and taken, and with hym foure 
score prisoners, beside two hundred which wer slain on the feld, and the remnaunt chased 
to the very gates of the citee. The Parisians and in especiall the Master of the Halles, 
and some of the Vniuereitie, and Michael Laillier, and many notable burgesses of the 
toune, (whiche, euer with anEnglishe countenaunce, couered a Frenche harte) perceiuyng 
toe weakenes of the Englishemen, and the force and strengths of the Frenchemen, signifi- 
yng to the Frenche capitaines, their mindes and intentes, willed them to come with all di- 
ligence, to receiueso riehe a prey to them, without any difficultie, offred and geuen. The 
Constable delaiyng no tyme, came with his power, and lodged by the Charter-hous : and the 
lerde Lisle Adame, approchyng the walles, shewed to the citezens, a charter, sealed with 
the greate scale of kyn'g Charles, by the whiche he had pardoned them their offences, and 
graunted'to them all the old liberties and auncient priuileges, so they would hereafter be 
to hym, obedient, true, and scruiceable. . Whiche thyng to theim declared, they ranne 
about the toune, criyng: sainct Dcnise, liue kyng Charles. The Englishemen perceiuyng 
this, determined to kepe the gate of. S. Denise, but they were deceiued, for the cheynes 
were drawen in euery streate, and women and children cast doune stones, and scahlyng 
water on the Englishemennes heddes, and the citezens persecuted them, from streate to- 
streate, and from lane to lane, and sleweand hurt, diuerse and many of theim. The bishop 
of Tyrwyne, Chauncellor there for kyng Henry, and the lord Willoughby, and sir Simon 
Moruier, toke great pain, to appcace the people, and represse their furie: but when they 
saw, that all auailed not, they withdrue theimselfes, to the Bastell of sainct Anthony, 
whiche fortresse, they had well vitailed and furnished, with men and munitions. 

WHILES this rumor was in the toune, therle of Dumoys & other scaled the walles, and 
some passed the Riuer by boates, and opened the gate of sainct lames, at the whiche the 
Constable with his banner displaied entered, at whose entrie, the Parisians wer very glad, 
and made greate ioye. The bishop and the Lorde Willoughby, with their small copany, 
defended their fortresse, tenne daies, lokyng for aide, but when they sawe that no comforte 
appered, they yelded their fortresse, so that they & theirs, with certain baggage, might 
peaceably returne to Roan, wliiche desire was to them graunted. Then as they departed, 
the Parisians rayled, mocked, and taunted the Englishmen, with the moste spitefull worries, 
and shameful termes, that could be inuented ordeuised: so that all men maie apparauntly 
perceiue, that their hartes neuer thought, as their toungues vttered. For notwithstanding 
their obeysaunce and fidelitie, sworne to Kyng Henry, and nothyng regardyng the finall 
coinposicion, to the which they had sette their common scale, when they sawe thenglish- 
men at the weakest, they turned the leafe and sang another song: declaryng to all men 
their inconstaunt hartes, their waueryng mindes, and vntrue demeanor. Thus was the cite 
of Paris brought again into the possession of the French kyng, which, thcr altered officers, 
and ordained lawes, at his pleasure, for the surety & sategarde of hym, his realme, and 
people. 

AFTER this glorious gain, the Frenche kyng besieged the toune of Crayle, vpon Oyse, 
wherof sir William Chaberlayn, was capitain, whiche, with fine hundred Englishmen, is- 
sued out of the toune, and after long fight, discomfited his enemies, and slewe twoo hun- 
dred, and toke a greate nombre prisoners: the remnaunt not likyng their market, de- 
parted to Champeigne, and other tounes ariioynyng. Duryng whiche season, xii. Bur- 
gesses of the toune of Gysors, solde it ibr money to Poyton of Xantrayles, but he had 
not the Castle deliuered. Wherfore with all his power, he besieged thesame, wherof the 
Lorde Talbot beyng aduertised, sent for the lorde Scale*, and they bothe with. xvhi. hun- 

3 dred 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 181 

drcd men, rescued the Castle, toke the toune, and discomfited their enemies, and slewe 
of theim aboue foure hundred persones. Now was the the old prouerbes verefied, that he 
that commeth a dale after the taire, commeth to late, and when the stede is stollen, it is no 
bote to shutte the stable dore. Tor when Paris, sainct Denise, sainct Gerrnayns in Lay, 
and many other tounes in Fraunce, were taken and betrayed, for lacke of succors and suf- 
ficient garrisons, then the duke of Yorke appoynted at the parliament before; to be Regent 
of Fraunce, and by the disdaine and enuie of the duke of Somerset, and other, not till 
now dispatched, was sent into Normandy, with eight thousande men, and in his company, 
the Erles of Salisbury, and Suffolke, and the Lorde Fawconbridge, and ditierse valeaunt 
capitaines. When he was landed at Harflewe, the Erie of Salisbury, besieged the Castle 
of Chamboys, whiche shortly was to hym rendered. Then the Duke remoued to Roan, 
where he set good orders, and did greate Justice in the countrey, wherfore the Normans in 
their Chronicle, highly extoll and muche magnifie hym, for that poynte : howbeit, they 
saie, that he gat by long siege, the toune and Abbay of Fecape, and did none other notable 
act, duryng the tyme of his rule and gouernaunce. 

PHILLIP Duke of Burgoyne whiche, (as you haue heard) brake bothe his othe and pro- 
mise with the kyng of England, imagened with hymself, that the Englishmen were like shortely, 
to be expulsed out of al the tounes on that side the sea, and that they had no certain refuge 
nor place to resorte to, out of ieoperdy, but onely the toune of Calice. Wherfore he as- 
sembled his counsaill, and the heddes of the cities and tounes of Flaunders, Brabant, IIol- 
lande, and Zelande, in the toune of Gaunt, vvhcr was declared to them, the right, title, and 
interest, that he had to the toune of Calice, and the countie of Guysnes, as a very patri- 
mony, belongyng to his inheritaunce: shewyng farther, that thesaid toune was the golffe, and 
swallower vp, of all the golde & siluer of his countries and dominions, foa asmuche as ther, 
was the staple of wooles, tynne, leade, and other marchaundise, for the whiche, the Englishe- 
men would take no common currant money, but only gold and siluer, to the greate impouerish- 
inent of his seigniories, and Regions: saiyng farther, that Calise onely was the common stop, 
betwene his countreis and Britayne, and Spayne, so that Southward, nor Westwarde, his 
subiectes could not passe, without the daungier of that toune. Wherefore these detrhnentes 
considered, he determined, (if they -would assent) shortly to recouer and conquer, that toune 
and the countie of Guisnes. To this purpose all the counsaill, and c5mon people, not onely 
agreed, but also promised aide, bothe of men and money. Lorde how the Flemines bragged, 
and the Hollanders craked, that Calice should be wonne and all the Englishemen slain, 
swearyng, and staryng, that they would haue it within thre dales at the moste : thynkyng 
verely, that the toune of Calice, could no more resist their puyssaunce, then a potte of double 
beere, when they fall ta quaffyng. 

TO tel you whatordenauce was new cast, what pouder was bought what engynes were de- 
uised, what harneis was prouided, what vitale was purueyed for this greate enterprise: I 
will not comber you in rehersyng euery thyng perticulerly because the Flemynges write, that 
the prouision was more then toung could speake, or harte could thinke yet you rnaie beleue as 
you list. These doynges were not so priuie, but sir Ihon Radclifte duputic of the toune of 
Calice, was therof enformed and shortly of thesame, aduertised kyng Henry, and his coun- 
saill, whiche incontinent sent thither, the Erie of Mortayne sonne to the Duke of Somersette, : 
and the Lorde Cammeys with. xv. C. men, and greate foyson of vitaile, whiche issued out 
of Calice, and came before Grauelyne, where thei wcreucountred, with a greate nombre of 
Flemynges, whiche were shortly discomfited, and foure hundred of theim slain, and 
sixe score taken prisoners, andcaried to Calice. And within twoodaies after, the English- 
men draue by fine force, the lordes of Wauerayn and Bado, to the barriers of Arde, & dis- 
comfited the company to the ndber of. xv. C. and slewe. vij. valeaunt capitaines, and toke 
many gentlemen prisoners. Phillip duke of Burgoyne, abidyng still in his high & warlike 
enterprise, assebled together of Flemynges, Pycardes, Holladers, and Henowiers a great army,, 
to the nombre of., xl. M. so well armed, so wel vitailed, so weL furnished with ordenaunce,. 

& so : 



-182 THE. XIIIJ. YERE OF 

& *o well garnished in al thynges, that thei thought in their hartes, and blasted emongest 
theirn selfcs, that the Calicians, would leaue the tonne desolate, & flie for their sauegard, 
beam-)* onely the approchyng of the Gauntoys. But thei reckened before their host, and so 
paied more then their shotte came to. When this gallant army, was passed the water at 
Grauelyn, the duke intending to begin his greate conquest, besieged and assauted the litle 
and poore Castle of Oye, whiche hauyng in it but. L. souldiors, of ;he whiche. xii. sold their 
liues derely, the remnaunt compelled by necessity yeilded thernselfes symplie to the duke, 
whiche to please the Gauntoys, beyiigof the moste puissaunt copanyinbis army, liberallygaue 
to the bothe the Caslle and the prisoners, as a signe and token of good lucke, and fortunate 




the rest. 

AFTER this victory, litle honorable and lesse profitable, the Pycardes besieged the Castle 
of Marke, and three tymes assauted it, more to their losse, then gayne. The Englishemen 
within, whereof sir Ihon Geddyng was capitain, set out the banner of sainct George, and 
rang the belles, to the intent to haue succors from the toune of Calice. But the capitaines 
there, rnyndingnot to lese the more for the lesse, nor thesubstaunce for the accident, wished 
them good lucke, and good fortune without any aide sedyng. For doubt of the dukes great 
army & power, The souldiors within Marke, beyng but twoo hundred and sixe, seyng no 
hope of succor, and desperate of Comfort, rendered theimseifes to the duke vpon condicion : 
that their lifes and lymmes should be saued, and so thei wer conueyed in suer custody, to the 
tonne of Gaunt, and the castle of Marke was rased and defaced. 

AFTER this act dooen, the duke of Burgoyne, accompanied with the Duke of Cleues, the 
Erie of Estampes, the Lordes of Dantoyng, Croy, Cresquy, Humyers, and many other va- 
le-aunt Barons, & knightes, with his greate army, came before the toune of Calice, and 
placed his siege about thesame, moste to his aduauntage, and to the moste displeasure of his 
enemies. Me gatie three great assautes to the toune, but his people wer not so fierce to assaur, 
but thenglishemen wer as quicke to defend : so that he gainyug so litle at these, iii. enterprises, 
was contet to abstain fro farther approching toward the walles. At the first assaut the lieire, 
whiche was come to se the duke of Burgoyn, was sore wounded and hurte. Beside this, 
the duke had daily one great iye sore, which was by cause that at euery tyde, shippes ar- 
riuedin the hauen, out of England, openly before his face, laden with victail, municios, and 
men and also the Calicians would for the nonce, putte out cattaill into the marish, vnder the 
toune walles, to thentent to prouoke the Flemmyngs to come within their catchyng, and daun 1 
gier, whiche beyng couetous of prey and gayne, often aduenturcd, and seldome returned 
again: for many by this meancs wer taken prisoners, but many mo slain with ordenaunce. 
The duke one day rode about, to vicue and behold the situation, and the walles of the toune, 
to thentent to take his moste aduautage. either by assaute or shot of ordenaunce. He was 
quickcly espied and with the stroke of a Canon, a tropeter whiche rode next before him and 

.11 i > 




after deuised how to stoppe the hauen, so that no succors should entre there, and also to 
prohibite thi- within the loune, to make any egresse or rode outward, and so by this meanes, 
to famine and compell them to yield, and rendre the toune. This deuise was set forward, 
jlnd nothyng slepte: for. iiij. great hulkes wer laden, with great square stones, semented 
loyned together with lead, to thentent that they should lye still, like a moot and not to seuer a 
sunder. Ihese shippes with the renauntof the dukes name, wer coueyed into the mouth ofCalice 
hauen, and in a lull sea by craft and pollicie, were sounkcdoune to the ground, but whether 
^od would not that the hauen should be destroyed, either theconueyers of the hulkes, knewe 
the very channel, these foure great shippes at the lowe water, laie openly vpon thesandes, 

" without 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 183 

without any hurte doyng to the rode or chanel, which whe the souldiors had perceiued, they 
issued out ofthetoune, and brake the shippes, and caried bothe the stones and the tyiubre 
into the toune, which serued them well, to their fortificacions. The seconde deuise was also 
accom[)lished, whiclie was a strong bastell, set on a litle mountayne, furnished with. iiij. C. 
men and muche artilarie, whiche fortresse did let thenglishemen to issue out, when they 
would, to their greate displeasure and disturbaunce. 

WHILES these thynges wer in doyng, there ariued into the dukes army, an herault of 
England called Pembroke, belonging to the duke of Gloucester, whiche declared to the duke of 
Burgoyne, that the Protector of England his master, (if God would send him windeand wether) 
would geuebattail tohym and his whole puyssauce, either there, or in any other place, within 
his awne countrey, where he would appoynt : but the dale he could not assigne, because of the 
inconstancie of the wind, and rnutabilitie of the aire. The duke (like a noble man) aunswered 
the herault: sir saie to your master, that his request is both honorable and reasonable, howbeit, 
he shall not nede to take pain, to seke me in myne awne countrey, for (GOD willyng) he shall 
tinde me here, till I haue my will of the toune, ready to abide hym, and all the power that he 
can make. After this aunswere made, the Heraulte was highly feasted, and had a cup and 
a hundred golden gyldens, to hym deliuered for a rewarde, and so returned to Calice. 
After whose departure, the duke called a greate counsaill, in the chief pauilion of the Gaun- 
toys, and there declared bothe the heraultes message and his aunswere, desiryngthem to re- 
gard his honor, the estimacion of their countreis, and the honesties of themselfes, and like 
men to receiue their enemies, and valeauntly to defende their aduersaries, promisyng to theim 
victory, gain and perpetual glory. Lorcle how the Flemynges threatened, how the Pycardes 
craked, and how the Hollanders sware that thenglishme should be killed and slain, promi- 
syng to the duke rather to dye then to flie, or to be recreaunt. Whiles this great matter was in 
consultacion, the Calicians, not well contented with the bastell, whiche the Duke had newly 
builded, issued out of the toune, in a great nombre, part on foote, and part on horsebacke*. 
The footemen ran to assaut the bastile, and the horssemen, went betwene the army and the 
assailautes, to stop the aydc and succors whiche might come. Thealarmy was sounded, in- 
somuch that the Duke in proper persone, was rommyng on foote to releue his people, but by 
the meanes of the horsrnen, he was staied and kept backe a space, in the whiche delayc of 
tyme, the Englishmen by fine force gat the place, and slewc. Clx. persones, the remnaunt 
were taken prisoners, and defaced the fortresse, and set it on tire: cariyng with them, al the 
ordinance and artilerie, into the toune of Calice, to the great displeasure, of the Duke and 
his counsaill. The nexte dale after, there sprang a rumor in the army (no man could tell, 
how) that the Duke of Gloucester with a greate puyssaunce, was all ready embarked and 
shipped, and would arriue at the nexte tyde, and come doune before Calice and raise the 
siege. What was the very cause, I cannot truly write: but surely, the same night the Duke 
fled awaie, and sent in all hast to the Lorcle of Croye, to reise his siege before Guysnes, whiche 
tidynges were to hyui very ioyous, for he neither got nor saued: so these twoo capitaines de- 
parted, leauyng behynde, bothe ordinaunce, vitaill, and greate riches. The Frenche wri- 
ters, to saue the honor of the Duke of Burgoyne, saie, that there was a certain discord and 
commocion, emongest the Fleminges and duche nacion : affirmyng, that the great lordes. 
and the Pycardes, (whom the Frenchemen greatly extoll) would bctraye and sell the Flem- 
inges, and their frendes, & that, for thesame cause, in a greate fury they cried, home, home, 
& would not tary, for no request the Duke could make, nor no exhortacio that could be 
giuen: and so by their misgouernaunce, the Duke was enforced to raise his siege, and to dc- 
parte. The Flemishe authors affirme the contrary, saiyng: that they wer ready to abide the 
comyng of the duke of Gloucester, but the duke of Burgoyn fearyng to be trapped, betwene 
the duke of Gloucesters army before, and the garrison of Calice behynde, so that he 
could escarp by no waie, fled away in the night, geuyng to theim no warnyng before. So 
that for k :ke .jf tyme, and couenient space, to lade and cary their stuffe, and beyng com- 
maunded to retire with allspede and diligence, thei were compelled to lose and leaue behynde 

theini: 



184 THE. XV. YERE OF 

theim, -their vitaill, and tentes, to their great losse and detriment. Now it is at your liber- 
ties, (gentle reders) whether you will geue credite to the Frenchmen, (whiche wer absent, and 
no doers inthe acte) or to the Flemynges, (which were partakers of the losse and dishonor.) 
.But the infallible veritie is, that he fled the. xxvj. daie of luly in the night, and the next dale 
in the mornyng, the duke of Gloucester, landed in Calicehauen, and straight went into the 
Campe, where his enemies, the night before were lodged, and there he founde many goodly 
peaces of ordenauce, and inespecially one, called Dygeon, named after the chief toune of 
Burgony, beside pauilios, wine, beere, ineale, and innumerable vitaill. 

THE Duke of Gloucester, seyng his enemies reculed, hauyng in his company, xxv. M. 
men, entered into Flaunders, burnyng houses killyng suche as would resist, destroiyng the 
countrey on euery parte, settyng fire in the tounes of Poporniche and Baillens, and wasted 
the suburbes of many faire citees, and in al this waie, thei lost no man, nor sawe any creature 
appere, to defend the countrey. After, they passed by Newe Castle and destroyed Rymes- 
ture, and Vall5 Chappell, and then entered into Arthoys, to Arques, Blandesques, settyng 
fire in euery part where thei came. Thus they passed by sainct Omers to Gnysnes, and so 
to Calice atsixe weeks ende, where they were well refrcasshed : for in all this iorney, they 
had litle pleritie of good bread, whiche caused muche faintnesse, and diuerse diseases in, 
the army. When the Duke of Gloucester, had sufficiently plagued and wasted the countreys 
of the Duke of Burgoyn, & brought great preyes of beastes and spoyle, to the toune of 
Calice, he setlyng there all thynges in good ordre, returned in to England, where he was 
aduertised, how lames kyng of Scottes, contrary to his othe, league and promise, had be- 
sieged the Castle of Rokesborough, with thirtie thousande men, whereof sir Raufe Grave 
was capitain, whiche manfully defended it. xx. daies, but the Scottish kyng beyng aduertised 
that the Erie of Northumberlande, was commyng to fight with hym, fledde with no lesse 
losse, then dishonor, to his toune of Edenbrough. 

THE. XV. YERE, 



yere. 



AFtcr this dangerous businesse finished, and for a time ended, by meane of frendes, and 
desire of Princies, a truce or abstinence of warre for a certaine tyme, was moued betwene 
the Kyng of Englande, and the duke of Burgoyne, for whiche cause wer sent to Grauelyne 
for the kyng of Englande, the Cardinall ofWynchester Henry BeautFord, Ihon Lorde Mou- 
brey Duke of Norffolke, Humfrey Erie of Stafford, and diuerse other well learned and ho- 
norable personages: and for the duke there appered the duches his wife, the bishop of Arras, 
the lorde of Croy, and diuerse other. At whiche treatie, a truce was taken for a small tyme, 
and for a Jesse space obserued. Whiche abstinence of war, was concluded betwene the 
kyng of Englande, and the duchesse of Burgoyne, (enterlessyng the duke and his name.) 
Some thinke that the kyng of England, would neuer enter in league with hym, because he 
had broken his promise, writyng, and fidelitie, written, sealed, and sworn to hym, and to 
his father. Other imagened, this to be doen by a cautell, to cast a myst before the Frenche 
kynges iycs, to the intent he should beleue, that this feate was wrought by the duchesse 
without assent or knowledge of the duke or his counsaill, and so he was not bounde to ac- 
comphshe, any acte or thyng doen in his wifes treatie. Thus you may se, that princes 
sometyine, with suche vain gloses, and scornefull exposicions, will hide their doynaes and 
cloke their purposes, to thentent that thei would not, either be espied, or plucke their 
heckle out of the coller, at their pleasure. But, (as the common prouerbe saieth) he whiche 
is a promise breaker, escapeth not al way free : for it is well sene, that daily it chaunceth, 
bothe to princes and meane persones, that for breakyng of faithe, and not kepvn* of pro- 
m Thrw n ? dls P leasures arise ' and innumerable inconueniences ensue 

rftK.} I* Sea r? n> K^ryne queue and mother to the kyng of England, departed out 

.of ths transitory life & was buned by her husband, in the* minster of Westmynster. 

oman, after the death of kyng Henry the fifth her husband, beyng young and lusty, 

folowyng 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. ]85 

folowyngraore her awne appetite, then fremlely counsaill, and regardyng more her priuate 
aftbccion, then lier open honour, toke to husband priuily, a goodly gentilrmin, & a beautyful 
person, garnished with many Godly gyftes, both of nature & of grace, called Owen Teutiier, 
a ma. brought furth and come of the noble lignage, and ancient lyne of Cadwaleder, the laste 
kyng of the Brytons, by whoine she conceyued and broughte forthe. iii. goodly sonnes, Ed- 
mond, lasper, and another, whiche was a monke in Westmynster, and liued a small tyme, 
and adoughter, which in her youth departed out of this transitorie life: After whose deathe 
kynge Henry, because they were his bretherne of one wombe deseeded, created Edmonde, 
erle of Rychemonde, and lasper, erie of Pembroke, whiche Edmond engendered of Mar- 
garet, doughter and sole heyre to Ihon, duke of Somerset, Hery, which after was king of 
this realtne, called king Henry theseuenth, of whom you shal heare morfe hereafter. Thys 
Owen, after the death of the Quene his wife, was apprehended and admitted to ward, be- 
cause that contrary to the statute made in the. vi. yere of this kyng, he presumptuously had 
rnaried the Quene, without the kynges fcspeciall assent, and agrement, out of which 
pryson he escaped, and let out other with him, and was agayne apprehendyd, & after 
escaped agayne. 

THE duchesse of Bedford sister to Lewes, erle of sainct Paule, myndyng also to marye, 
rather for pleasure then for honour, without coiisayl of her frendes, maryed a lusty knyght, 
called sir Richarde Wooduile, to the great displeasure of her vncle the bisshop of Tyrwyne, 
and the erle her brother : but they now coulde not remedie it, for the chuiice ivas cast and 
passed. This sir Richard was made Baro of Riticrs, and after erle, and had by this Lady, 
many noble sonnes, and faire daughters: whereof one was Lady Elizabeth, after Quene 
of Englande, maried to Kyng Edward the fourth, (as here after you shal perceiue.) 

WHILES this manage was celebratyng, lane late Quene of Englande, and before Duchesse 
of Britayne, doughter to the kyng of Nauer, & wife to kyng Henry the. iiij. died at th& 
manner of Haueryng, and was buried by hen- husband at Canterbury, in which time 'dis-'" 
ceased the countesse of Wanvicke, and Henry Archebishop of Yorke. 

I thought here to omit and ouerpasse, the regainyng and conquest of the strong toune of 
llarflew, once Englishe and after, (by craft) turned to the Frenche part, except the Frenche 
writers more then the English authors, had made mencion, and remembraunce, of tlie re- 
duccion of the same. For they saie and aflirmc, that the Duke of Somerset, accompanied 
with the Lordes of Fauconbridge, Talbot, sir Franceis Surrien Arragonoys, Mathew Gou"hj 
Thomas Paulet, Thomas Haringto, Walter Limbrike, Ihon Geddyng, William Wat ton, 
Esquieres, and Thomas Hylton Balife of Roan, with a great puissaunce of the Englishe 
partie, compassed about and besieged the tonne of Harflew, bothe by water, and by land. 
The capitaine within the toune, was called sir Ihon Destonteuile, and sir Robert his brother, 
with other to the nombre of sixe hundred good fightyng men. The assailaivntes lost no tyme 
but made trenches, and cast diches, bothe to assaute the toune, and also to let the Frenche 
succors, that they should neither approche, nor ayde, the citezens shut in & besieged. Di- 
uerse assautes wer geuen, which wer manfully resisted: but more to the losse of the defenders,, 
then the assauters. Beside this, thenglishemen laied greate ordiimunce, before the gate of 
the toune, whiche continually vexed the inhabitautes, and ouer thiewe buyldynges, and 
destroyed mancions: so that neither house, nor high way was sure, or refuge to the tonnes 
men. This siege endured long, to the greate discomfiture of the people: whereof they ad- 
uertised the Frenche kyng and his counsaill, whiche sent thither the erle of ewe, therle of 
Dumoys, called the Bustard of Orleaunce, the valeaunt Bastard of Burbon, the lorde 
Gaucort, sir Giles of sent Symon, and the chief capitaines of all his realrne, with foure 
thousand men, bothe pollitique and proued. This valeaunt armie passed the Riuer of Soame 
betwene Amyas and Corby, not mistrusting to gette that, whiche they lost and left behynd 
theim, and so thei came before the toune, and diuklcd theselfes in seuerall partes, to their 
moste aduauntage: daily skirmishyng with thenglishmen, but nothyng preuailyng, & so for 
feare of losyng honor, and desperacion of gain, the florishyng Frenchemen, returned again with 

B b muehe- 



, 85 THE. XV. YERE OF 

inuche labor, and litle profit. The capitaines of the toune seyng theire pillers broken, and 
their chief avdcrs discomfited, rendered the toune to the duke of Somerset whiche made 
there capitaines, Thomas Paulet, William Lymbrike, Christopher Barker, and George sent 
Geortre, whiche many yeres, (till the dcuision beganne in England) manfully valeauntly 
defended the toune, and hauen : but afterward, when the saied duke was Regent, and go- 
uernor of Normally, he not onely loste the toune, but also the citee of Roan, the Empeire 
and chief iucll of the saied Duchie, with many other citees and fortresses, whiche he, more 
by entreatyng, then threatenyng, might still haue holden vnder his subieccio. But all men 
haue not wit alike, nor all rultfrs be not of one condicion and pollicie. For this duke Ed- 
mond, gatte this toune with great glory, when he was but a deputie, vnder the Regent, and 
after, beyug gouernor himself, lost the same, and all the whole duchie, to his greate sluundcr 
and infamy, (as hereafter you shall perceiue). But, who can preuent fortunes chaunce, or 
haue spectacles to se all thynges to come, or chaunces that be present: scyng God disposrth 
that man purposeth, and dial all worldely deuLscs, andmannes cogitacions, be vncertain and 
euer vnperfite. 

ALTHOVGH I haue long talked of Fraunce, yet I may not forget the doable dealing, 
& craftie demeanor, of lames Kyng of Scottes: whiche beyng, (as you haue heard) late 
prisoner in Englande, notoncly was garnished with learnyng and Ciuiiitie, (whiche thynges, 
wer rare and straunge before that time, within the reahne of ScotlFtd) but also set at iibcrtic, 
and honorably sent home. And to the intent that his amitie might be perpetuall, and that 
loue might continually succeade betwenc bothe the reahnes, by his tneane and accord : firste, 
his greate raunsome was abridged, and diminished, and after, he was ioyned in mariage, 
with one of the blond royal, to thentent that he, and his heires, should be vnited and knit, 
to the progeny of England, with an indossoluble knot, like tlie twisted tree, whiche cannot 
seuer, aiul like the hard flinte, whiche \\ill not waxe soft: yet this vngentle prince, and for- 
getfull frend, puttyng in obliuion, hothe the dutic of his obeysafice toward his souereigne and 
liege lorde, and the oth and promise, that he made to kyug Henry, when he did to hym ho- 
mage, and liege at the Castle of Wyndesore, (as before you haue heard) turned his backe 
to his trend and kyiljman, and loked to y French part, which neuer did hym honor nor 
profile, not onely sendyng into Fraunce daily, aide & succors against the Englishe nacion, 
but also by newe aliiaunce, sought and practised wnies and meanes, how to ioyne hymself 
with forein princes, to greuc and hurte ins neighbors and adioynaantes, of the reahne of 
England. And although his awne power wer small, to do to them any great damage, yet he 
thought that he, being linked in suche noble houses, should the lesse feare the malice of 
his enemies : vpon whiche Ibble foundacion, he concluded, ii. manages the one with Lewes 
the dolphin sonne to Charles the French kyng, and the other with Fraunces duke of Bri- 
tayn. Whiche manages, were not desired for loue or riches, but onely for ayde, to resist 
and driue out the Englishmen out of Fraunce. For the Lady Margcrct maried to the dol- 
phyn, was of suche nasty coplexion and euillsauory breathe, that he abhorred her company, 
as a cleanc creature, doth a canon: whereupon she conceiued suche au inward grief, that 
within iewe dales after, she ended her daies. Although this lady had suche impediments, 
(as you haue heard) yet her sister Isabell, maried to Fiaunces duke of Britayne, lacked', 
neither excedyngbeautie, nor pleasaunt breath: but as for wit, womanhod, and Ciuile be- 
haiior, she neuer had, nor exercised. Wheiiore, when the duke before his manage, was by 
his counsaill admonished, to refuse and forsake so innocent a creature, he, more moucd with 
her fare trice, then her womaly wiscdome, aimswered: that it was ynough for a woman to 
nidge the difference betwene the sh.u-te and the dul>let of her husbandc, 'and to kaowe hym 
in the darke, trora another man. 

FOR these mariages, kyng lames deuiaunded of his commons, a Create subsidv or mi- 
lage, whiche was sore grudged at, and in manner denied: so that he maried tht-im with 
e promises, and ayde and succor against thenglishemen, rather then with ba^res of mo- 
ney, c chestes of plate. This forein aliiaunce litle profited, or auayled thTrealme of 

Scotland. 



* 



KYNC HENRY THE. VI. 187 

Scotland, nor this new amide, defended not kyng lames: for Walter Steward crle of Atholc, 
(whiche pretendf d a title to the Croune, by reason that he was begotten of kyng Robert 
the seconde, by his h'rste wife, and by whose occasion, Robert duke of Albany, murdered 
Dauid duke of Ilothesay, elder brother to this kyng lames, as in the story of kyng Henry 
the fourth, you haue heard declared) after the coroimcio of kyng lames the first in Scot- 
lande, earnestly sollicited hym to putt to death, duke Murdo, and all the oft'spryng of Ro- 
bert first duke of Albany, trusting, that after he had destroyed that line, (which was a stop 
in his waiej to inuent some meane how to destroy the kyng and his children, and so to ob- 
tain the crouue and preeminence of the realme. Wherfore, he perswaded Robert Steward 
his nephiew, and Robert Grame his cosyn, and diuerse other, to murlher and sley the kyng 
their souercigne Lorde, whiche therto by deuilishc instigacion incensed and procured, came 
to the toune of Pertho, (commonly called S. Ihos toune) and there entred into the kynges 
priuy chambre, and slcwe first diuerse of his seruauntes, whiche made resistance, & after 
killed the kyng with many mortall strokes, and hurte the Quene, whiche, in defence of 
her husband, felled one of the tray tore. When this vngracious decde was blowen about 
the toune, the people rose in greate plumpes, and found out the princequcllers, and theirn 
brought to straight prisone, whiche afterward, (accordyng to their dcsertes) were with most 
terrible tormentes, put to death and executed, 

AFTER lames the first, succeded lames the seconde, his eldest sonne, whiche fearing 
sedicion and ciuile discord, vexed more his awne nacion, then the Englishe people. 

NOW leauyng Scotland, let vs returne to the busines of Frauce. Whiles the Scottes 
wer compassyng, how to destroy their kyng: The lorde Talbot, with a greate company, 
laied siege to the Castle of Tankeruile, whiche after foure monethes, was to hym simplie 
rendred, and gyuen vp. This toune was no greate gain to the Englishemen : for in the 
meane season, the Frenche kyng in his awne persone, besieged the strong toune of Mon- 
streau Faultios, whereof Thomas Gerard was capitain: whiche, more for desire of re- 
warde, then for feare of enemies, sold the tonne to the Frenche kyng, and had of him 
greate gii'tes, and good chere, whiche afterward was well knowen, to his shame and re- 
proche. This toune had been rescued, or the Frenche Kyng foughten with all, if one 
chauncc had not happened: for the duke of Yorke was discharged of the ofiice of Regent, 
and the erle of Warwicke preferred to thesame, so that ihe duke of Yorke liyng at Roan, 
would, haue gladly rescued the toune, if his authoritie had not surceased, and the Erie of 
Warwicke could not, lor the wind was so cleane cotray to him, that he and his army, ta- 
ried for the winde abouc tenne wekes. And so betwene the discharge of the one, and the 
charge of the other, this toune of Mostreau, was deliuered and solde. 

TI1IS presente yere, was a parliament kcpte at Westminster, in the whiche wer diuerse 
and notable conclusions ordained and taken, aswell for the prescruacion of peace and con- 
cord at home, as for the maintenance of warre, and host ili tie in outward regions: in the 
whiche parliament, (who so will loke on the actes) shall perceiue that one act made, for 
byyng & sellyng by strangers, was profitable to the publique wealth of this realme, if it wer 
wel kept, (as a few good actes or none be either by the negligece of y gouernors, or by the 
insolencie & pride of the people.) 

NOW must we speake somewhat of Charles the Frenche kyng : whiche after he had 
gained again the citee of Paris, and diuerse other touncs, was so putted vp with pride, that 
he thought it but a trifle, to conquere Normandy, and expnlse all the Enplishe nacion, . 
out of his countreys and seigniories. Wherfore, he sent Arthur of Britayn, Constable of 
Fraunce, & Iho duke of Alason, into Normandy with a great army, whiche besieged the, 
toune of Aurauches, standyng vpo the knop of an hill, nere to the Ikitishe sea, bothe well 
walled and well manned. While they laie there long, litle gettyng and muche spendyng, 
the lorde Talbot with a valeaunt company of men, approched nere the Frenchemen, and . 
encamped themselfes, in the face of their enemies, to prouoke and entise them to battaill 
and fight. The Frenchmen refusyng this offre, kept theimselfes within their trenches, daily 

B b a fortifiyng 



The. xvi. 
yerc. 



THE. XVI. YERE OF 

fortifiyng and repairyng their campe. The Englishemen perceiuyng their doynges, remo- 
ued their army halfe a mile farther, geuyng their enemies rome to issue out and to fight, 
but all this litle auailed: for the Frenchemen laye still and starred not. The lorde Talbot, 
seyng their faint hartes, reysed his feld, and in the open sight of them all, entred into the 
toune, and the next daie issued out, and founde the Frenchemen ridyng abrode, to destroye 
the plain countrey, whom he enuironed, bet, and discomfited, slayng many, and takyng 
diuerse prisoners. Although the Frechemen gat neither honor nor profite by this iorney, 
yet they enterprised a greater matter : for Ponthon of Sentrayles and the Heire, with di- 
uerse other capitaines, and a great nombreof Frenchmen, hauyng promise of certain Bur- 
gesses of Hoan, to be let secretly into the toune, came forward to a village called Ryse, 
and there lodged. The lorde Talbot, the lorde Scales, and sir Thomas Kiriell, hearyng of 
their approche, set out of Roan at midnight, and with greate pain, came to llise in the 
momyngso coucrtly, that the Frenchemen, beyng sodainly surprised and set on, like men 
madd and amased, ran away, fled: in the chase wer taken the lorde of Fontaynes, sir 
Alleyne Geron, sir Lewes de Balle, &. Ix. knightes and esquires, beside other, and there 
wer slain, two hundred and mo: the Heire beyng sore wounded, by the swift.'ies of his 
horsse, escaped very narowly. The Englishmen returned to the toune of Rise, and found 
there a greate npmbreof horsses, and other baggages, wliiche thei Joyously brought with them 
to Roan. 



H THE XVI. YERE. 

ON the sixt daie of Noucmbre, this present yere, the erle of Warwicke, as regent of 
Fraunce, passed the sea, after he had been seuen times shipped and vnshipped, and landed 
at Humflewe, with a. M. freashe souldiors and came to Roan, and then the duke of Yorke, 
returned into Englande, neither wholy pleased, nor halfe content. For he secretly smelled, 
that some men, priuely disdained his aduancement, and enuied his promocio : yet, (like a 
wise man) he kept his toung close, whatsoeuer his harte thought. Betwene the chaunge 
of these tivoo capitaines, the duke of Burgoyue, {whiche sore enuied the glory of theng- 
lishmen) besieged the Castle of Croytoy, with tcnne thousande men and mo, hauyng with 

Erie of Warwicke hearyng 
'r Thomas Kiriell, sir Ihon 
j and diuerse other knightes 
and esquiers, and many tall yeomen, to the nombre of liue thousand men, whiche passed 
the lliuer of Soame, beside the toune of. S. Valery : for the passage of Blach Taque, 
was very dangerous to go through, because the duke of Burgoyne had laied tliere ordi- 
naunce, and other cngyns, to let, trouble and stoppe the Englishemen to go ouer at that 
foorde. And yet, where the lord Talbot passed, his men went in the water vp to the chinne, 
so glad wer the men to rescew their felowes. When the duke of Bnrgoyn was enformed 
of the approchyng of the lorde Talbot and other, he with all his power, sauyng foure hun- 
dred, whiche wer left in a bastile, by hym there newly buylded fled to Abbeuile, whiche 
bastile was sone gained, and the men within, either slain or "taken. 

AFTER this toune receiued, the lorde Talbot sente woorde to the duke of Bunrpyn 
that he would vtterly wast and destroy the coutrey of Pycaidy, except he, (like a valeaunt 
prince) would geue him battail. And accordyng to his promise, he brent tounes, spoyled, 
and slewc many people in Pycardy, but for all his doynges, the duke would not appere 

: stale aware irom Abbeuile, and fled to Amyas. So the Lorde Talbot was. xx. daies 

loll, in the countreis of Pycardy, and Arthoyse, destroiyng and burnyng, all that they 

could se or come to, and after departed. And in the meane season, sir Thomas Kiriell 

Jiacl gotten all the dukes canages, and ordenaunce, and left asrauche vitaile in the toune of 

roytoy, as would seruesixe hundred men a whole yere, and conueyed the remnaunt in 

safetie, 




KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 

safetie, to the erle of Warwicke, which not onely rcceiued the capitaines, with good 
semblaunce, and louing cheare, but also highly magnified their actes, and muche praised 
their hardinesse. 

AFTER this enterprise achiued, Henry Erie of Mortaine sonne to Edmond duke of 
Somerset, arriued at Chierbuege, with foure liundred archers, and thre hundred spcres, 
and passed through Normandy, till he came into the Countie of Mayne, where, he be- 
sieged a castle, called S. Anyan, in the whiche wer three C. Scottes, beside Frenchemen. 
This Castle he toke by a strong assaut, and slewe all the Scottes, and hanged the French- 
men, because thei wer once sworne English, and after, brake their othe : and after he 
gatte also another Castle, twoo miles from sainct lulians, called Alegerche, which was 
shortly after recouered, and the Lorde Cameuys, whiche came to the rescue of tliesame, 
in the meane waie was trapped and taken. Thus the victory flowed some tyine on the one 
parte, and sometyme on the other, but the treason of the Frenchmen, far surmounted in 
gettyng, bothe the pollicy and strength of the Englishe capitaines: for by the vntruth and 
perfidy, of the very Burgesses and inhabitautes of the tounes, of Meaux in Brie and. 
S. Susanne, thesame wer sold and deliuered to the Frenche parte, in the encle of this six- 
tene yere. 

tf THE. XVII. YERE. 

WHat should I rehe'rse the great tempestes, the sharpe blastcs, tlie sodain piries, the 
vnmesurable wyndes, the continuall raynes, whiche fell and chaunced this yere in Eng- 
land: sithe suche tormentes be bothe natural!, and of God, at his pleasure diuersly or- 
dered and altred. Of these vntemperate stormes, rose suche a scarcely, that wheat was 
sold at. iii. s. iiii. d. the busshell, wine at. xii. d. the gallon, Bay salt at. xiiii. d. the busshel, 
and malt at. xiii. s. iiii. d. the quarter, and all other graynes, wer sold of an excessiue price, 
aboue the olde custome. 

IN the moneth of lune, the Eric of Huntyngdone, (as Stewarde of Guyen) with twoo. 
M. archers, and foure hundred speres, was sente into Gascovne, as a suppliment to the 
countrey, and the commons of thesame. For the kyng of England and his cousail!, wer 
enformed that therle of Dumoys, lay on y fronters of Tholose, secretly by rewardes and 
faire promises, entisyng and prouoking diuerse tounes in Guyen, to become French, and 
leaue thenglishe nacio. Wherfore, this erle (like a pollitique warrior) altered not onely 
the capitaines, in euery toune & cite, but also remoued the magistrates, and cbaunged the 
officers, from toune to toune, and from rowme to rownie, so tiiat by this nicanes at that 
tyme, the erle. of Dumoys, lost bothe trauaile and cost. In thesame moneth also, sir Ri- 
chard Wooduile, sir William Chaberlain, sir William Peyto, and sir William Story, with 
a. M. men, wer sent to stuflfe the tounes in Normandy, whiche surely at that tyme, had 
therof greate nede: for thenglish capitaines, had smul confidence in the Normas, and not 
to much, in some of their awne nacion. For that harlot bribery, and hcnfelowe couetu- 
ousnes, ran so fast abrode with French crounes, that vnneth any creature, (without an 
especial grace) could hold either had, close, or pursse shut, suche a strong percer is 
money, and suche a gredie glotton is auarice. You haue heard before, Jiowe that kyii" 
Charles harte by gettyng of Paris, was set vpon a merie pynne, and thought daily that ail 
thynges more and more, would bothe applie to his purpose, and folowe his 'appetite. 
Whiche inuented imaginacion, sodainly bothe deceiued liym, and also appalled his haut 
coragc, and abated hym somewhat of his proude stomacke. For sodainly there rose a 
stramige storme, and a quicke pirie, so mischieuous and so pernicious, that nothvng more 
execrable, or more to be abhorred, could happen in any Christian Region. Whiche se- 
dicious tempest, if wise counsail had not wilh all spede repressed, no doubt, but kyn<* 
Charles, and the whole publique weal the -of Fraunce, had been turned vp, and cleano 

I ouerthrowen 



li)0 THE. XVIII. YEKE OF 

ouerthrowen. For Lewes Dolphyn of Vyen, and heire apparaunt to kyng Charles, a 
yong prince, of a froward stomacke and euil condicions, desiryng libertie, and to be out 
of ward and rule, with such as vrer of his nature and condicions, began to conspire against 
his father and souereigne lorde. The chief of this vngracious faccion with hym, \ver Iho 
Duke of Aluunson, and Ihon Duke of Burbon. These confederates gathered together a 
greate power, and the Dolphyn tooke vpon hym, the rule and gouernaunce of the realme, 
orderyng causes, not in his fathers name, nor by his authentic, but after his awne will, af- 
fecion, and phantasie. When kyng Charles his father, had knowledge of this vnnntnrall 
disobedience, and insolent and proude doynges, he was (& no inaruel) greatly moued with 
this sodain commocio: thinkyng hymself borne, & predestinate to trouble, remebryng, 
that it was no snial thyng, in his awne countrey so many yeres, both with straungers, & 
with his awne nacio, to fight and striue for rule and dignitie, but now to be costrained, to 
contend & make war, with his awne sonne and welbeloucd child, for -the Croune and re- 
giment, of his realiue & dominion. Yet these thynges did not bryng hym, beyng a man 
of greate wit, and counsaill, daily troubled and vnquieted will) calamities and displeasures, 
into vtter despaire, or extreme wanhope: but like a polliliquc prince, detenninyng to with- 
stand and resist the smoke at the beginnyng, before the fire & flame brast out abrode, 
called together all suche, as he had either in greate confidence, or opeciall fauor, cotn- 
municatyng to them, all his inward thoughtes, and priuie cogitacions. After long consul- 
tacion had, it was agreed by the most parte, that this sore was more mete to be cured, by 
pollitique and wittie handelyng, rather then by force, and dent of sweard. Wherfore, 
Jetters wer written, and posies wer sent to euery citee and borough, straightly prohibityng 
all and synguler persones, either to heare, or obey, any precept, or commaundement, set 
furthe or published, by the dolphyn hymself, or by" other, or in his name, and all offences 
doen in that confederate, wer by open proclamacion, frely forgeuen and remitted. And 
beside this, diuerse graue and sage persones, wer sent to the dolphyn, and his alies, to 
common and coclude a peace, and reconciliacion, betwene the Frencbe kyng and theim, 
declaryng to them, that their ciuile war, and inward discencion, was the very meane to 
oause their enemies, vtterly to plague and destroy their natiue countrey, whiche was al- 
moste desolate, and brought into subieccion, by the continual warre practised before. Bv 
which meanes and perswasions, the knot of this seditious faccio, was losed and dissoluedf: 
and the kyng with his sonne, and other confederates, openly agreed and apparaiitly paci- 
fied. And so the spryng of these mischiuous sectt, was stopped and repulsed, or the 
flodde hadai-y thyng encreased, or tlowen farther. 

THE Englishmen (whiche euer sought their aduauntage) hearyng of this domesticall di- 
uision in the realme of Fraunce, raided an anuye, and recouered again diuerse tounes, 
whiche wer stolleu from theim before, by the French nacion : and made great prouision, 
to recouer again the citee of Paris, but when thei heard, that the dolphyn was' returned 
again to his father, and that all his mates, wer ioyned with the French kyns, they left of 
from that enterprise, and reuokcd their purpose. 



Thc.xviii. 
yctc. 



THE. XVIII. YEKE. 
rX the rnoneth of Nouembre this presenteyr-re, there was suche a great Frost, and after 

L. so ( pnr si Sriruvn mot all tha *mir>.J . . j -.1 . 



that so depe aSnowe, that all the ground was couered with white, and all the diches hardened 
Pom In p 1 '. W ? r W6a , ,'' PUI thC ^"Sl'shemen in comfort, to recouer again the toune of 
the u^' Wh 6 f renC h J k ?S gotten Before, bycorruptyng with money, diuerse Burges.es of 
Wherfore, he Enghshmen beyng clothed all m white, with Ihon lorde Clirlbrde 
i.i! ii Ciipiiain, came in the ms?ht tn tnp nir[i<>a nri i->ooo,i *u,. - _ vi 

of the LVoste and sodainly Lied ^^^^^"^^^S 
many profitable pnsone. Whe,, tl,i s toune was thus gotten, iorde Kiehard lieaucLmpe 

erle 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 191 

erle of Warwicke and Regent of France, died in the Castle of Roan, and was conueyed info 
England, and with solempne Ceremonies, was buried in his College of Warwicke, in a verie 
soleinpne and sumptuous sepulture. 

THEN was the duke of Yorke again, made regent of Frauuce, whiche accompanied with 
therleof Oxford, the lorde Bourchier, called erle of Ewe, Sir lames of Ormond, the Lorde 
Clinton, and diuerse other noblemen, sailed into Normandy: Before whose arriuall, the 
Frenche kyng beyng sore greued with the takyng of the toune of Pouuthoyse, assembled a 
great army, and besieged thesaid toune hymself, and made round about it, bastile.s, trenches, 
& diches, and daily shot ordenaunce, and gaue therunto, diuerse greate and fierce as- 
sautes. But Ihon lorde Clifford, like a valcaurit capitain, defended the 'toune with suche 
valeauntnes, that the Frenchemen rather lost then gayned. The duke of Yorke at his 
landyng, bailing true knowledge of this siege, sent for the lorde Talbot, and a great nombre 
ofsouldiors, and so came nere to the toune of Pounlhoyse, and tliere encamped hymself, 
and sent woorde to the Frenche Kyng. that he was there, ready to geue hym battaill, if he 
would come out of his campe and Bastiles. Kyng Charles was ruled by his counsaill, 
whiche in no wise would suffre hym to adtienture his persone, with men of so lowo and ba^e 
degree: biddynghymTetnembre, what losses he* and his auncesters had susleined, bygeuyng 
to the Englisliemen battaill: whiche thyng they principally desire, wjllyng hym to kepe his 
ground still, and to bid theim entre at their perell, and in the mean season, to stoppe the 
passage of the Riucr of Oyse, so that no vitaile could be brought to the Englishe army by 
that way, by whiche meanes, he should not onely obte'in his purpose, but also cause the Eu- 
glishemen to rccule backc again, for lacke of vitaile and succors. The Duke of Yorke 
perceiuyng, that the Frenche kyng was nothyng mynded to tight, determined to passe ouer 
the Hiuer of Oyse, and so to fight with hym in his lodgyng, wherupon he remoued iiis campe 
and appoynted the lord Talbot and other, to make a countenaunce, as they would passe the 
Iliuer by force at the gate of Beaumont, and appoynted another copany with boates, of 
tymbre & ledder, and bridges made of cordes and ropes, (whereof he had greate plentie, 
caried with hym in Charlottes) to passe ouer the riuer by neth the Abbay. While the lord 
Talbot made a crye, as though he would assaile the gale, certain Englishmen parsed the 
water ouer in boates, and drew the bridge ouer, so that a greate nombre wer comen ouer, 
or the Frenchmen them espied. VV'lien they sawe the channce, they ran like mad men, to 
stoppe the passage, but their labor was lostc, and all their pain to no purpose: for the moste 
parte of- thenglishe people wer sodainly transported, in so muche tliat they chased their ene- 
mies, by fine force into the loune again, and toke sir Guylliam de Chastell, nephieue to the 
Lorde Canehy, and diuerse other gentlemen prisoners. The Frenchmen seyng their damage 
irrecuperable returned to the Frenche kyng, accomptyng to hym their euil chaiice Si vnlucky 
fortune, which therwith was not alitle displeasatit: and well perceiuyng, that if he taried the 
comyng of thenglishmen he was like to be either in greate ieopcrdy, or sure to sustein muche 
dishonor and greate damage. Wherfore he remoued his ordinaunce into the bastile of. S. 
Martyo, whiche he had newly made, and leauyng behynd hym tiie lorde of Cotigny Ailmirall 
of Fraunce, with thre. M. men to kepe the bastiles, dislodged in the night from Maubuisson, 
and came to Poissye: for if he had taried styll in that place, the lorde Talbot with certain 
of his trustie souldiors, whiche passed the riuer of Oyse in ii. smal lether boates, had cither 
slain or taken hym, in his lodgyng, the same night. The Englishemen the next daie in good 
ordre of battaill, came before the touue of Pounthoise, thinkyng there to haue founde the 
Frenche kyng, but he was gone, and in his lodgyng, they founde greate riches, and muche 
stuffe, whiche he could not haue space, to conuey, for tea re of the sodain inuasion. Then 
the Duke of Yorke with his company, entered into the toune, and sent for newe vitaill, and 
repaired the to tires and bulwerkes about the toune, and diuerse tymes assailed the Ijastile of 
the-Prencbemcn, of the whiche he passed not greatly, because they wer not of power, either 
toassaut, or stoppe the vitailes or succors from the toune. The Duke livng thus in the toune 
Ponthoise, was aduertised, that the Frenche kyng and the dolphyn, with. all the nobilitie of 

4 Fraunce, 



. " THE. XVIII. YERE OF 

Fraunce, wer lodged in Poissye, wherfore be intendyng once again to offre bym battaiH, left 
behyud hym there, for capitain, sir Geruays Clifton, with a thousande souldiors, and re- 
nioued his army and came before Poysye, and set hymself and his men in good ordre of bat- 
taill, redy to figlit. There issued out diuerse gentlemen, to skirmish with the Englishemen, 
but 'they wer sone discomfited, and foure valeaunt horssemen wer taken prisoners, and 
diuerse slain. The Eaglishemen perceiuyng the faynte Liartes, and colde corage of their 
enemies, whiche nothyng lesse desired, then to encountre with the English nacion in open 
felde, dislodged from Poysye, and came to Mante, and sone after to Roan. 

WHEN the Regent and the lorde Talbot, wer returned again into Normandy, the 
Frenetic kyng (for all this euill lucke) forgat not the toune of Ponthoise, and firste he 
considered, what charges he had susteined, bothe duryng the tyme of the siege, and also 
in ma kyng bastyles, trenches, and other deuises: and after remembred, thatliis people, and 
especiallythe Parisians (to who this toune was an euill neighbor) would rayle and saie, that 
he was not able, or lacked corage, to gette so small a toune, or to discomfite halfe a hadfull 
of amased people. Wherfore these thynges set in ordre, he assembled all his puyssaunce, 
and returned soduinly again to Ponthoise: where, he firste by assaute gat the churche, and 
after the whole toune, and toke the capitain prisoner, and diuerse other Englishemen, and 
slewe to the nombre of foure hundred, whiche derely sold their lifes: for one Frenche writer 
affirraeth, that the Frenche kyng lost there, thre. M. men and mo, and the whole garrison of 
the Englishemen, was onely a. M: so thei gayned the toune, but they gat no greate boty of 
men. When the fame of this victory was blowen abrode, the hartes of the tounes men, be- 
gan to appall, in somuche, that Melune, Corbuell, Eureux, and diuerse other tounes, yelded 
and turned at a proude crake, or a Frenche bragge, without stroke 'striken, or any blowe 
gyueu. 

AFTER these hote rages, the wether began to wax more temperate for kyng Hery and 
kyng Charles, wer agreed, to send Ambassadors, to commen and treate some good peace & 
conclusio, betwene them, & their realmes. So the kyng of England, sent the Cardinal! of 
"Winchester, with diuerse other noble personages of his counsaill, to Calice, with whom 
was also sent, Charles Duke of Orleaunce. yet prisoner in England, to thentent that he 
might be bothe the author of y peace, and procurer of his deh'ueraunce. The Frenche 
kyng, sent the Archebishop of Reyns, and the Erie of Duinoys: and the Duke of 
Burgoyne, sent the lorde Croueceur, and diuerse other, because that the duke of Orleaunce 
was passed the sea with the English Ambassadors, they would mete in none other place to. 
commen, but in Calice. The Frenche Ambassadors perceiuyng their mynde, came to 
Calice, where the duke of Orleaunce, gently receined therleof Damoys (his bastard brother) 
than kyng him hartely for his pain taken, in gouernyng his coutrey duryng the tyme of his 
captiuitie and absence. Diuerse communicacions wer had, aswel for the deliueraunce of the 
duke, as for a finall peace: in soinuche, that after muche consultyng, and litle doyng, 
another tyme was appointed fora newe assembly, and euery parte to declare to their soue- 
reigne, the request and desire of the other. So these Ambassadors toke their leaue and de- 
parted, and thenglishe commissioners conueyed again the duke of Orleaunce into England, 
whiche had nothyng then to paie his rausoiiie, & yet he could not be deliuered, without 
pannent The cause why these comissioners did not agre, was, (as the Frenche writers, 
saie) that the Englishemen demaunded, not onely to haue and possesse peaceably the 
H. Duchies of Aquitayn and Normandy, to their kynges & princes discharged of all resort, 
superiority and souereigntie, frakly and frely, against the realme of Frauce, the kynges and 

trruif>rn MI*O t\T iK^oo t'/i i* ,t >,,** I _i i.. V O 



I , *- J O "'* 1 -****-*'-*-*->-l'ilJiiit.Ct.l*dlV'tloi_/IJ 

enchemen, thought their request to be most hurtfull to their realme. and aucient 




bo both parties rather myndyng to gain or saue, then to lose, departed for that 
(as you haue heard). After which diet proroged for a tyme, Phillip Duke of Bui- 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 1 93 

goyn, partly moued in coscience, to make some amcndes & recompence to Charles duke of 
Orleaunce (then beyng prisoner in Englande) for the death of duke Lewes his father (whom, 
duke Ihon, father to this duke Phillip, shamefully slewe, and cruelly murdered in the citee 
of Paris, (as in the tyme of kyng Henry the fourth, is plainly mencioned) And partly en- 
tendyng the aduauncement of his niece, lady Marie doughter to Adolphe, Duke of Cleue, 
by tiie \vhiche aliaunce, he trusted surely to knit, suchc a firme knot and frendly amilie with 
the Duke of Orleaunce, that all olde rancor should cease and all discorde should be forgot- 
ten: and in their places, concorde should be stablished, and pcrpctuall loue embraced) 
sente messengers into Englande, to the saied duke, declaryng to hym his good will, deuise, 
and entent. Thinke not but this message, wasioyous to a capttue, beyng out of his natiue 
countrev, and naturall seigniorie, by the space of. xxv. yeres? Suppose you that he, which 
nothyng more coueted and desired, then libcrtie and discharge, wold refuse so honorable an 
oftre ? Imagin you that a prince of a blond royal, brought into thraldome, restrained fro 
liberty and liuyng, farre from kyn and father, & farther from fredes, would not gene his 
diligent eare to that mocion, by the whiche he might be restored, bothe to his uuncient 
preheminence, possession and seigniory ? Yes, yes, you male be sure, he neither cosulted 
on the matter, nor deferred the auswere, but therunto gently agreed. What should I saie 
more? As some writers affirme, foure hundred thousande Crounes were paied for his deli- 
ueraunce, although other saie, but thre hundred thousande: and so he was deliuercd out of 
Englande into Fraunce at that tyme, bothe speakyng better Englishe then Frenche, and 
also swearyng, neuer to beare Armure against the kyng of Englande. After his arriuall in 
Fraunce, he came to the Duke of Burgoyne, his espcciall frend, gratifiyng and thankyn^ 
hym of his libertie and deliueraun.ee: and accordyng to his promes and cduencion, maried 
the faire lady in the toune of Sainct Omers, on whom he begat a sonne, whiche after was 
Frenche kyng, and called Lewes the. xii. After his deliueraunce from captiuitie he format 
not his vnclc Ihon Erie of Angolesme, whiche had been as ;i pledge in England, for the 
debt of Duke Lewes of Orleaunce, his father, sithe the laste yere of kyng Henry the fourth, 
(as in his story is declared) : but made frendes, borowed money, and morgaged land, and so 
set him in libertie, and brought hym into his ccuntrey This Ihon, engendered Charles, 
father to Fraunces, the firste of that name, whiche after the death of Lewes the. xij. obtein- 
ed the Crouneof Fraunce. 

HERE is to be noted, that olde ranncor newly appeasced, will commonly spryng out 
again: for all the vnhappie deuision, betwcne the two noble families, of Orleaunce and 
Burgoyn, wer by this greate benefite and rnariage, for a tyme geuen oner and put in Ohli- 
uion, and so continued by the space of. xx. yeres and more, yet their children and cosyns, 
within, not many yeres after, fell so farr at square, that the house of Burgoyne, was spoyled 
of the fairest flower of his garland, (as you shall here aftcrwarde, at large declared) and 
in especial), in the tyme of kyng Fraunces the firste, the veric hcire of the house of Or- - 
Icaunce, whiche not onely continually vexed with mortail warre, Charles the fift Emperor 
of that name, lincall successor to Phillip Duke of Burgoyne: but also did asmnche as in 
hym laye, to depriue thesaid Charles of his honor, and possessions, (as men wriiyng their 
lifes, will hereafter declare). The Frenche writers aflirme, that this Duke of Orleaunce, 
was deteined thus long in captiuitie, by reason that the Englishemen, gayned yercly by hym, 
greate somes of money, by reason of his greate and liberal! expenses, whiche' he" made 
daily in the realme of England. If this be true, I report me to all indifferent and reasonable 
persones, for who will speude his goodes frely, in the lande of his cnemie, whiche maie bv 
pinchyng and bearyng a lowe saile, waxe riche and be set at libertie? Or who is so pronde 
to wast & consume his substance, in liuyng prodigally, that maie with the sparyng of thesame 
be deliuered out of captiuitie and bodage? But surely it is apparaunt, that the reucnewes 
of his seigniories, wer neither able to raunsome hym, nor to mainteyne hym in popeous 
estate: partly, because thenglishmen possessed diuerse tonnes, belongyng to his Duchy : and 
partly, by reason that the rentes wer scace able to dcfende his possessions, against the inua- 

C c sion$ 



THE. XIX. YERE 

sions of the English nacion, and Burgouions. But the very cause of his long deteinyngwer two: 
one the lacke of money, the second and the principaLl cause, was this, that you haue heard 
before how that Ihon Duke of Burgoyne father to Phillippe, shamefully and cruelly, caused 
Lewes' Duke of Orleaunce, father to this Duke Charles, (of whom we nowe speake) to be 
inurthered in the citee of Paris : for the whiche murder, all the alies and frendes to the Duke 
of Orleaunce, had enuie 'against the house and familie of Burgoyne, in somuche that the saied 
Duke Ihon b'eyng measured with the same measure, that he met with all, was likewise ty- 
rannously murdered on the bridge of Monstreau Faultyou, (as you haue also heard declared 
before). For whiche cause, and for to be reuenged of so heynous an act, duke Phillip sonne 
to thcsaid Ihon, not onely ioyned hymself in league and amitie with the Englishe nacion, 
but also did homage, and sweare fealtie to Kyng Henry the fifth, as to his kyng and souereigne 
I.orde : for whiche cause, the Englishemen entendyug to kepe the duke of Burgoyn, as a 
trusty treasure, and sure luell, perceiued, that if they deliuered the duke of Orleaunce, and 
set hvm at libertic, he would not cease to vexe and trouble the duke of Burgoyne, in reuen- 
gyn<' the detestable murder, committed by his father against his parent: wherfore, bothe for 
thelurety and sauegard of the duke of Burgoyne, and also to do hym pleasure, they kept 
still the duke of Orleaunce in Englande, demaundyng suche raunsome, as he was neither 
able, nor could finde meanes or waies to paie. But after that the duke of Burgoyn, (like an 
vntrue prince, and vnhonest gentleman) had broken his promes, not kept his faith, and was 
turned to the Frenche part, the counsaill of the kyng of Er.glandc, studied and deuised, how 
to deliuer the duke of Orleaunce, to do displeasure to the duke of Burgoyn. lJuke Phillip 
perceiuyng, what mischief was like to rise if he wer redemed, and set at libertie without 
his knowledge, to preuete the matter, to his greate coste and charge, practised his deli- 
ueraunce, paied his rausome, and ioyned with him, amitie and alliance, by manage of his 
niece, (as before is rehersed) and by this meanes, was Duke Charles of Orleaunce, restored 
to his libertie, whiche had been prisoner in England, from the dale of sainctes, Crispine & 
Crispinian, in the yere of our Lorde. M. CCCC. xv. to the monethe of Nouembrc, in th 
yere, a thousand foure hundred and fourtie. 

If THE. XIX. YERE. 

the. M. IN the beginnyngof this. xix. yere, Richard duke of Yorke Regent of Fraunce, and go- 
uernor of Normandy, remembryug the greate charge, and weightie office to hym deliuered 
and committed, determined (alter longconsultacion) to inuade the territories of his enemies, 
bothe by sondery armies, and in diuerse places, to thentent that the Frenche people beyng 
vexed within their awne coutrey, and peculiar dominion, should make no rodes nor enter- 
ynges, into the Duchie of Normandy the returnyng whereof, was somewhat suspicious.. 
This deuise for that season, setned bolhe profitable and necessary, wherefore, without long 
delaiyng of tyme, he sente Robert Lorde Willoughby, with a greate crue of souldiors, to. 
inuade and destroye the countrey aboute Amias, and Ihon lord Talbot was appoynted, to 
besiege the toune of Deape, and he hymself, accompanied with Edmond duke of Somerset, 
set forward into the Duchie of Aniow. The Lorde Willoughby, accordyng to his commis- 
sion, entered in the countrey to hym appoynted, and to thentent that his commission should 
not be espied, nor knowen, he straightly forbad and inhibited all maner fire, & of burnyng of 
tounes, .whichejs the moste open and plain token of war, and inuasion. By reason wherof, 
the pore paysautes & rustical people goyng abrode, without feare or. suspicion of euill, wer 
ouerronne or taken with the horssemen, or they could attain to any toune, or forcelet: so 
that innumerable people wer slain, & taken or they heard any tydynges of their enemies ap- 
prochyng. The Frenchmen in the garrisos adioynyng, astonied at the clamor and cry of the 
poore people, issued out in good ordre, and manfully set on their enemies. The fight 
was sore, and the victory long doubtfull: But inconclusio, the Frenchmen seyng their people 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 195 

in the forefront of the battaill, to be killed without mercie, like men desperate, turned their 
backes and fearfully fled, the Englishmen folowed and slewe many in the chace, and suche 
as escaped the sweard, wer robbed and spoyled, by Lewes Erie of sainct Paule, whiche was 
commyng to ayde the Englislie nacion. In this conflicte were slain, aboue sixe. C. men of 
annes, and a greater nombre taken: So the Lorde Willoughby, like a victorious capitain, with 
riche spoyle and good prisoners, returned again to the citeeof Roan. The dukes of Yorke 
and Somerset, likewise entered into the Duchieof Aniow, and Countie of Mayne, destroiyng 
tounes, spoylyng y people, and willi great prey and profile, repaired again into Normandy. 
The Duke of Somerset, not filled with this gain entered into the Marches of Britayne, and 
tooke by a fierce assaute, the touneof Gerche, apperteinyngto the Duke of Alaunson, and 
spoyled and brent thesame, and after that, departed to Ponzay, where he soiourned two 
monethes, fro whence he sent daily men of war, which destroyed & wasted the countreys of 
Aniow, Traonnoys & Chartragonnoys. 

THE French kyng in all haste, sent the Marshall of Loyache, with. iiii. M. men, to 
resist the inuasions of the duke of Somerset, whiche capitain determined to set on the duke 
and his people, in the dedde tyme of the night. This enterprise was not so secret, but it 
was rcueled to the duke, whiche marched forward, and mette the Frenchemen halfe waie, 
and after long fight, them by fine force manfully discomfited, and slew a hundred persones 
and mo, and tooke captiues. Ixii. whereof the chief wer the lorde Dausigny, sir Lewes de 
Buell, and all the other almoste, were Knightes and esquires. After this encountre, the 
Duke tooke the toune of Beaumot Le Vicount, and manned all the fortresses, on the 
Frontiers of his enemies, and with riche boties and wealthy captiues came again to the 
Duke of Yorke. 

DVRYNG these fortunate chaunces & victories, the lord Talbot also, the vnweried 
chieftain & infdy warrior, enuironed the toune of Deape, with depe trenches and terrible 
mountaynes, and did set vp vpon the mount de Poulet, a strong and defensible Bastile, at 
whiche tyme, was capitain of thesame toune, Charles de Maretz, a man of more force in 
battaill, then pollitique in defence of a siege: for the Englisbemen beyng a small nobre, had 
to them deliuered with faire wordes, and fainte strokes, the castle of Charlemesnyll, and di- 
uerse other fortresses, adioynyng to the toune. Duryng the siege, many encounters were 
bad, and many great assautes gcuen, thenglishmen somctynie saued, and somlyme gained, 
bet trie moste losse lighted on the Frenchemen for a while. . But of. iii. caplaines sent furth 
atone tyme, (as you before haue heard) all cannot returne with egall honor, and euen botie. 
For the lorde Talbot perceiuyng the touneof Deape, to he strongly defended, both with men, 
vilaile, and ordenaunce, and that he lacked all thesaid furnitures for the accomplishyng of 
his stonte enterprise, deliuered the custody of the Bastiie, with the gotiernaunce of the siege 
to his Bastarde sonne, a valeaunt young man, and departed to Uoan, for ayde, money, and 
immicions. The Frenche kyng, was quickely aduertised of the lord Talbots absence, and 
of the estate of the Englishemen : wherefore without delaye, he meanyng not to lose so great 
a prey, sent his eldest sonne Lewes'dolpbyn of Vyen, accompanied with the Bastarde of Or- 
leaunce, called the erle of Dumoys, and diuerse other nobles of Fraunce, to the nombre of. 
xv. thousande persones, well armed, and no lesse garnished with all thynges necessary for 
their purpose. Three daies thei assayled the Bastile, and so many tymes thei were put 
bucke, but poulder failed in the fortresse, and weapon wherwithto defend, was very scant, 
so that in conclusion, the Englishmen wer vanqueshed, and the Bastile taken and in it, the 
Bastard Talbot, sir William Peytow, and sir Ihon Repeley, whiche were shortely after re- 
demed : The other Englishesouldiors seyng the Bastile gayned, stood all daie in good ordro 
of battaill, and in the night, pollitiquely returned to Roan, without losse or damage. At 
this assaute, the Frenchemen say, that thei &!ewe two hundred Englishemen, and deny not, 
but thei lost fiue hundred persones, and by this meanes, the one nacion loste the Bastile, and 
the otlier saued the toune, to the greate displeasure of the Lorde Talbot: whose presence 

C c 2 would 



19 6 THE. XIX. YERE OF 

would asmuche auailed at this nttempte, as his absence was losse and detrement to his 
fremles, and felowes in war and chiualrie. But gain is not ahvaies perdurable, nor losse 
alwaies continual!. 

WHILE these thynges wer a doyng, Phillip Duke of Burgoyn, hauyng an eniuous hart, 
at the glory and fortunate successe of the Englislie people, intending to bereue them of one 
of their assured frendes, called Lewes of Luxenborough erle of sainct Poule, made sharpe war 
vpon hiscountreis, and toke dinerse tonnes', and fortresses from hym, so that in conclusion 
more for feare, then for loue, he vtterly refused his faithe and promise, made to the duke of 
Bedford bis brother in law and turned to the Freriche parte, and became a luke warme 
enemie to tlie realine of England. The losse of this fiend and necessary neighbor, not alitle 
greued Kyng Henry and hiscounsaill: Ilowbeit, they made suche perueiauoce and prouision, 
by descrete counsail, that if he of euil will, would do theim. litle good, yet he of malice should 
doo to them no greate hurte or damage. 

THE Englishe capitaines beyng in Guyen, hauyng knowledge of the valeaut doynges of 
their countreymen in the realine of Fraiice, determined to do some notable and noble enter- 
prise, on the French costes adioyuyng to Aquitayn: & so, thei besieged the strong toune of 
Tartas belongyng to the lovcle Delabretb, their old and auncient enemie. The capitaines and 
gouernors of the toune, eonsideryng their weaknesse, and the force of the Englishemen, toke 
tliis appoyntmcnt with the Engtis-he capitaines, that the toune should remain neuter, and for 
the assuraunce therof, they deliuered Cadet the sonne of tne lorcle Delabreth in pledge, vpon 
this condicion : that if thelorde Delabrelhe, would not assent to their agrement, then he 
should sign i He his refiisall, to the Englishe capitaines, within thrc monethes next ensuyng : 
and he to hauehis pledge, and thei to do their beste. The Frenche kyng, at the request of 
thelordes of Guyen, whiche wer notable to defende themselfes, toke this matter in hand, 
and caused the lord Delabreth to ccrtitie his disagremcnt to therle of Huntyngdone, lieuete- 
naunt for the kyng of Englande, in the Duchie of Aqnitayne. And to please the great Lordes 
of Guyen, he assembled. Ix. M. men, and came to Tholose, and so to Tartas: to whom the 
.chieftames of the toune, seyng no succors comyng, rendered the toune, and Cadet Delabrethe, 
which was left there as a pledge, was deliuered. The French kyng after the yeklyng of Tartas, 
remoued to sainct Senere, a strong toune in Gascoyn, l>ut smally peopled with men of warre, 
which he toke by force, and slewe thre hundred persones, and toke dr Thomas Rampstone 
prisoner. After liiis toune gained, he with all his power besieged the citie ofArques, and 
toke the Bulwarke of thesame, whiche was smally defended, and gone gotten. The inhabi- 
Uuintes of the toune begun sore to be afraied, and came to the lorde Mountferraut, capitain 
for the kyng of England, reqniryng hym to hauc mercie vpon them, and to rendrethe toune 
to the l-renchekyng, vpon some honest couenaunt or coposicion. The capitain perceiuyng 
the faint hartes of the Gascoyns, & knowyngthat witliout their ayde, he was not able to re's is t 
the puyf-saunce of the Frenche kyng, toke an agranent and departed with all the Englishe 
crue to Burdeaux, where he found the erle of Longuile, Cupdaw of Bucftl, and sir Thomas 
Rampstone, whiche was a litle before deliuered, 

AFTER this, the fortresses of Ryoll and Mcrmandie yelded them to the Frenche kyng. 
Although these tonnes thus submitted theim to hym, yet he had them not long, nor made 
muchc taiiyng in the Duchie of Guyen, for the Englishemen not oncly prohibited the Gas- 
coynes, to minister to his armie, viandreand sustenaunce, but also gat into their handes and 
toke suche vitailes, as wer conueyed to him, from Tholose and Poytiers : So that in maner 
constrained with famyn and lacke of prouision, he retired his army again into Fraunce. 
After whose departure, the Englishe capitaines recouped again the citee of Acques, and the 
other tounes by the French kyng gained, and toke prisoner his lieuetenaunt, called Reignnuk 
Guillam the Burgonyo, and many other gentlemen, and all the meane souldiors, wer either 
slam or hanged. 

WHILE the Frenche kyng was in Guyen, the lorde Talbot toke the toune-of Couchete, 
* and 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. -.197 

nnd after marched t<nvard Gayllardon, whiche was besieged by the Bastarde of Orleaimce 
Erie of Dmnoys: whiche Eric hearyngof the Englishmennes approchyng, reysed his siege 
and suued hymself. A litle before this enterprise, the Frenchemen had taken the toune of 
Eureux, by treason of a fisher. Sir Fraunces Arragonoys hearyng of that chaunce, ap- 
parreled sixe strong men, like rustical people with sackes and baskette^, as carriers of corne 
and vitaile, and sent them to the Castle of Cornyll, in the whiche diuerse Englishemen 
were kept as prisoners: and he with an imbusshement of Englishemen, layc in a valey nye 
to the fortresse. These sixe companions entered into the Castle, vnsuspected and not mis- 
trusted, and straight came to the chambre of the capitain, & laied handes vpo hyrn, geuyng 
knowledge therof to their imbushement, whiche sodainly entered the Castle, and slew and 
toke all the Frenchemen prisoners, and set at libertie all the Englishemen, whiche thing 
doen, they set all the castle on fire, and departed with great spoyle to the citee of Roan. 
Thus the lady victory, somtyme smiled on the Englishe part, and sometymc on the Frenche 
side. Thus one gayned this claie, and loste on the nexte. Thus Fortune chaunged, and 
thus chaunce happened, according to the olde prouerbe, saiyng, in war is nothyng certain, 
and victory is euer doubtfull. 

f THE. XX. YERE. 

NOw let vs leaue the marciall feactes, the mortal strokes, and daily skirmishes, practi- The - xlt - 
9ed betwene the English and Frenche iiacion in tlie Region of Fraunce, and speake alitle 
of a smoke that rose in England, whiche after grewe to a greate fire, and a 'terrible flame, 
to the destruccion of many a noble man. You haue heard before, how the Duke of Glou- 
cester sore grudged at the proude doynges of the Cardinal! of Wynchester, and howe the 
Cardinal! likewise, sore enuied and disdayned at the rule of the Duke of Gloucester, and 
how by the meanes of the duke of Bedforde, their malice was appeaced, and eche was re- 
conciled to other, in perfite loue and amitie, to all mens outward iudgementes. After 
whiche concord made, the Carclinall and the Archebislwp of Yorke, did many thyn<*es 
without the consent of the kyng or the duke, beyng (duryng the minoritie of the prince) 
gonernor & protector of the realrne, wherwith the duke, (like a true hartccl prince) was 
neither contente nor pleased: And so declared in writyng to- the kyng, certain articles,. 
\\herin the Cardinal and the Archebishop, had offended 'bothe the kyng and his lavves, tlie ' 
true tenor, here after ensueth. 

*n A complaint made to Kyng Henry the. vi. by the Duke of Gloucester, vpon 

Cardinall of Winchester. 

THese bee in parte, the poyntes ajid Articles, whiche I Humfrey Duke of Gloucester, 
for my trouthe and acquittal!, saied late, I would gene in writyng (my right doubted Lorde) 
vnto your highnes, aduertisyng your excellece, of suche thinges in partie, as haue been 
doen in your tendre age, in derogacion of your noble estate, & hurt of both your realmes, 
yet be doen and vsed daily. 

FIRST the Cardinall, then beyng bishop, of Winchester, toke vpd hym the state of Car- 
dinall, which w as nayed and denayed hym, by the kyng of moste noble memory, my lord 
your i'ather, (who God assoyle) saiyng, y he had as lefe set his croune !>eside hym, as to 
se hym weare a Cardinal hat, he beyng a Cardinal : for he knewe full well, tlie pride and 
ambicion that was in his person, then beyng but a bishop, should haue so greatly extolleil 
hym into more intollerable pride, when that he were a Cardinall : And also he thought it 
against his fredome, of the chiefe Churche of this realme, whiche, that he worshipped, as 
duely as euer did prince, that blessed be his soule. And howbe.it, that my saied Lorde 

your 



1 9 5 THE. XX. YERE OF 

your father, (whom God assoyle), would haue agreed hym to haue had certain clerkes of 
this land Cardinals, & to haue no bbhoprikes in Englande, yet is intent was neucr to do 
so great derogacion to the Churche of Caterbury, to make them that vver his suffraganes, 
to set aboue their Ordinary and Metropolitan, but the cause was that ingenerall, and in 
all matters whiche might concerne the weale of hym, and of his realrne, lie should haue 
proctors of his nacion, as other kynges Christen had, in the courte of Koine, and not to 
abide in this lande, nor to be in any parte of his counsailes, as been all the spirituall and 
temporal!, at parliamentes and other great counsailes, when. you list to-call them: nd 
therfore, though it please you to do' hym that worship,- to set hym in your priuie counsaill 
after your pleasure, yet in your parliament, wher euery Lorde bothe spirituall and tempo- 
rail, hath his place, he ought to occ'upie but his place as a bishoppc. 

1 3 ITEM thesaied bishoppe, now beyng Cardinal!, was assoylcd of his bjshopricke of 
Winchester, wherupon he sued vnto our lioly father, to haue a bulle declaratory, notwith- 
standyng he was assupt to the state of Cardinal!, that the sea was not voyde, where in 
deede it stode voyde by a certain tyme, or thesaid bulle were graunted, and so he was e\- 
empte from his ordinary, by the takyng on hym the state of Cardinal, and the churche 
bishopricke of Winchester, so standyng voyde, he looke again of the Pope (you not learn- 
ed therof neknowyng wherby he was fallen into the cace of prouision) so that all his good 
was lawfully and clearly forfeited, to you my right duubted Lorde, \\ith more as the statute 
declareth plainly for youraduaunlage. 

4 ITEM it is notvnknowen to (you doubted lord) how through your landes it is noysed, 
that thesaied Cardinal and tharchebishop of Yorke had and haue the gonernaunce of you 
and all your lande, the whiche none of your true liege men, ought to vsurpe nor take vpon 
them. And haue also estranged me your sole vncle, my cosyn of Yorke, my cosyn of 
Huntyngdon, & many other lordes of your kin, to haue any knowledge of any greate 
matter, that might louche your high estate, or either of vour realmes. And of Lordes 
spirituall, of right, the Archebishoppe of Canterbury, should be your chief counsailer, 
the whiche is also estranged and set a side. And so be many other right sad Lordes, and 
\vell aduised, aswell spirituall as tempornll, to the great hurt of you my right doubted 
lorde, and of your realmes, like as the experience and workes shewen clerely and euidenl- 
ly, more harme it is. 

6 ITEM in thetendre age of you, my right doubted Lorde, for the necessitie of an armie, 
thesaied Cardinal lent you. iiii. M. 1. vpon certain luels, prcised at. xxii. M. marke, with 
a letter of sale, that and they wcr not quited at a certain daie, ' you should lese them. The 
saied Cardinall seyng your money redy to haue quited your luels, caused your trcasorer of 
Englande, at that daie beyng, to paie thesame money, in parte of another armie, in de- 
fraudyng you, my right doubted lord, of your said luels, kepyng theirn yet, alwaie to 
his awne vse, to your right greate losse, and his synguler profile and aua'le. 

ITEM thesaid Cardinal, then beyng bishop of Winchester, & Chancellor of Englad, 
deliuered the kyng of Scottes, vpo certein appoyntrnentcs (as maie be shewed,) presump- 
teously, & of his awne authorise contrary to the ;icte of Parliament. I haue heard nota- 
ble men of lawejay. that they neuer heard the like thing doen emong the, whiche was to 
great a dcfamacio to yot r highnes, & also to wedde his niece to thesaid kyn*, whom y my 
lord of notable memory, your father, who God assoile would neuer haue so deliuered. 
And there as he should haue paied, for his costes. xl. M. 1. thesaied Cardinal! Chau'n- 
cellor of Englande, caused you to pardon hym therof. x. M. marke, wherof the greater 
some he pated you, right alitle, what, I report me to your highnes. 

7 ITEM, wjiere thesaid Cardinal lent you, my redoubted "lord, great & notable somes 
he hath had & hisassignes, the rule & profile of the porte of Hapton, wher the Customers 
been Ins seruaiites, wher by likelihode & as it is to be supposed, he standyng the chief 
.marchaunt of wolles of your lande, that you bee greately defrauded, and vnder that rule 
what Wollcs aud other marchaundise haue been shipped, and maie be from tyme to tyme, 

1 hard 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 

hard is to esteme, to the great hurtc, and prejudice of you my right doubted Lorde, and 
of all your people. 

ITEM, hovvbeit that thesaid Cardinal!, hath diuerse tymes, lent you great sommes of 8 
money, sithe the tyme of your reigne, yet his loene hath been so differred and delaied, that 
for the moste part, the conuenable season, of themployng of the good lente, was passed. 
So that litle frute or none come thereof, as by experience, bothe your realmes, haue suffi- 
ciently in knowledge. 

ITEM, where there was leuelles and plate, preised at a. xi. M. 1. in weight, of thesaied 9 
Cardinal!, forfeited to you my right doubted lorde, he gat hym a restorment tlierof, for a 
loene of a litle percell of thesame, and so defrauded you wholy of theim, to your greate 
hurte, and his auaile, the whiche good might greately eased your highnes, in sparyng as 
inuche of the poore commons. 

ITEM, the Cardinall beyng feoft of my said lorde your father, (who God assoyle) IQ 
against his entent, gaue Elizabeth Beauchampe, thre. C. markes of liuelod, where that 
his will was, that and she wer wedded, within a yere, then to haue it, or els not, where in 
decde it was twoo or iii. yeres after, to your great hurt, diminishyng of your inheritaunce. 

ITEM, notwithstandyng y thesaid Cardinall, hath no inaner of authoritie nor interest 1 1 
into the croune, nor none may haue by any possibilitie, yet he presumeth and taketh vpon 
hym in partie, your estate royall, in callyng before hym, into greate abusion of all your 
laride, and derogacion of your highnes, whiche hath not been sene nor vsed, in no daies 
heretofore, in greater estate then he is, without your expresse ordenaunce and commaun- 
dement. 

ITEM, thesaid Cardinal, nothyng consideryng the necessitie of you my right doubted 13 
Lorde, hath sued a pardon of dismes, that he should paie for the Churche of Winchester, 
for terrne of his life, geuyng therby occasion to all other Lordes spirituall, to drawe their 
good will for any necessitie, to graunt any disme, and so to laie all the charge vpon the 
temporaltie, and the poore people. 

ITEM, by the gouernaunce and labor of thesaied Cardinal, and archebishop of Yorke, 13 
there hath been loste and dispended, inuche notable and greate good, by diuerse Ambassa- 
dors sent out of this reahne. First to Arras, for a feigned colourable peace, where as by 
likelinesse it was thought & supposed, that it should neuer turne to Ineffectual auaile, of 
you my right doubted Lorde, nor to your saied realmes, but vnder colour thereof, was 
made the peace of your aduersary, & the duke of Burgoyn. For els your partie aduerse, 
& thesaid duke, might not well haue foud meanes nor waies, to haue cornoned together, 
nor to haue concluded with other, their cofederacios & conspiracies, made & wrought ther. 
then, at y tyme, against your highnes, whereby you might haue (right doubted lorde,) the 
greater partie of your obeysaunce, aswell in your realme of Fraunce, as in your Duchie of 
Normandy, and muche other thyng gone greatly, as through thesaid colourable treatie, 
and otherwise, sithe the death of my brother of Bedford, (whom God assoyle.) 

ITEM, now of late was set another Ambassador to Calice, by the labor and counsaill 14* 
of thesaied Cardinall, and Archebishop of Yorke, the cause why of the beginnyng, is to 
me your sole vncle, & other lordes of you kyn and counsaill vnknowen, to your greate 
charge, and against the publique good of your realme, as it openly appeared). The 
whiche good if it bee imployed, for the defence of your landes, the marchaundises of the 
same, might haue had other course, and your said lades not to haue stande in so greate 
mischief as they do. 

ITEM after that, to your greate charge and hurte, of bothe your realmes, thesaid Cardinall 1'5 
and Archbishop of Yorlce, went to your saied toune of Calice, and diuerse Lordes of your 
kyn, and of your counsaill in their felowship, and there, as there was natural warre, be- 
twene the duke of Orleauce, & the duke of Burgoyn, for murder of their fathers, a ca- 
pitall inemnitie like to haue endured for euer, thesaid Cardinall & Archbishop of Yorke, 
licenced and suffered, thesaid duke of Orleaunce, to entreate and common a part, with the 

counsaiell. 



200 THE. XX. YERE OF 

counsaiell of your saied aduersaries, aswell as with the Duchies of Burgoyne, by vvhiche 
meane, the peace and alliaunce was made, betwene the two dukes, to the greatest torti- 
fiyn of your said capital aduersaries, that could be thought, and cosequently (my deare 
redoubted lorde,) to your greatest charge, & hurt to both your realmes. Vnder colour of 
whiche treatie, your said aduersaries, in meane time wan your citee of Meulx, & the cou- 
trey therabout and many diuerse rodes made into youre Duchie of Normandy, to the great 
noysaunce and destruccion of your people, as itsheweth openly. 

16 ITEM thesaid Archebishop of Yorke, sent with other into this your realme, from the 
saied Cardinall, after communicacion had with your aduerse partie, at your saied toune 
of Calicc, made at his commyng into your notable presence at Wyndsore, all the swasions 
and colour, all mocions in the most apparaiit wise that he could, to induce your highnes 
to your agrement, to the desires of your capitall aduersaries, as I saw there in your noble 
presence,of his writyng, at whiche tyme, as 1 vnderstode, it was his singuler opinion, that 
is to say: that you should leaue your right, your title, & your honor of your croune, & 
nominacio of you kyng of Frauce, duryng certain yeres, and y you should vtterly abstain 
you and be content, onely in writyng, with, rex Anglic, &c. to the greate note of infamie, 
v euer fell to you, or any of your noble progenitors, since the takyng of them first, the 
said title & right, of your realme and croune of Fraunce, to which matter in your pre- 
sence ther, after y it had liked your said highnes, to aske myne aduise thervpon, with other 
of your blond and cousaill, I aunswered and said, that I would neuer agree me therto, to 
die therfore, and of thesatne disposicion I am yet, & will be while I line in conseruacion 
of your honor, and of your othe made vnto your saied croune, in tyme of your corona- 
cion there. 

17 ITEM thesaied Cardinall & Archebishop of Yorke, haue so labored vnto your high- 
nes, that you should entende to a newe daie of conuencion, in Marche or Aprill next 
commyng, where it is noysed to be more against your worship, then with it. And where it 
was euident to all the world, that the rupture and breakyng of thesaid peace, should haue 
fallen heretofore, of your aduerse partie, because of the great vntrouthes: Now by that 
meane it is like peraduenture, to be laied vnto the verie greate slaundre of you my doubt- 
ed Lorde, like to come to none other purpose nor eft'ecte, then other couuencions haue 
doen afore tyme. And so by subtilities and counsaill of your saied enemies, your lande 
(they in hope and trust of thesaid treatie, not mightely nor puyssauntly purucyed for) 
shalbe like vnder the coloure of thesatne treatie, to be brent vp'and destroyed, lost and 
vtterly turned from your obeysaunce. 

ITEM it is saied, that the deliueraunce of thesaied Duke of Orleaunce, is vtterly ap- 
pointed by the mediacion, counsaill, and steryng of thesaied Cardinall and Archebishoppe 
of \orke, and tor that cause diuerse persons been come from your aduersaries into this 
your realme, and thesaied duke also brought to your citee of London, where as my lord 
your father (whom God assoile) peisyng so greatly the inconueniences, and harme that 
might tall, pnely by his deliueraunce, concluded, ordened and determined in his last wil, 
vtterly in his wisedome, his coquestin his realme of Frauce. And yet then it is to be doen, 
by as great deliberation, solempnitie and suretie, as may be deuised or thought, and seyng 
now the disposicion of your realme of Fraunce, the puissauce and might of your enemies" 
& what ayde they haue gotten against you there, aswell vnder the colour of thesaid treatie, 
as otherwise, what maie or ought to be -thought or said, for that laboryng thesaid duke (ai 
thynges considered) bysuche particular persones, the lordes of your bloud not called ther- 
unto, I report me vnto your noble grace and excellencie, and vnto thesaied wise trewc men 
ot this your realme. 

19 ITEM where that cuery true counsailor, specially vnto any kyng or prince, ouo-ht of 
trouth and of dune, to counsail, promote, encrease," prefer, and aduaunce the weafe and 
prosperity of Ins lorde: Thesaid Cardinall, beyng of your counsaill (my right doubted 
lorde) hath late purchased of your highnes, certain great landes and liueldde: as the cas- 
tle 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 20J 

tie and lordship of Chirke in Wales, and other lades in this your realme, vnto whiche I 
was called sodainly, and so in escheuyng the breakyng & losse of your armies then again, 
seyng none other remedy, gaue thervnto myne asset, thinkyng that who that eucr labored, 
moued or stered the matter firste vnto your Lordeship, counsailedyou neither foryour worship 
nor proh'te. 

]\iORE thesaied Cardinall hath you bounde a parte, to make hym a sure estate of all 20 
the saied landes, by Easter nexte commyng, as could bee deuised by anye learned coun- 
saill, or elles that suretie not made, thesaied Cardinall, to haue and reioye to him, and his 
heires for euermore, the landes of the Duchie of Lacastre, in Norffolke, to the value of. 
vii. or viii. C. markes, by the yere, whiche thyng semeth right straunge and vnsene, and 
vnhard waies of any liege man, to seke vpon his souereigne lorde, bothe in his enheri- 
taunce and in his luelles, and good. Tor it is thought, but if right & extreme necessitie 
caused it, there should, nor ought no such thynges to be doen: fro which necessitie (God 
for his mercy) euer preserue your noble person, wherfore my redoubted lord, seyng that 
ye should be so cousailed, or stirred to leaueyour crotine and enheritaunce in England, & 
also by fraude and subtile meanes, as is afore rehersed, so to lose your luelles : In my 
troutheand in myne acquitall (as me seameth) I maie not nor ought not, counsaill so greate 
an hurte to you and to all your lande. 

ITEM, it is not vnknowen to you my right doubted lorde, how often tymes I haue of- 21 
fered my seruice, to and for the defence of your realme of Fraunce, and duchie of Nor- 
rnady, where 1 haue been put therfro, by the labor of thesaid Cardinall, in preferryng 
other after his singuler aflfeccion, whiche hath caused greate parte, of thesaied Duchie of 
Normandy, asvvell as of your realme of Fraunce to be lost, as it is wel knowen, and what 
good (my right doubted lord) was lost on that army that was last sent thether, whiche 
therle of Mortayn, your counsaill of Fraunce, hath well and clerely declared to your highncs 
here beforne. 

ITEM, my right doubted Lorde, it is not vnknowen, that it had not been possible to 22. 
thesaied Cardinall, to haue comen to the greate riches, but by suche meanes, for of his 
Churche it might not rise, and enheritaunce he had none. Wherefore my right doubted 
Lorde, sithe there is great good behouei'ull at this tyme, for the wealc and safegard of your 
realmes, the pouertie, necessitie, and indigence of your liege people, in highnes vnder- 
stande, like it vnto your noble grace, to considre thesaid lucar of thesaid Cardinall, and 
the greate deceiptcs, that you be deceiued in, by the labor of hym, and of the Archebi- 
sbop, aswell in this your realme, as in your realme of Fraunce, and duchy of Normandy, where 
neither office, liuelode, nor capitain maie be had, without to greate a good geuen vnto hym, 
wherby great part of all the losse that is lost, they haue been the causers of, for who that 
would geue moste, his was the price, not considering the merites, seruice, nor s'jfficiaunce- 
efpersones. Furthermore it is greatly to be considered, how, when thesaied Cardinal, had 
forfeited al his good, because of prouision, as the statute, thervpo more plainly declared), 
by hauyng the rule of you my right doubted Lorde, purchased hymself in greate defrauda- 
cion of your highnes, a charter of pardo, the whiche good and it had be wel gouerned, 
might many yeres haue susteined your warres, without any talage of your poore people. 

ITEM, my redoubted Lorde, where as I write moche thyng, for the weale of you and 23' 
of your realmes, pcraduenture some will say and vnderstande, that I woulde, or haue wri- 
ten it, by waye of accusement of all your counsail, whiche God knoweth, I do not: for 
your highnes may well se, that I name theim, that be causers of the sayed inordinate rule 
wherfore, consideryng that the sayd Cardinal & Archebissbop of Yorke been they, that 
pretende the gouernaunce of you, and of your realmes and lordshippes: Please it vnto 
your highnes, of your right wisenesse to estraunge them of your counsail, to that entent, 
that men maye be at their fredome, to say what they thinke of trueth. 

FOR truth, I dare speake of my truth, the poore dare not do so. And if the Cardinal 2-k 
& the Archbisshop of Yorke, may afterward declare theselfes, of that is, and shalbe sayed 

Dd of 






202 THE. XXI. YERE OF 

of them, you my right doubted lorde may then restore them agayn to your counsaill, at your 

noble pleasure. 

AVI I EN the kyng had heard these accusacios, he comitted the hearynge therot, to his 
counsaii, wherof the moste parte were spiritual persons, so what for teare, and what for 
fauour the mater was wynked at, and dalyed out, and nothyng sayde to it: and fayre conte- 
naunce was made to the duke, as though no displeasure had ben taken, nor no malice borne, 
either in hart or in remembrance agaynst hyin. But venyme will once breake oute, and in- 
warde grudge will sone appeare, whiche was this yere to all men apparaunt : for diuers 




, you 

Cobhfi, wyfe to the sayd duke, was accused "of treason, for that she, by sorcery and en- 
chautmet, entended to destroy the kyng, to thentent to aduauce and to promote her hus- 
bande to ihe croune: vpon thys she was examined in sainct Stephens chappel, before the 
Bisshop of Canterbury, and there by examinacion conuict & iudged, to do open penaunce, 
in. iij. open places, within the citie of Lodon, and after that adiudged to perpetuall prisone 
in the Isle of Man, vncler the kepyng of sir Ihon Staley, knyght. At the same season, wer 
arrested as ayders and counsailers to the sayd-e Duchesse, Thomas Southwel, prieste and 
chanon of saincte Stephens in Westmynster, Ihon Hum priest, Roger Bolyngbroke, a conyng 
nycromancier, and Margerie lourdayne, surnamed the witche of Eye, to whose charge it 
was laied, y thei, at the request of the duchesse, had deuised an image of waxe, represent- 
yng the kynge, whiche by their sorcery, a litle and litle cosumed, entendyng therby in coclu- 
sion to waist, and destroy the kynges person, and so to bryng hym death, for the which, 
treison, they wer adiudged to dye, & so Margery lordayne was brent in stnithfelde, & Ro- 
ger Bolyngbroke was drawen & quartered at tiborne, takyng vpo his death, that there was 
neuer no suche thyng by theim yraagined, Ihon Hum had his pardon, & Southwel died in 
the toure before execution: the duke of Gloucester, toke all these tbynges patiently, and 
eaied litle. 

U THE. XXI. YERE. 

The. xxi. THE counsaill of Englande, forgat not the late enterprise of the Frecfee kyng, doen in 
ycre> the duchie of Guyen, wherfore, to fortifie the countrey, least he peraduenture, would at 
tempt again alike iorney, they sent thether sir William Wooduile, with. viii. hundred men, 
to fortifie the frontiers, till a greater armie might be assembled : And farther made pub- 
lique proclamacion, that all men which would transporte, or cary any corne, chese, or other 
vitaile, into the parties of Acquitain, should pay no maner of custome or talla<*e, whiche 
licence caused that countrey, to be well furnished of all thynges necessarie and conuenient. 
About this season, the kyng remembryng the valeaunt seruice, and noble actes of Ihon 
Lorde Talbot, created hym Erie of Shrewesburie, and with a company of three M. men, 
sente hym again into Normandy, for the better tuicion of the same, whiche neither forgat 
his dutie, nor forslowed his businessc, but daily laboured & hourely studied, how to molest 
& damage his enemies. 

IN this yere, died in Guyen the Countesse of Comyng, to whom the Frenche kyng, and 
also the Erie of Arminacke, pretended to be heire, insomuche, that the Erie entered into all 
the landes of thesaied lady, as very inheritor to her of right, and tooke homage of the 
people of the countrey. But to haue a Rowland to resist an Oliuer : he sent solempne 
Ambassadors to the kyng of Englande, offeryng hym his doughterin mariage, not onely pro- 
misyng hym siluer hilles, and golden tnountaines with her, but also would be bound, to 
deliuer into the kyng of Englandes handes, all suche castles and tounes, as he or his aunces- 
.tors detemed from hym, within the whole duchie of Acquitayn or Guyen, either by conquest 

of 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 203 

of his progenitors, or by gyfte or deliuery of any Freche kyng : offryng farther, to aide the 
same kyng with money, for the recouery of other citees, within thesaied duchy, from him 
and his auncestors, by the Frenche kynges progenitors, the lorde de Albrethe, and other 
lordes of Gascoyn, iniustely kept and wrongfully withhoulden. This offre semed bothe 
profitable, and honorable to kyng Henry and his realme, and so the Ambassadors, wer 
bothe well heard, and louyngly enterteined, and in conclusion, with a gentle aunswere (not 
without great rewardes) they departed into their countrey : after whom wer sent for the con- 
clusion of thesaied mariage into Guyen, sir Edward Hulle, sir Robert Roos, and doctor Ihon 
Grafton deane of sainct Seuerines with an honorable company whiche (as all Englishe Crono- 
graphiers affirme) bothe concluded the mariage, and by proxie affied the young Lady. The 
Frenche kyng was not ignorant, of all these conclusions, wherfore disdainyng, that the 
Erie of Arminacke, should bothe vsurpe against hyrn, the Countie of Comyng, and also 
ioyne hymself, with his mortall enemie, the kyng of Englande, to recouer his right, and to 
punishe his rebell, he sent Lewes his eldest sonne dolphyn of Vyen, into rouergne with a 
puissaunt army, whiche sodainly toke the Erie of Arminacke, at the Isle in lordayne, and 
his yongest sonne, and bothe his doughters, and by force obteined the countreis of Armi- 
nacke, Lonuergne, Rouergne and Moullesson, beside the citees of Seuefac and Cadenac, 
and chased the Bastarde of Arminacke out of his countrey, and cdstituted gouernor of all 
those seigniories, sir Theobald de Walpergne, bailif of Lyon. So by reason of this infor- 
tunate chauce, the mariage concluded was differred, yea, and so long difterred, that it neuer- 
toke effect, as you shall heare more plainly declared 

T THE. XXIL YERE. - 

THus, while Englande was vnquieted, and Fraunce sore vexed, by spbyfe, slaughter, Thf.xiff, 
and burnyng, all Christendom lamented the continuall destruction of so noble a realmef and *"" ' 
the effusion of so muche Christen blb'ud, wherfore, to appeace the mortall warre, so loijg 
contineuyng betwene these twoo puyssaunt kynges, all the princes of Christendom, so muche 
labored and trauailed, by their orators and Ambassadors, that the frbstiehartesof bothe the 
parties, wer somewhat mollified, and their indurate stomackes, greatly asswaged. So there 
was a greate diete appoynted, to be kept at the citee of-Tours in Tourayne, where, for the 
kyng of Englande appered, William de la Pole erle of Suffolke, doctor Aclame ' Molyns, 
keper of the kynges priuie scale, and Robert lorde Roos, and diuerse other: And for the 
Frenche Kyng were appoynted, Charles Duke of Orleauce, Lewes de Burbon erle of 
Vandosme, and greate Master of the Frenche kynges housholde, sir Piers de Bresell 
Stewarde of Poytou, and Bartram Beauriau, Lorde of Precignye. There were also sente 
thither, Ambassadors from the Empire, from Spayne, from Denrnarkfij and fro Hungary, to 
be mediators betwene these twoo princes. The assemble was greate, but the coste was 
muche greater, in somuche that euery parte, for the Honor of their Prince, and praise of 
their countrey, set furth themselfes, aswell in fare, as apparel, to the vttermoste poynte and 
highest prike. Many metynges wer had, & many thynges moued to come to a finall peace, 
and mutuall concord. But inconclusion, for many doubles and greate ambiguities, whiche 
rose on bothe parties, a finall concord could not be agreed, but in hope to come to a peace, 
a certain truce aswell by sea as by land, was concluded by the comissianers, for. xviii! 
monethes, whiche afterward, againe was prolonged, to the yere of our Lorde. M. iiii. C.xlix! 
if in the meane season ithad not been violated & broken, as here after shalbe declared. 

IN the treatyngof this truce, the Erie of Suffolke, extendyng his comission to the vtter- 
moste, without assent of his associates, imagened in his phantasie, that the nexte waie to 
come to a perfite peace, was to moue some mariage, betwene the Frenche kyngs kynsewoman 
and kyng Henry his souereigne : & because the Frenche kyng had nodoughter of ripe age to 
be coupled in matrimony with the kyng his Master, he desired to haue the Lady Margaret 



d 2 cosy 






THE. XXII. YERE OF 



condu ion of ma iL, declared to hym that this mariage, was not hke to come to condusion 
s he deri red becuulethc kyng his Master, occupied a greate parte of the Duchie of Aniow, 
and the Tee of Mauns, and ?he whole Countey of Mayne, appcrteynpg (as they sa,ed) to 

^KrttoMteV *) either corrupted with bribes, or to muche afltoion- 
ate to thisvnprofitable maria^e, condiscended and agreed to their mocion, that the Duchie 
of im'o v, and the countie of Mayne, should be released and dehuered to the kyng her fa- 
Ser demamidviia for her manage/neither peny nor farthyng: (as who would saie) that 
hfsnee affinitie , excelled riches and surmounted gold and precious stone. And to then- 
tent that of this truce might ensue a finall concorde, a daie of enteruieue or metyng was ap- 
poynted, betwene the two kynges, in a place couenient, bctwene Charters and Roan. When 
E thyn-es wer concluded, the Erie of Suffolke with his company, thmkyng to haue 
brought iovfull lidynges, to the whole realme of England* departed from Toures, and so 
by Ion- iornies, arriued at- Douer, and came to the kyng to Westminster and there openly be- 
fore the kvn* and his counsail, declared how he had taken an honorable truce, for the saue- 
guard of Normandy, & the wealth of y realme, out of whiche truce, he thought, yea, and 
doubted not, but a perpetual peace, and a finall concorde, should shorlely proceade and 
srowc out And muche the soner, for that honorable manage, that mumcible alhaunce, 
that Godly affinitie, whiche he had concluded : omitting nothyng, whiche might extoll & 
setfurth the personage of the Ladie, nor forgetting any thyug, of the nobilitie of her kmne, 
nor of her fathers high stile: as who would saie, that she was of suche an excellent beautie, 
and of so hi<rh a parentage, that almoste no king or Emperor, was worthy to be her make. 
Although this mariagc pleased well the kyng, and ditierse of his counsaill, and especially 
suche at were adherentes, and fautorsto the erle of Suffolke, yet Humfrey duke of Glouces- 
ter, Protector of the realme, repugned and resisted as muche as in him late, this new alhaunce 
and contriued matrimonie: alledgyng that it was neither cousonaunt to the lawe of GOD 
nor man, nor honorable to a prince, to infringe and brcake a promise or contracte, by hym 
made and concluded, for the vtilitie and profile of his realme and peopje, declaryng, that the 
kyng, by his Ambassadors, sufficiently instructed and authorised, had cocluded and cotracted, 
a manage betwene his highnes, & thedoughter of therle of Arminacke, vpon conditions, bothe 
to hym and his realme, asmuche profitable as honorable. Whiche offers and codicions, the- 
said erle sitli his commyng out of his captiuitie and thraldome, is redy to yelde and performe, 
saivn^: that it was more conuenicnte for a Prince, to marie a wife with riches and frendes, 
then To take a snake with nothyng, and disherite himself and his realme of olde rightes and 
auncient seigniories. The duke was not heard, but the Erles cloynges, were condiscended vnto, 
and allowed! Whiche facte engendered suche a flame, that it neuer wente oute, till bothe 
the parties with many other were consumed and slain, to the great vnquictnes of the kyng 
and his realme. And for theperformaunce of these conclusions, the Frenche kyng sent the 
Erie of Vandos-.ne, greate Master of his house, & the Archebishop of lleyns, first pere of 
i'raunce, and diuerse other into England, whiche wer ioyously receiued, and frendly enter- 
tayncd. Which Ambassadors, after instrumentes on bothe parlies, sealed and deliuered, 
(not vnrewarded) returned into their countrey. When these ihynges were thus doen, the 
kyng, bothe for the honor of his realme, and to assure to hyrnself, more speciall frendes, he 
created Lordelhon Holand Erie of Huntyngdon, Duke of Kxcester, as his father was, and 
Humfrey Erie of Stafford, was made Duke of Buckyngham, and Henry Erie of Warwicke, 
was erected to the title of Duke of Warwicke, and the Erie of Suffolke, made Marques of 

- 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 205 

Suffolke, whiche Marques with his wife, & many honorable parsonages of men and women, 
richely adorned, bothe with apparell and leuels, hauyng with tljem many costly charlottes, 
gorgious horselitters, sailed into Fraunce, for the conneyaunce of the nominated Quene, into 
the realme of England. For kyng lleyner her father, for al his long stile, had to short a 
purse, to sende his doughter honorably, to the kyng her spouse. 

f THE. XXIII. YERE. 



THIS noble company, came to the citee of Toures in Tourayne, where they were honora- 
bly receiued, bothe of the Freeh kyng, and of the kyng of Scicile. Wher the Marques of 
Suffolke, as procurator to Kyng Henry, espoused thesaid Ladie, in the churche of sahict 
Martyns. At whiche mariage were present, the father and mother of the bride, the Frenche 
kyng hymself, whiche was vncle to the husbande, and the Frenche queue also, whiche 
was awnte to the wife. There vver also, the dukes of Orleaunce, of Calaber, of Alaun- 
son, and of Britayn. vii. Erics, xii. Barons, xx. Bishoppes, beside knightes and gentle- 
men. There vver triumphaunt lustes, costly feastes, and delicate banquettes,' but all 
pleasure hath an ende, and euery ioye is not continuall. So that after these high solempni- 
ties finished, and these honorable ceremonies ended, the Marques had the Ladie Margaret 
to hym deliuered, whiche in greate estate, he coueyed through Normandy to Deape, and so 
transported her into Englande, where she landed at Portesmouthe, in the monethe of Aprill. 
This woman excelled all other, aswell in beautie and fauor, as in wit and pollicie, and was of 
stomack and corage, more like to a man, then a woman. Sone after herarriuall, she was 
conueyed to the toune of Southwike in Harnshire, where she, with all nupciall Ceremonies, 
was coupled in matrimony, to kyng Henry the. vi. of that name. After whiche mariage, 
she was with greate triumphe, conueyed to London, and so to Westminster, where vpo the. 
xxx. daie of May, she, with all solempnitie thervnto apperteinyng, was Crouncd Quene of 
this noble realme of Englande, Who so would knowe, the costly receipt, the pleasaunt 
companie, the gorgeous apparell, the diuersitie of Instrumentes, the strange paiauntes, the 
hehauiour of the Lorcles, the beautie of the Ladies, the sumptuous feast, the delicate vian- 
der, the marcial hastes, the fierce turnais, the lustie daunccs, & the minio soges, which vver 
shewed, setfurth and practised at her coronacion, let hym lokcin the Chronicles of London, 
& of Robert Fabian, and there he shal finde the set furth at the fuil. 

THIS mariage seined to many, bothe infortunate, and vnprofitable to the realme of En- 
gland, and that for many causes. First the kyng with her had not one peny, and for the 
fetching of her, the Marques of Suffolke, demaunded a whole fiftenc, in open parliament: 
also for her mariage, the Duchie of Aniow, the citec of Mauns, and the whole coutie of 
Mayne, were deliuered and released to Kyng Reyner her father, whiche countreis were 
the very stayes, and backestandes to the Duchy of" Normandy. Furthermore for this ma- 
riage, the Erie of Arminacke, toke suche great displeasure, tliat he became viter enemy to 
the realme of Englande and was the chief cause, that the Englishmen, wer cxpulsed out of 
the whole duchieof Aquitayne, and lost bothe the countreis of Gascoyn and Guven. But 
moste of all it should seme, that God with this matrimony was not content. For after this 
spo usage the kynges frcndes fell from hym, bothe in Englande and in Fraunce, the Lordes 
of his realme, fell in diuision emongest thetnselfes, the commons rebelled against their 
souereigne Lorde, and natural! Prince, feldes wer foughten, many thousandes slain, and 
finally, the kyng deposed, and his sonne slain, and this Quene sent home again, with as- 
muche misery and sorowe, as she was receiued with pompe and triumphe, suche is worldly 
vnstablenes, and sowaueryng is false flattering fortune. 

DVRYNG the tyrne of this truce, Richard Duke of Yorke, and diuersc other capitaines 
repaired into England, bothe to visite their wifea, children, and frendes, and also to con- 
suite, what should be dcen, if the truce ended. 

ffTHE. 



ye "' 



206 THE. XXIIU. YERE OF 



f THE. XXIIII. YERE. 

he.niui. FOR the whiche cause, the kyng called his high court of Parliament, in the whiche aboue 
yere - allthynges, it was concluded, diligently to forsee, that Normandy should be well furnished 
and strongly defended, before the terme of the truce should be expired : for it was openly 
knowen, that the French kyng, was ready in all thynges, to make open warre, if no peace 
or abstinence of warre, wer agreed or concluded. For whiche consideracion, money was 
wraunted, men wer appoynted and a great army gathered together and the duke of Somerset, 
was appoynted Regent of Normandy, and the Duke of Yorke thereof discharged. In whiche 
Parliament, to please the people with all, it was enacted, y whe whete was solde for. vi. 
s. viii. d. y quarter and Rye for. iiii. s. and Barley for. iii. s. it should be lawfull to euery ma 
to cary thesaid kyndes of corne, into the parties beyond the sea, without licence, so it wer 
not to the kynges enemies or rebelles : whiche act, kyng Edward the. iiii. for the vtilitie of 
his people, approued and confirmed. 

THE Marques of Suffolke, beyng in high fauor with the kyng, and in no lesse grace with 
quene Margaret, for cocluding the mariage betwene theim twoOj somewhat infected with 
the sede of vainglory, and thinkyngthat his procedynges and dooynges in Fraunce, (duryng 
the tyme of his legacion) had aswell pleased all men, as they pleased hym self, the second 
daie of lune, in the first session of this parliament, before all the lordes spirituall & tem- 
porall, in the higher hous assembled, opely, eloquently and boldely, declared his pain, 
trauaile and diligece, whiche he had taken and susteined of late tyme, in the Realme of 
Fraunce, aswel for the takyng and concludyng a truce or abstinence of warre betwene the 
Realmes of Englande and of Fraunce, as in the makyng of the mariage betwene the kyng 
his souereigne lorde and theirs, and the noble Princes lady Margarete, daughter to the kyncr 
of Scicile and Hierusalem : Openyng also to them, that thesaid truce should expire the first 
daie of April next commyng, except a finall peace or a farther truce wer concluded in the 
meane season : aduisyng them to prouide and forsee all thynges necessarie, for the warre (as 
though no concorde should succede, nor agrernent could take place) least the Frenchernen 
perceiuyng theim vnprouided, would take their aduauntage, and agree neither to reason nor 
amitie : saiyng vnto theirn, that sithe he had admonished the kyng, and them, accordyng to 
his duetieand allegeaunce, if any thyng quailed, or if daunger ensued, he was thereof in- 
nocent and gilteles, and had acquited hyrnself like a louyng subiecte, and a faithful coun- 
sailor, praiyng the lordes to haue it in their remembraunce. Likewise the morowe after, he 
with certain lordes, discended into the comon house, where he declared again all the saied 
matters, to the knightes, Citezens and Burgesses, omittyng nothyng, that might souncle to 
his glory, nor openyng any thyng, whiche might redound to his dispraise : praiyng the co- 
mons for his discharge, that aswell all his doynges and procedynges in the kynges affaires 
beyond the sea, as also his aduertisement & counsaill, opened to the lordes and commons 
now together assembled, might be by the Kyng and theim, enacted and inrolledin the Recordes 
of the Parliament: wherupon the morowe after William Burley, speaker for the commons 
and all the company of the nether house, repaired to the kinges presence, sitting in his trone, 
emongest his lordes in the parliament chamber, where thesaied William Burley, by the 
counsaill of the commons, (whether they did it more for fearethen for loue, or wer thervnto 
cntised by the Marques frendes, as some men doubted) moste hiiblie commended to the 
kynges highnes, the foresaid Marques of Suffolke, and all his actes and notable woorkes, 
whiche he had done to the pleasure of almightie God, the honor of the kyng, and the vtilitie' 
of the Realme : as in takyng the truce, concludyng the mariage, and the good admonicion, 
geuen by hym in open Parliament, for prouision of warre to be made, duryng the time of 
truce, least to muche trustyng of peace, might encorage the Frenchernen, the soner to 
begyn warre and inuasiy : besechyng the kynges highnes, in the name of the commons, to 

4 imprint 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 207 

imprint in his harte and rcmebraunce, thesaid Marques, and all his labors and actes, to his 
honor and renoutne, which should be an exfiple to all other, whiche the kyng should call to like 
seruice, to employ themselfes in like endeuor faithfully and honorably to serue their kyng and 
souereigne lorde: praiyng also the lordes spirituall and temporal!, that they for the cotisidera- 
cions before rehersed, would vouchesaueto make like peticio to the kynges maiestie, and that 
all the actes and demeanor of thesaicd Marques, might by aucthoritie of parhamet, be, to his 
honor, & perpetuall fame, in the rolles of thesame Parliament, recorded and substantially rc- 
gestered. At whiche humble intercession, the lordes, aswel spirituall as temporal, rose from 
their seates, and on their knees, made to the kyng like request and peticion, as they of the 
commons before wer desired : wherupon, the kyng by the mouthe of the Archebishop of Can- 
terbury, his Chancellor, made answer, that their requestesvver so reasonable and so honorable, 
thathein nowise could, but louynglyacceptandgentlyalowethesame, saiyngalso: thattheirde- 
sires,\verto him a singuler pleasure, and an especiall comforte, and that he would fromthence- 
furthe accepte and take thesaied Marques to his benigne grace, and especiall fauoure, as a 
persone, whiche had dooen bothe true, faithefull, and notable seruice to hym and to his llealme, 
to the intent, that all men put in like trust, should enforce theim selfes, to doo like or better 
seruice to their souereigne Lorde or Master : agreyng also (accordyng to their requestes and 
petieions) that the labors, demeanors, diligences, and declaracions of thesaied Marques of 
Suffolke, and thesaied commendacions, and desires, not only of the lordes, but also of the 
commons, aswel for the honor of hym and his posteritie, as for his acquital and discharge, 
should be enacted, and enrolled in the Recordes of the same parliament, which was so done. 
'This Marques thus gotten vp, into fortunes trone, not content with his degree, by the meanes 
of the Quene, was shortely erected to the estate and degree of a Duke, and ruled the Kyng 
at his pleasure, in so muche he obteined the wardshippes, bothe of body and landes of the 
Coutesse of Warwicke, and of the lady Margarete, sole heire to Ihon Duke of Somerset 
(whiche lady was after, mother to Kyng Henry the seuenth) and beside that, caused the 
Kyng to create Ihon de Foys, sonne to Gaston de Foys, erle of Longuile, and Capdaw of 
Bueffez, erle of Kendale : whiche Iho had maried his niece, and by his procurement, the 
kyng elected into the order of the Garter, thesaid Gaston, and Ihon his sonne, geuyng to 
the sonne, towardes the maintenaunce of his degree and estate, landes and Castles, in the 
Duchie of Guyen, amountyng to the some of one thousand poundes by the yere, whiche 
landes, name, and stile, the issue and line of thesaied erle of Kendall at this daie haue and 
enioye. 

HERE a man maie beholde, what securitie is in worldly glory, and what constancie is I 
in fortunes smilyng: for this Duke of Suffolke in open Parliament of the Lordes praised, of 
the commons thanked, and into the kynges fauor, entirely receiued, within foure yeres after, ; 
was in thesame place, by the commons of the Realme, accused of many treasons, mispri- 
cions and offences, done and committed against the Kyng, and the common wealthe of his 
Realme, and in conclusion, beyng exiled the realme, he was taken vpon the sea, and made 
shorter by the hedde, whiche chaunce had not happened to him, if he had remembred the 
counsail of the popyngay, saiyng: when thou thynkest thy self in courte moste surest, then 
is it high tyme to get thee home to rest. 

THESE thynges beyng in doyng, the Frenche kyng seyng that the the toune of Mauns, 
and diuerse fortresses in Mayne, were not to hym deliuered, accordyng to the appoyntment 
made, gathered together a great numbre of people, for to recouer thesame : wherof the kyng 
of England beyng aduertised, (least the breache of truce should begynne by hym) caused the 
toune to be deliuered without any force. 

THIS yere, an Armerars seruaunt of London, appeled his master of treason, whiche 
offered to bee tried by battaill. At the daie assigned, the frendes of the master, brought 
hym Malmesey and Aqua vite, to comforte hym with all, but it was the cause of his and 
their discomforte : for he poured in so much that when he came into the place in Smithfelde, 
where he should fight, bothe his witte and strength failed hym : and so he beyng a tall and a 

hardye 



50ft THE. XXV. YERE OF 

hardye personage, ouerlacled with hole drynkes, was vanqueshed of his seruaunte, beyng 
but a cowarde and a wretche, whose body was drawcii to Tiborne, & there hanged and 
behcdded. In whiche yere was a greate insurrecciou in Norwiche, against the Prior of the 
place, in so muche that the citezens kepte the gates, against the Duke of Norffolke, whiche 
came thither to appease the matter : but in conclusion, they opened the gates, and submitted 
theim selfcs. The chief offenders, wer (accordyng to their desertes) straightly punished, 
and executed, and the Mai re was discharged of his office, and sir Ihon Clifton was made 
gouernoure there, till the kyng had restored the citezens to their auncient liberties, and 
francheses. This commocion, was for certain newe exaccions, whiche Ihe Prior claimed 
and toke of the citezens, contrary to their auncient fredomes and vsages : but this was not 
the dewe meane to come to their right and purpose, and therefore because they erred and 
went out of the pathe, they were by punishetnente brought again to a very straight trade and 
the right waie. 

f THE. XXV. YERE. 

Tkc.jcxv. DVring the tyme of this truce or abstinence of warre, while there was nothyng to vexe or 
trouble the rnyndes of men, within the realme, a sodain mischief, and a long discorde, sprang 
out sodainly, by the meanes of a woman: for kyng Henry, whiche reigned at this tyme was a 
man of a meke spirite, and of a simple witte, preferryng peace before warre, reste before 
businesse, honestie before profile, and quietnesse before laboure. And to the intent that 
all men might perceiue, that there could be none, more chaste, more mcke, more holy, nor 
a better creature : In hym reigned shamefastnesse, modestie, integritie, and pacience to 
bee marueiled at, takyng and sufferyng all losses, chaunces, displeasures, and suche worldely 
tormentes, in good parte, and with a pacient maner, as though they had cbaunced by his 
awne fault or negligent ouersight: yet he was gouerned of them whom he should haue ruled, 
and brideled of suche, whom he sharpely should haue spurred : He gaped not for honor, nor 
thristed for riches, but studied onely for the health of his soule: the sauyng wherof, he es- 
temed to bee the greatest wisedome, and the losse thereof, the extremes! folie that could bee. 
But on the other parte, the Queue his wife, was a woman of a greate witte, and yet of no 
greater witte, then of haute stomacke, desirous of glory, and couetous of honor, and of 
reason, pollicye counsaill, and other giftes and talentes of nature, belongyng to a man, full 
and flowyng : of witte and wilinesse she lacked nothyng, nor of diligence, studie, and busi- 
nesse, she was not vnexperte : but yet she had one poynt of a very woman: for often 
tyme, when she was vehemet and fully bente ia a matter, she was sodainly like a wether- 
cocke, mutable, and turnyng. This woman perceiuyng that her husbande did not franktly 
rule as he would, but did all thyng by thaduise and counsaill of Hiifrey duke of Gloucester, 
and that he passed not muche on the aucthoritie and gouernaunce of the realme, determined 
with her self, to take vpon her the rule and regiment, bothe of the kyng and his kyngdome, 
& to depriue & euict out of al rule and aucthoritie, thesaid duke, then called the lord pro- 
tector of the realme : least men should saie & report, y she had neither wit nor stomacke, 
whiche would permit & suftre her husband, beyng of perfect age & mas estate, like a yong 
scholer or innocent pupille to be gouerned by the disposicion of another man. This manly 
woman, this coragious quene, ceased not to prosecute furthwith, her inuented imaginacion 
and_prepesed purpose, but practised daily the furtheraunce of thesame. And although this 
inueci5 came first of her awne high mind, and ambicious corage, yet it was furthered and 
set forward by suche, as of long tyme had borne malice to the duke, for declaryng their vn- 
truth as you before haue heard. Whiche venemous serpentes, and malicious Tygers, per- 
swaded, incensed and exhorted the quene, to loke well vpon the expenses and reuenues of 
the realme, and thereof to call an accompt: affirmyng plainly that she should euidently per- 
ceiue, that the Duke of Gloucester, had not so muche aduaunced & preferred the commo 

J wealth 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 

wealth and publiquc vtilitie, as his avvne priuate thinges & peculier estate. Be side this, 
lleyner kyng of Scicile, wrote to his. doughter, that she & her husband, should take vpon 
them, the rule & gouernaunce'of the realme, and not to be kept vnder, likeyong wardes and 
desolate orphanes., The queue perswaded and encoraged by these meanes, toke vpo her 
and her husbande, y high power and aucthoritie ouer the people and subiectes. And al- 
thouh she ioyned her husbande with hir in name, for a countenaunce, yet she did all, she 
saied all, and she bare the whole swynge, as the strong oxe doth whe he is yoked in the 
the plough with a pore silly asse: and firste of all she excluded the duke of Gloucester, from 
all rule and gouernaunce, not prohibityng suche as she knewe to be his mortal enemies, to 
inuent and imagyne, causes and griefes, against hym and his: so that by her permissio, and 
fauor, diuerse noblemen conspired against hym, of the whiche, diuerse writers affirrne, the 
Marques of Suffolke, and the duke of Buckyngham to be the chiefe, not vnprocured by the 
Cardinall of Winchester, and the Archebishop of Yorke. Diuerse articles, bothe heynous 
and odious, were laied to his charge in open counsaill, and in especiall one, that he had 
caused men adiudged to dye, to be put to other execucion, then the law of the land had or- 
dered or assigned: for surely the duke being very well learned in the la we ciuill, detestyng 
malefactors, and punishyng their offences, gat great malice and hatred of such as feared to 
haue condigne reward for their vngracious actes and mischeuous doynges. Although 
the duke (not without great laude and praise) sufficiently answered to all thynges to hym 
obiected, yet because his death was determined, his wisedome litle helped, nor his truth 
smally auailed : but of this vnquietnes of mynde, he deliuered hymself, because he thought 
neither of death, nor of condempnacion to dye : suche affiaunce had he in his strong truthe, 
and suche confidence had he in indifferent iustice. But his capitall enemies and mortal 
foes, fearyng that some tumulte or commocion might arise, if a prince so well beloued of 
the people, should bee openly executed, and put to death, determined to trappe & vndoo 
hym, or he thereof should haue knowledge or warnyng. So for the furtherance of their 
purpose, a parliament was somoned to be kept at Bery, whether resorted all the peres of the 
realme, and emongest them, the duke of Gloucester, whiche on the second daie of the session, 
was by thelorde Beaumond, then high Constable of Englande, accompanied by the duke of 
Buckyngha, and other, arrested, apprehended, and put in warde, and all his seruauntes 
isequestered from hym, and. xxxii. of the chief of his retinue, were sent to diuerse prisons, 
to the greate admiracion of the common people. The duke the night after his emprisone- 
ment, was found dedde in his bed, and his body shewed to the lordes and commons, as 
though he had died of a palsey or empostome : but all indifferent persons well knewe, that 
he died of no natural death but of some violet force : some Judged hym to be strangled : 
some affirme, that a hote spittewas put in at his foundement: other write, that he was stiffeled 
or smoldered betwene twoo fetherbeddes. After whose deathe, none of his seruauntes (al- 
though they were arraigned and attainted) wer put to death : for the Marques of Suffolk, 
when they should haue been executed, shewed openly their pardon, but this doyng appeased 
not the grudge of the people, whiche saied that the pardone of the seruauntes, was no 
amendes for murderyng of their master. The dedde corse of the duke, was caried to sainct 
Albons, and there honorably buried. Thus was this noble prince, sonne, brother, and 
vncle to kynges, whiche had valeauntly and pollitiquely by the space of. xxv. yeres gouerned 
this Realme, and for his demerites, called the good duke of Gloucester, by a bone cast by 
his enemies, choked and brought to his fatall fine, and laste ende. So all men maie openly se 
that to men in aucthoritie, no place no not the courte the cheif refuge of all, nor the dwell- 
yng house, nor yet a mannes priuate Castle, or his bed orcleined for his quietnes, is out of 
daungier of deathes dart. It semeth to many men, that the name and title of G loucester, hath 
been vnfortunate and vnluokie to diuerse, whiche for their honor, haue been erected by crea- 
cionof princes, to that stile and dignitie, as Hugh Spencer, Thomas of Woodstocke, sonne to 
kyng Edward the third, and this duke Humfrey, whiche thre persones, by miserable death 
finished their dales, and after them kyng Richard the. iii. also, duke of Gloucester, in ciuill 

E e warre 



2]0 THE. XXVI. YERE OF 

warre was slain and confounded : so y this name of Gloucester, is take for an vnhappie and 
vnfortunate stile, as the prouerbe speaketh of Seianes horse, whose rider was euer vnhorscd, 
and whose possessor was euer brought to miserie. When the rumor of the dukes death, was 
blowen through the realme, many me wer sodainly appalled and amased for teare: many 
abhorred and'detested 5- faict, but all men reputed it an abhominable crueltie, and a shame- 
ful tiranny. But the publique wealth of the realme of Englande, by the vnworthy death 
of this pollitique prince, susteined greate losse,^ & ran into ruyne, for surely the whole 
waiht and burden of the realme, rested and depeded vpo him, as the experience afterward 
did "declare. For after his death, good & sage men fearing the selfes, fled out of y flat- 
tens court, into whose places entered suche, as desiryng their awne promocion,^ set open 
the gates to new faccions, whiche could neuer be extinct till all the seignorics beyod the sea 
(except Caleice & the marches) were lost, & kyng Hery in conclusion spojled of hys Realme 
& lyfe. There is an olde sayd saw, that a man entedyng to auoide the smoke, falleth into 
the fyre: So here the Quene mynding to preserue her husbad in honor, & her selfe in auc- 
thoritie, procured & consentid to the death of this noble man, whose onely death brought 
to passe that thynge, which she woulde most fayne haue eschewed, and toke from her that 
iewel, w hiche she moste desired: for if this Duke had lyued, the Duke of Yorke durst not 
haue made title to the crowne : if this Duke had liuyd, the nobles had not conspired against 
the king, nor yet the cotnos had not rebelled : if this Duke had lyued, the house of 
Lacastre' had not been defaced and destroyed, which thynges hapned all contrary by the 
destruccio of this good man. This is the worldly iudgemet, but God knoweth, what he had 
predestinate & what he had ordained before, against whose ordenaunce preuayleth no coun- 
saill, and against whose will auayleth no stryuinge. 

tf THE. XXVI. YERE. 

The. MY;. IN this. xxvi. yere of the reigne of this kynge, But in the first yere of the rule of the 
Jm ' Quene, I fynde no thyng done worthye to be rehersed, within the Realme of Englande, but 
that the marques of Suffolke by greate fauor of the kynge, and more desire of the Quene, 
was erected to the title, and name of the duke of Suftblke, whiche dignitie he shorte tymeenioyed 
& which degre, he but abriefeseaso possessed. For after the deposicion or rather the destruction 
of thegood duke of Gloucester, and theexaltacionand aduauncement of this glorious man: Ry- 
chard duke of Yorke, beyng greatly alied by his wyfe, to the chief peres and potentates of the 
Realme, ouer and besydehis awne progenye and greate consanguinitie, perceiuyng the Kyng to 
be a ruler not Ruling, & the whole burden of the Realme, to depend in the ordinances of the 
Quene & the duke of Suri'olke, began secretly to allure to his frendes of the nobilitie, and 
priuatly declared to the, his title and right to the Crowne, and lykewyse dyd he to a certain 
wyse and saige Gouernors and rulers of dyuers cities and townes : whiche priuie attept was 
so politiquely handeled and so secretly kept, that his prouisio was ready, before his purpose 
was openly published, and hys frendes opened theim selfes or the contrary parte coulde 
them espye : but in conclusion tyme reueled truth and olde hyd hatred openly sprange out, 
as you shall hereafter bothe lament and heare. 

DVRING these doynges, Henry Beauffbrd, bishop of Winchester, and called the ryche 
Cardinall, departed out of this world, and was buried at Wynchester. This man was sonne 
to Ihon of Gaunte duke of Lancaster, disceded of an honorable lignage, but borne in Baste, 
more noble of blodd, then notable in learning, haut in stomacke,.and hygh in coutenaunce, 
ryche ahoue measure of all men, & to fewe liberal, disdaynfull to his kynne and dreadfull to 
his louers, preferrynge money before frendshippe, many thinges beginning, and nothing per- 
fourmyng. His couetous insatiable, and hope of long lyfe, made hym bothe to forget (Sod, 




poUicie to get it, or by ryches to bye it. Fye, will not death be hyered, nor will money do 

aothyng ? 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 

nothyng? when my nephew of Bedford died, I thought my selfe halfe \^p the whele, but 
when I sawe myne other nephew of Gloucester disceased, then I thought my self able to be 
equale with kinges, and so thought to encrease my treasure in hoope to haue worne a tryple 
Croune. But I se now the worlde faileth me, and so I am deceyued: praiyng you all to 
pray for me." Of the gettyng of this mannes goodes both by power, legantye or spirituall 
bryberie I wil not speake : but the kepinge of them for his ainbycious purpose, aspiryng to 
ascend to the papisticall sea, was bothe great losse to his naturall Prince, and nalyue coun- 
trey: for his hidde ryches might haus wel holpen the king, and his secrete treasure might 
haue releued the comonaltie, whe money was scante and importunate charges, were daily 
imminent. After the death of this prelate, which was a great slay to the Kyng the real me, 
the affayres in Fraunce, were neither well loked to, nor the gouernors of the countrey were 
well aduised. For an Englishe capitayi>, called syr Franceys Surrien the Arragonoys, a 
man for his witt and actiuitie admitted to the order of the Gartier, toke by scalyng sodaynly 
in the night, a Towne on the frontiers of Normandie, belonging to the duke of Britayn, 
called Fongiers, spoyling the same, and kyllinge the inhabitautes to the great destruccion 
of the people, and more displeasure to the duke of Britayn, their souereigne lorde. The 
duke beynge thereof aduertysed, sent woorde to the Frenche kynge, declaringe to him that 
in the time of truce (in the which, he as hisallye and vassal was coprehendyd) he was spoyled 
and bereuyd of his towne of Fongiers : besechyng the Frenche kynge, in that cause to se a 
recompense and amendemente: whereupon he sent Ihon Hauart his caruar, and Ihon 
Cosynet one of the masters of his requestes to the kyng of England : & to the duke of So- 
merset, he dispatched Peter de Fountaynes Esquier, & one of the cheife of his stable, to 
whome by both the Princes, it was aunswered, that the facte and enterprise was both done 
contrary to there mynde, will and knowledge. And for the truce to be kept, and not 
onely restitucion, but also amendes to be made to the Duke of Britayn, a daye of dyet and 
assemble was appointed to be kept at the town of Louiers. At the time appointed both the 
parties assembled : the Frenche parte demaunded amendes, with no litle recompense : The 
Englishe orators aunswered, that without offece, no thing by iustice, ought to be satisfied: 
affirming the doynge of syr Franceys Surrien, to be his onely acte, withoute the consent or 
counsail, either of the kynge of England, or the duke of Somerset his lieuetenat and regent. 
During this daily communicacio & longe delayc, certain Frenchemeu, frendes to the duke 
of Britayn, desyring to be reuenged of the iniurie done to him at Fongiers, and also image- 
ning, how to do some new displeasure to the Englishme, were aduertised by a wagoner of 
Louiers, y the town of Poutelarche, was but meanly manned and slenderly furnished, and 
the watche was but negligently loked to: with whiche saiynges the Frenchemen beynge som- 
what encouraged, deuised a waye, howe by pollicie to take the tonne: So the wagoner laded 
his wagon, and passed forward, hauing in his company, ii. strongc varieties clad lyke car- 
penters with great axes in their neckes. And for the furtherace of their purpose, the lord 
of Bressy, with a chosen company of men of armcs lodged himself in a husshement nere to 
the gate of sainct Andrewe. And capitayn Floquet, accompanied with syr lames of Clere- 
mout, and another great company, priuilie kirked vndei a wood toward Louiers. When al 
thinges were appoynted, early in the morning in the beginning of the moneth of October, 
the wagoner came to the gate, & called the porter by name, praiyng him to open the gate, 
that he mighte passe to Koen, and returneagayne the same night. The porter (whiche wel 
fcnew the voice of his customer) toke litle hede to the other, ii. copagnions, & so opened the 
one gate, and sent another felow of his, to ope the foremost gate. Whe y Chariotte was on 
the draw bridge, betwene both y 1 gates, the Chariottemastcr gaue the porter money, and for 
the nones, let one pece fal to the grounde, & whyle the porter sloped to take it vp, the wa- 
goner with his dagger stroke him in at his throtc, so that he cried for no healpe, and the. ii. 
great lubbers slewe the other porters, and with their axes cutte the axeletre of the wagone, 
BO that thedrawe bridge could not be shortlye drawen vp. Which thinges done, they made 
a signe to capitayne Floquet, whiche, without delay or tract of time, entered the town, and 

E e 2 slew 



212 THE. XXVI. YERE OF 

slew and toke the Englishmen, which neither heard nor thought of any suche enterprise: 
emongest whom, the lord Fauconbridge, capitaine of the saide towne, was apprehended as 
a prisoner. By this pratye cautele and slyghe imposture, was the towne of Poutelarche take 
and surprised, which towne was the kay and passage ouer the ryuer of Soame, fro Frauce to 
Normandy, beyng distant fro Roen, only. iiij. leagues. Thus wrong was added to wrong, 
& iniurie'heped to iniurie, whereby y terme of truce was violated, & mortal warre was re- 
uiued. But because y taking of this fortresse, had a certain colour of brekig of truce. The 
duke of Somerset by ambassadors, not by force of armes, deuised^to recouer this pratye 
town, & set for y restitucio of thesame, diuerse ambassadors to y Freeh kyng & his cousail, 
which made auswere agayn, y if the Englishmen restored to the duke of ikytain, the town 
of Fogiers with codigne amedes, for the damages done & comitted within the same, the 
town of Poutlarche should agayne be rendered and deliuered: for the Frenche kynge and 
his counsaill began now to perceyue and smel, that the affayres of Englande, by the death of 
the duke of Gloucester, were sore minished and decayed, and that good counsaill began to 
waxe faynte and decay, and sedicion freshely began to spryngc and ryse: By reason 
whereof, they thoughte that Normandye might sone be conquered and recoured, and that 
the Englishe nacion out of that region might easely be expulsed and driue out : wherfore they 
determined to take the good occasion to them openly offered, & to lose no tyme in so good a 
bargayne. Wherupo kyng Charles diuided his armye in to. iii. partes, not doubting of victory, 
by reason that the fame of the coquest of Pountelarche, was blowen and spread abrode ouer 
al y coutrey. So after diuers assautes (not without losse of diuers of his men) he had ren- 
dered to hym by coposkion, the townes of Louiers and Gerborie, whereof Willia Harper 
was capitayn. Thus prosperous victory dayly succedinge to the Frenche kynges armye, he 
augmenting his hooste, determined to get the town of Vernoyle in perche, gyrd it round 
about with a strog seage. The inhabitautes wherof, although with the sodayne chaunce they 
were somewhat abashed, yet hauinge some succours, and hopinge of more relefe, toke to 
them good courage, and manfully defended the towne. But when their ayde taried lender, 
then they either thought or desired, they were compelled to compound and pact with their 
cnemyes, vpon this condicion : that if the seage were not reysed within, xx. dayes, that then 
they shoulde departe with bagge and baggage, whiche condicio was accepted : and because 
no rescous came, the town, Castel and the great Towre, were deliuered. The Frenche 
historians affirme, the towne to be taken by assaute, and the Castell by composicion, but all 
writers agree, that the Frenchemen obteyned it. Thus was warre reuiued before the full terme 
of the truce expyred, which was the moste detestable and vnprofitable chaunce that either 
could, or might haue happened or come, to the realme of England. For by this sodayn 
damage & losse, without thought arrising, the Englishe capitaynes were so busyed & vn- 
quieted, what.with appeasyng dayly rumors within townes, and what with studye how to re- 
couer Castels lost and taken, that they scace wyste, what waye to take : for while they studied, 
how to kepe and defede one citie. iiij. or. v. other, folowing fortunes chaunce, turned to 
the Frenche parte, and became their enemies. The chefe cause of which reuolting and 
turnlgwas this: It was blowen throughout all Fraunce, that the realme of Englancle, & after 
the death of the duke of Gloucester, by the seueral faccids of Princes, was diuided in two 
partes, and that William de la Pole, late created duke of Suffolke, and diuers other were 
the occasion of the death of the said duke of Gloucester, which was the very Father of the 
countrye, and the shield and defence of the poore comonaltie, and that the forenamed duke 
ofSufFolke, only for lucre of money, vexed, oppressed and molested the poore people, so. 
that mens myndes were not intentiue, nor geuen to outward affayres, and foren coquestes 
but all theire studie was, how to driue backe and defend dorncsticall iniuries, and dayly 
wronges done at home : by reason w-hereof men of warre were vnpayed, and no armye for 
resistece was either gathered or assebled together : which mischiefes (while the Kyn<r as 
thmges of the worlde, and of no great moment, did neglect and omit, as he which preferred 
& extolled godly thmges, aboueall worldly affaires and mortal cures, and thought the most 

to 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 213 

to be phiitasied and labored: And while quene Margarete his wyfe, in whom the whole rule 
of the realme consisted, beyng a woman of to muche credece geuyng, to euil & flattering 
cosallors them litle regarded) dayly so much encreased, that by no meanes after they 
could be either ouercome or resisted : so that by this meanes the Frenche nacion knew 
in what case the state of the realme of Englande stode in, whiche elated & en- 
couraged their hartes & dauted & appalled the courages of the Normans and Gascoyns, so 
muche that for lacke of ayde and relefe, they turned to the Frenche parte, and forsoke 
their very souereigne lord the king of Englande in shorte space, as you shall here after 
heare. 

f THE. XXVII. YERE. 

IT was not enough, the realme of Englad this season thus to be vexed and vnquieted with The. 
the busines of Normady, but also a new rebellion began in Irelande, to the great dis- 
pleasure of the Kynge and his counsaill: for repressinge whereof, Richard duke of Yorke, 
with a conuenient nuber of men was sent thither, as lieuetenant to the Kyng, which not 
onely appeased the fury of the wylde, and sauage people there, but also gat him suche loue 
and fauour of the countrey and the inhabitautes, that their syncere loue and fredly afteccion 
coulde neuer beseperated fro him and bis lygnage, as in the sequele of this story, you shall 
more plainly perceyue. The Frenchemen hauyng perfyte vnderstading of the infirmitie and 
vnreadinesse of the realme of Englande, displaied their banners, and set furthe their armyes, 
and in shorte space gat by yeildynge, Constance, Gisors, Castell, Gayllard, Pontean du 
mere, sainct Lo, Fescampe, Newchastel, Alanson, Toncque, Manleo argeton, Lisiaux 
argenton, and diuers other townes in Normandy: Lykewise in Guyen was the town of Maulis- 
sone redered to y Erie of Foys. These townes were not yelded voluntarilye by the Englishe 
souldiors, but they were thereunto compelled by the cytizens and the inhabitauntes of the 
townes, whiche apparantly perceyuing, that the great flame of the Englishe force was extinct 
and consumed, rose against the Capitaines, and either opened the gates to their enemies, or 
constrained them to render vpon a composicion. By which enforcement was the rych citie 
of Roan deliuered : for surely the Duke of Somerset & the lorde Talbot Erie of Skrowesburye, 
had well kept & defended this citie, if they had bene no more vexed with the citizens, then 
they were with their enemyes. For after the Frenche king had once by his Herault somoned 
the citie, the inhabitautes not only sought ways and inuented fraudes, how to betray the 
same, but also put on harnes and rebelled against their capitaynes, menacinge to the death 
& destruccion al the English people. The capitaines perceiuyng their vntrought, & tray- 
terous demeanour retrayted them selfes into the Castell or Palaice, where they a certaine 
space with arrowes and haudgonnes, sore molested and vexed the vntrew citizens. But 
when they cosidered the great puyssaiice of the Freeh kyng, and that they were in dispayre 
of all ayde or relefe, and that their rictayle and artillarye began sore to minishe, they 
thoughte it better to compounde and agree with their enemies, rather then wilfully to be de- 
stroyed or dye for farnyn : and so vpon condicion that all they should safely departe to Caen 
with all their goods and arrnure, and that certain townes should be deliuered by a daye, 
they were permitted to departe : leauyng behynd them for hostages, till the sayd townes 
(whiche were agreed to be rendered) should be deliuered, the Erie of Shreuesbury and the 
lorde Butler, sonne to the Erie of Ormonde, which were sent to the Castell of Eureux, be- 
cause they sore feared the malice of the citizens of Roen. The Frenchemen folowyng still 
the steps of victorie, & elated with the brute and fame of getting of Roen, determined ei- 
ther by force or offer, to get the towne of Harfflew, and shortely assauted thesame, wherof 
was capitayn syr Thomas Coneson, a man of great witt and of no lesse force : which hauing 
knowledge of the heauy tidinges, brought from Roen, was therewith nbthinge abashed, but 
coragiously set vpon his enemies, and them to their great hurt, manfully repulsed and draue 
from the walles, The Frenchemen learning wit by this great perill, left their scalynge, and 

4 deuised 



THE. XXVIII. YERE OF 

deuised dayly, howe to batter and breake the walles & fortificacios. This seage long con- 
tinned to the great losse of both parties. When syr Thomas sawe small lykehhod of ayde 
or gayne, but muche apparaunce of losse and Jeopardy, he toke a conuencion with hi* 
enemies, and so departed with all his goodes. 

1T THE. XXVIII. YERE. 

n.vr,i. AFTER whiche towne rendered, the fortresse of Hunflew, vpon the same composition 
yc ' e< was veilded Thus you may perceyue, that fortune is euer without measure, for either she 
to muche fauoreth or to muche hateth: for beside these townes surrendered in Normandy, 
the duke of Britayne recouered agayne Fongiers, sent Ihon de Buerne and diners other 
townes In the meane season, the king of England sent into Normandy with a crew of. 
M and. ccccc. men, a valiaunt capitayn, called syr Thomas Kynel: a man of great sto- 
macke, it' he had hadde a great armye but his power was to small, either to recouer that 
whiche was lost, either to saue that, whiche yet remayned vngotten : but surely iu him lack- 
ed neither good will nor courage, for with his small numbre, he recouered agayn the townes 
of Lyseaux and Valongnes. After which feate, he ioyned hymsclf with sir Hery Norbery, 
sir Robert Veere, Matthew Gough, and other capitaines, so that they were aboue fiue 
thousande men, of valiaunt hartes and haute courages. After long consultation, they de- 
termined to fight with the Freflchmen, whiche wer gooyng to the siege of Caen, but in 
their iourney, they were encountered at a place called Fonnigny, betwene Carentyne and 
Bayeux, by the erle of Cleremont, lieuetenaunt for the Frenche kyng, the Stewarde of 
Poytou,' and the lorde of Rays Admirall of Fraunce, with sixe hundred men of armes, 
and sixe thousand other, whiche skirmished with the Englishmen a greate season. Duryng 
whiche skirmishe, there arriued Arthur erle of Richemond, high Constable of Fraunce, 
lames of Luxenborough, erle of Lauall, with a greate numbre of horsemen and freshe 
fotemen. After his coinmyng, he and all the Frenchmen set on thenglishmen, jieyng faint 
and wery with the long skirmishe. This battaill was sore fought, but in conclusio, the Eng- 
lishmen Ver discomfited, and put to flight, and of theim slain aboue iiii. M. and. viii. C. 
taken prisoners, where of, sir Thomas Kiriell, sir Henry Norbery, sir Thomas Dreue 
wer the chief, sir Robert Vere and Matthcwe Gough saued themselfes. This was the first 
foughten feld, that the Frenchmen gatte on the Englishmen in many yeres, wherfore, I 
blame theim not, though they of a litle, make muche, and set furthe all, and hide nothyng 
that maie souncle to their glory. They declare what n fibre thei slew, but thei write not how 
many of them wer slain nor destroyed. 

AFTER this victory obteined, the Frenche kyng hearyng that the Duke of Somerset 
was in the tonne of Caen, thought that he had nothyng doen, if he permitted the duke, 
still to tary in Normandy, whiche by new aide and freshe succors, might turne the whele 
of Fortune, into a contrary parte, and peraduenture recouer all that hath been loste, or 
put the realme of Fraunce in ieoperdy: wherefore, like a wise prince, entendyng to pre- 
uent thynges, imminent "at hande, assembled an armie royall, & in his awne persone, 
hanyng in his compe Reyner, called kyng of Scicile, father to the Quene of Englande, the 
dukes of Calaber and Alaunson, the erics of Cleremont, Richemond, Mayne, Dumoys, 
Sent Polk, and Dampemartyne, beside many noble Barons and valiaunte knightes, when 
all thynpes were ready, as opportunitie of tyme serued: He caused the Tonne to bee 
ennironed on euery side, assignyng to his capitaines seuerail places of the toune to bee 
assauted, and there to proue their manhod. The erle of Dumoys, with more loste then 
gain entered into a bulwerke and was beaten backe. Thenglishemen within the toune 
kept silence, as though they knewe not of their enemies approchyng, but euery man 
kept his loupe, and euery capitain well ouer'.oked his ward. The Frenchemen with 
quarelles, morispikes, slynges, and other engynes, began to assaut the walles: but of 

the 



KYNG HENRY THE. Vl. 215 

the Englishemen within, some shot fiercely withlong bo\ves, other cast dartcs, and rol- 
led doune greate stones and barres of Iron: other cast doune lauelyns, firebrades, 
hole leade, and blockes with pitche and brymstone, like burnyng fire flamyng: some 
cast doune and ouerthrewe the scalyng ladders and slewe suche as clyjned vp the walles: 
neither courage lacked in the assault, nor manhode, nor pollecie in the defence: for on the 
embatclmetes of the walles were set greate rolles of tymbre, so mouyng and vnstedfaste, 
that neither scalyng ladder could catche any holde, nor no persone that should clyme vp, 
could set any sure fotyng. The French kyng, perceiuyng that this assaye litle or nought 
preuailed hym, sent for all his greate ordinaunce to Paris, determinyng neuer to departe, 
till he had conquered the toune, either with sworde or famyn. When the ordinance was 
brought, he daily shot at the walles, and did some hurte: but to the Castle, whiche stode 
on a rocke, and in it a dongeon vnhable to be beaten doune, he did no harrne at all. In 
this toune was the duke of Somerset, his wife and children, but he was not capitain, for 
the Duke of Yorke owner of the toune, by the kynges gifte, had appoynted there his ca- 
pitain generall, sir Dairy Halle, and of the castle, sir Robert Veer, and of the dongeon, 
sir Henry lladford. Daily the shot was greate, but more terrible then hurtfull. Sauyng- 
one daie, a stone shot into the toune, fel betwene the duches of Somerset, and her chil- 
dren, whiche, beyng amased with this chaunce, praied on her knees her husbande, to haue 
mercy and compassion of his small enfantes, and that they might be deliuered out of y- 
toune in sauegard. The duke more piteous then hardy, moued with the dolor of his wife, 
and loue of his children, assembled the capitaines and magistrates of the toune, declaryng 
to theim, the power andpuyssaunce of the Frenche kyng, and their debilitie and weakenes, 
perswadyng theim rather to yeld and rendre vpon honest condicions, then obstinatly to re- 
sist, and foolishly to perishe. Sir Dauy Halle, capitain of the toune, aunswered to hym, 
saiyng : my lorde, although you bee the kynges lieuetenaunt generall, within this countrey 
and dominion, and maie by force of your aucthoritie, deliuer, sell or geue, any of the 
kynges tounes, to suche persones, either frendes or enemies, as shall please you : yet I. am 
sure that you cut your lether to large, to intreate or speake of the renderyng of this toune, 
-apperteinyng to rny lord & master, Richard duke of Yorke, whiche thereof hath geuen 
me bothe the charge and custody> with other of my trusty frendes and felowes, and whiche 
with the helpeof almightie God, I shall well defende, bothe against the Frenche kyng and 
all his puyssannce, till the duke my master come to succor me: for of men, money and 
municions, I Irust I haue sufficient. Why saied the duke, am not I here the kynges de- 
putie, representyng his persone, & maie commaunde all thynges accordyng to my discre- 
j;ion: Yea, said the capitain, so that you geue away no manes right, but his, whose auc- 
thoritie you haue for thesarne : as for this toune, I assure you, without my lordes assent,, 
you shall neither render nor yelde, by my consent or agrement. . The duke was sore moued 
with this saiyng, and so departed, and after sent for the rulers of the tpune, and the poor- 
est people of thesame, declaryng to them, that their lifes and goodes, wer in the Frenche 
kynges handes, and if they looked not shortely to their sauegard, of death they were sure, 
and of mercie farre vncertain : exhortyng theim to folowe his louyng monicion, rather then 
-the hardened harte, of their to hardie capitain. The people of the toune thus perswaded 
(whose hartes wer rather Frenche then Englishe) began to rise against sir Dauy, boldely 
affirmyng, that if he tooke no composicion, within three daies, thei would open the gates, 
-and let in the Frenche kyng: and of this opinion, wer all the common souldiors. What 
should the poore Hare saie, when she is enuironed with a hundred houndes, or the silly 
Larke crye, when she is in the middell of a hundred Hawkes, but take pacience, and seke 
jiwaie to escape: so this capitain perceiuyng, that neither his woordes serued, nor his truthe 
toward his master preuailed, bad the duke of Somerset do what he list, for he would in no 
-wise be named in y composicid. Then the duke partely to please the tounes men, but more 
desirous to please the duches his wife, made an agrement with the Frenche kyng, that he 
would rendre the toune, so that he and all his, might depart in sauegard with all their 

goodea 



216 THE. XXVIII. YERE OF 

eoodes and substaunce : whiche offre, the Frenche Kyng gladly accepted and allowed, 
fenowyng that by force, he might lenger haue longed for the strong toune, then to haue pos- 
sessed tiiesamc so sone. After this conclusion taken, sir Dauie Halle, with diuerse other 
of his trustie fredes, departed to Chierburge, and from thence sailed into Irelande, to the 
duke of Yorke makyng rclacion to hym of all these dooynges: whiche thyng kyndeled so 
so Create a rancore in his harte & stomacke that he neuer lefte persecutyng of the Duke of 
Somersette, till he had brought hym to his fatall poynt, and extreme confusion. 

AIT ER the obteinyng of this strong toune of Caen, therle of Clerernont besieged the 
citie of Lyseux, whereof was capitain Matthewe Gough, with thre hundred Englishmen. 
The capitain perceiuyng that when Caen was not rescewed, that poore Liseux, was in dis- 
paire of all succor, agreed to abandon and deliuer the citee, so that he and his people, 
might departe to Chierburge, hauyng no yron weapon 1 nor armure, but onely their goodes, 
and white stafes in their handes. After the deliueraunce of this toune, the Frenchmen 
stil like good begeles, folowyng their preye, besieged the toune of Fallayse, apperteinyng 
to the lord Talbot, erle of Shrewesbury: .whereof wer capitaines for thesaied erle, An- 
drewe Trollop, and Thomas Cotton esquires, whiche beyng desperate of succors, and con- 
sidervng the puissaunce of their enemies, agreed to deliuer the toune vpon.twoo condi- 
cions". The one was, that the Erie their master, whiche remained in pledge for certain con- 
dicions, agreed to bee perfourmed at the deliueraunce of Roen, (as you haue heard before) 
should be dismissed & set at libertie. The other, that if they wer not rescued within twelfe 
daies, that then, they and theirs, to depart with armure, and all their godes moueable, 
whether ft pleased them. After this agrement at the daie prefixed, no rescues came, and 
so the toune was redered, and incontinent after, the fortresse of Dampforde was deliuered 
vpon like agrement. For the Frenchmen bragged, that they regarded neither golde nor 
siluer, but desired rule, glory, and fame: With whiche lightnesse, the other tounes of Nor- 
mandy beyng perswaded, voluntarily rendered themselfes, vassalles and subiectes to the 
Frenche nacion. 

NOW rested English, onely the toune of Chierburge, wherof was capitain, Thomas 
Gonuile, which surely, valiautly defended the toune as long as vitail and municion serued: 
but when those two handes wer spent and consumed, he destitute of all comforte and aide, 
vpon a reasonable composicio, yelded the toune and went to Caleis, where the duke of 
Somerset, and many Englishemen then soiorned : lamentyng their losse, and desperate of all 
recouery. Thus was the riche duchie of Normandy lost, y whiche had continued in thenglish- 
mennes possession, xxx. yeres, by the coquest of Kyng Henry the fifth. In the whiche duchie 
wer a hundred strong tounes and fortresses, hable to be kept and holden, beside theim 
whiche wer destroyed by the, warres, and in thesarne was one Archebishopricke, and sixe 
bishoprickes. Some saie, that the Englishemen wer not of puyssaunce, either to man the 
tounes as they should bee or to inhabite the countrey, whiche was the cause, that they could 
could not, kepe it : accordyng to the Frenchemennes Adage, whiche saieth : A man can- 
not long hold that, whiche he cannot gripe. Other say, that the duke of Somerset, for 
his awne peculier profile, kept not halfe his nombre of souldiors, and put their wages in 
his purse. These be mennes imaginacions and conjectures, but surely the losse of it, was 
the domesticall diuision within the realnie, euery greate man desiryng, rather to be reuen- 
ged on his foo at home, then on his outward enemie, as you now shall manifestly se and 
perceiue. 

H THE. XXVIII. YERE. 

The^xxviH. FOR while these conquestes wer obteined in the partes beyond the sea. with sworde, 
speare, and target, by the aduersaries of the Englishmen, thre mischeuous capitaines, set 
the people of the Reahne (aswell of the nobilitie, as of the meane sorte) in a ciuill warre 

and 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 217 

and intestine diuision : For einong the high Princes and peeres, reigned inward grudge: 
.emong the Cleargie, adulacion, einong the commonaltie, disdain of lasciuious soue- 
reigntie vvhiche the Queue with her minions, and vnprofitable counsailers daily tokc and 
vsurped vpo them. Wherforc they (not myndyng to be more charged, then their backes would 
beare, and perceiuyiig that by the negligent prouision, and improuident pollicie of the 
"wit wantyng gouernors within tlie realme, the affaires and businesse in tiie partes beyonde 
the sea, daily decaied and more wer like to do, if other pollitique rulers were put in auc- 
thoritie, and the negligent officers, sequestered and deposed,) began to mnke exclamacion 
against the Duke of Suffo!kt% affirming him, to be tbeonely cause of the deliuery of An- 
geow & Mayne, the chief procurer of the death of the good duke of Gloucester, the verie 
occasion of the losse of Normandy, the moste shallower vp and consumer of the kynges 
treasure, (by reason whereof, the warrcs in Fraunce wer not maintained,) the expeller 1V5 
the kyng, of all good and verteous cuunsailors, apd the bi inger in and auauncer of vicious 
persones, common enemies and apparaur.t aduersarics to the publique wealthe: So that the 
duke was called in euery mannes mouth, a traitor, a murderer, a robber of the kynges 
treasure, and worthy to bee put to moste cruell punishemcnt. By reason of this exclatna- 
cio, the Queue somewhat fearyng the destruccion of the Duke, but more the confusion of 
her self, caused the Parliament, before begon at the blacke Friers in London, to be ad- 
iorned to Leicester, thinking there, by force and rigor of f law, to subdue and represse 
all the malice and euill will, conceiued againste the Duke and her: at whiche place fewe of 
the nobilitie would appere, wherefore it was again adiorned to Westminster, where was a 
whole company and a ful^apparaunce. In the whiche session, the commons of the neither 
house, put vp to the Kyng, and the Lordes, many articles of treason, misprision and 
misdemeanoure, against the duke of Suffolke: theffect wherof with his aunsweres, here- 
after ensueth. 

FIRST they alleged, that he had traitorously excited, provoked, and counsailed, Ihon I 
erle of Dumoys Bastard of Orleauce, Bertrame, Lorde Presigny, Willyam Cosynet, enemies 
to the kyng, and frendes and Ambassadors to Charles, callyng hymself Frenche kyng, to 
entre into this Realme, and to leuy warre against the kyng and his realme, to the intent to 
destroye the kyng and his frendes, and to make Ihon his sonne, kyng of this realme, mariyng 
hym to Margaret, sole heire to Iho duke of Somerset, pretendyng and declaring her, to 
be next heire inheritable to the Croune, for lacke of issue of the Kynges body lawefully 
begotten. 

ITEM that thesaied duke, beyng of the kynges priuie and nere cousaill, allured by greate 2 
rewardes, and faire promises, made by the foresaied Erie of Dumoys, caused the kyng to 
deliuer and sette at libertie, Charles duke of Orleaunce, enemy to the kyng, and the kynges 
noble father, whiche deliueraunce, was prohibited by expresse woordes, in the last will of 
the kynges moste victorious father. 

ITEM, that before the departure of the saied duke of Orleaunce, the forenamed Duke 3 
of Suffolke, traytorously faste cleauyng to Charles called the French kyng, counsailed, 
prouoked, and entised thesaid duke of Orleaunce, to moue thesame kyng, to make warre 
against England, bothe in Fraunce and Normandy: accordyng to whiche procurement 
and.counsaill, thesaied Frenche kyng, hath recouered the whole realme of Fraunce, and all 
the Duchie of Normandy, and taken prisoners, the Erie of Shrewesbury, the Lorde Fau- 
conbridge, and many other valeaunt capitaines. 

These three articles, he denied either for fact or thought. 

FARTHER it was alledged, that he beyng Ambassador for the Kyng of Englande, to 4 
Charles callyng hymself the Frenche Kyng, promised to Reyner kyng of Scicile, and to 
Charles Dangiers his brother, enemies to the kyng, the relese of AngeOw, with the deliue- 
raunce of the Countie of Mayne, and the citie of Maunt or Mauns, without the know- 
ledge of the other Ambassadors, whiche him accompanied: whiche promise, after his re- 

F f turne, 



fi}8 THE. XXVIII. YERE OF 

turnc, he caused to be performed, to the kynges disinheritance, and losse irrecuperable, and 
to the strength of his enemies and feblishement of the Duchy of Normandie. 

TO this article lie answered, that his commission was to conclude, and doo all thynges 
nccordyng to his discresion, for the obteinyng of a peace, and because without deliuery of 
those coiUreys, he perceiued that truce could not be obteined, he agreed, to the relese and 
deliueraunce of theim. 

5 ALSO they surmised, that thesaied duke, beyng in Fraunce in the kynges seruice, and 
oneof the priuiest of his counsaill there, traiterously, declared and opened to the capitaines 
and conduyters of warre, apperteinyng to the kynges enemies, the kynges counsaill, pur- 
ueiaunceof his armes, furniture of his tounes, and all other ordinaunces, wherby the kynges 
enemies, (enformed by his trayterous informacion) haue gotten tounes and fortresses, and 
the Kyng by that meane, depriued of his inheritaunce. 

6 ITEM, thesaied duke declared to the Erie of Dumoys, to the Lorde Presigny, and 
Willyam Cosynet, Ambassadors for the Freche kyng, liyng in London, the priuities of the 
kynges counsaill, bothe for the prouision of farther warre, and also for defence of the Du- 
chy of Normandy: by the disclosyngwherofthe Frenchmen knowyngthe kinges secretes, pre- 
uented the tyme, and obteined their purpose. 

7 ITEM that the sayde Duke, at suche time as the Kyng sent Ambassadours to the Frenche 
Kyng, for the entreatyng of peace, trayterously before there comyng to the Frenche courte, 
certified kyng Charles of their commission, aucthoritie, and Instruccions, by reason wherof, 
neither peace nor amitie succeded, and the Kynges enheritauce lost, and by hys enemyes 
possessed. 

8 ITEM thesame Duke sayde openly in the starre chamber, before the lordes of the Coun- 
sail, that he had as highe a place in the cousail house of the Frenche Kynge, as he had 
there, and was aswell trusted there as here, and coulde remoue from the Frenche kynge, 
the priuiest man of hys counsayl, if he would. 

o , ITEM when armyes-haue been prepared, & souldiors redy waged, to passe ouer the sea 
to resist the Kynges enemyes: Thesayd Duke corrupted by rewardesof the Frenche Kynge, 
hath restrayned and stayed the sayde armyes to passe any farther. 

10 ITEM the sayde Duke beynge Ambassadour for the kyng, comprised not in the leage, as 
the kynges Alies, neither the kyng of Arragon, neither the duke of Brytayne, but suffered 
them, to be comprised on the contrary partye, by reason wherof, the olde amitie of the kyng 
of Arragon, is estraunged from this realme, and the duke of Britayne become enemy to the- 
same: and Giles his brother the Kynges suer frende, cast in strong prison, and their lyke to 
ende and finishe his dayes. 

AL these obiections he vtterly denyed, or fayntely auoyded, but not fully excused. Di- 
uers other crymeswere layde to his charge, as, enrychyng hymselfe with the Kynges goodes- 
and landes, gatheryng together, and rnakyng a money polde of offices, fees, wardes, and 
fermes, by reason wherof the Kynges estate was greatly mynished and decayed, and he and 
hiskyn highly exalted, and enriched, with many other pointes, whiche by cause they be not 
notable, nor of no great force or stregth I omitte and ouerpasse. The Quene, whiche 
entierly loued the Duke, fearyngthat some comocion and trouble myght ryse, if he were let 
goo vnpunished, caused hym to be committed to the Towre, where he was kepte with as 
muche pleasure, as he that was at large, and oute of all captiuitie. But after that a moneth 
was expired, she ymagenynge the people to be pacified with this open emprysonement, 
caused him bothe to be deliuered, and also to be restored to the kinges fauor and grace, as 
muche as euer he was before that tyme. But this doynge incensed the furye of the mutable 
comons, muche more then before : openly demouncyng, and saiyng, that it was a shame to 
all the Rnaltne, to se such a persone, infected with so many misdedes, either to rule about a 
prince or be had in honor. Of these wordes sprang dedes, and of this talkyng, rose dis- 
pleasure, whiche had growen to greate mischiefe, if pollitique prouision had not, M ith all 
celeritie resisted the fyrstfury: for the commons in, sundry places of the realme assembled 

1 together, 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 2 19 

together, gathered great companyes, and elected a Capitayn, whome they, called, bleu- berd :- 
but or they had attempted any cnterpryse, their headdes were apprehended and so the inein- 
bres sodainly were dispersed, without any hnrte comitted, or perpetrated. 

AFTER this litle rage was asswaged, the Parliament was adiornied to Leycester, whitlier 
came the Kyng and the Quene in great estate and with them the Duke of Suffolke, as chefe- 
counsailor. The comosof the lower house, not forgettyng their olde grudge: beseched the 
kyng, that such persons, as assented to the relese of Angeow, and deliueraunce of Mayne, 
might be extremely punished, and tormented: and to be priuye to this facte, they accused, 
as principal, the duke of Suffolke, with Ihon bishop of Salisbury, and syr lames Fynies, 
lord Say, & diuers other. When kyng Henry perceiued, that the cornons wer thus sto- 
macked and bent, against the Quenes dearlynge William Duke of Suffolke, he playnly sawe, 
that neither glosyng wolde serue, nor dissimulacion coulde appeace, the continual clamor of 
the importunate cSmons: Wherfore to begyn a shorte pacificacion in so long a broyle. 
Firste hesequestred the lorde Say, beyng threasorer of Englande, and other the Dukes adhe- 
rentes, from there offices, and authentic, and after banished and put in exile the duke of 

' Suffolke, as the abhorred tode, and comon noysaunce of the Realme of Englande, for the 
terme of. v. yeres: meanyng by this exile, to appease the furious rage of y outragious 
people, and that pacified, to reuocate him into his olde estate, as the Queues chefe frede & 
counsailer. But fortune wold not, that this flagitious person, shouide so escape: for when 
he shipped in Suffolke, entendynge to be transported into France, he was encotered with a 

_shippeof warre apperteynyng to the duke of Excester, the Constable of the Towre of Lon- J^i de 
don, called the Nicholas of the Towre. The capitayne of thesame barke with small fight duke of sV- 
entered into the dukes shyppe, and perceyuyng his person present, brought hyrn to Douere 
Rode, & there on the one syde of a cocke bote caused his head to be stryken of, and left his 
body with the head vpon the sandes of Douer, which corse was there founde by a chapelayne 
of his, and conueyed to Wyngfelde college in Suffolke, and there buried. This ende had 
Willia de la pole, first duke of Suffolke, as men iudge by Gods punyshmef : for aboue all 
thinges he was noted to be the very organ, engine, and diuiser of the destruccion of Hufrey 

"the good duke of Gloucester, and so the bloudde of the Innocente mil was with his dolorous 
death, recompensed and punished. But the death of this froward person, and vngracious 
patron, brought not the Realme quyete, nor deliuered it from all inward grudge, and intestine 
diuision, which to all Realrnes is more pestiferous and noysome, then outward warre, dayly 
famyne, or extreme pestilece. For allthough Rychard duke of Yorke, was in pryson, (as 
the kynges deputie) in y Realm of Irelande, continually resyaunt there, yet his breath puffed, 
and his wynde blew dayly, in many paries of the Realme. For many of the nobilitie, and 
more of the meane estate, wisely ponderynge the estate and condicion of the Realme, per- 
ceyuynge more losse then encrease, more ruyne then auauncement, daily to ensue: llcmem- 
bryng also that Frauce was conquered, and Normandy was gayned, by the Frenche people 
in shorte space, thought with them selfes and imageued, that the fatilte of all these miserable 
chaunces, happened, either because the Kynge was not the true enheritor to the crowne, or 
that he or his counsaill were not able of wit, pollicie, and circumspeccion, to rule and 
gouerne so noble a Realme, or so famous a region. Vpon this conjecture the frcndes, kins- 
men and alyes of the duke of Yorke, which wer of no small nuber, began to practise the 
gouernavice of his title: Infusyng and puttyng into mens heades secretely his right to y crown, 

"his pollilique gouernaiice, his gentle behauior, to all the Iryshe nacion, affirmyng, that he 
whiche had brought that rude and sauage nacion, ta ciuile fashion, and Englishe vrbanitie,- 
wolde, (if he once ruled in the Realme of England) depose euil counsaillers, correct euil 
iudges, & reforme all matters amisse, and vnameded. And to set ope the fludde gates of 
these deuises, it was thought necessary, to cause some great commocio and rysyng of people 
to be made against the King: so that if they preuayled, then had the duke of Yorke and his 
complices, there appetite and desire. And because the kentishmen be impacient in wronges 
disdayning of to much oppression, and euer desirous of new chaung, and new fangelnes.~ 

F f 2 The 



THE. XXVIII. YERE OF 

The, ouerturc of this matter was put fyrste furthe in Kent, and to thentent that it should 
not beknouen, that the duke of Yorke or his fredes were the cause- of the sodayne rising: 
A certayn yougma of a goodely stature, and preguaunt wit, was eutised to take vpon him 
the name of Ihon Mortymer, all though his name were Ihon Cade, and not for a small 
policie, thinking that by that surname, thelyne and lynage of the assistente house of the erle 
of JMarche, which were no small number, should be to hym both adherent, and fauorable. 
This capitayn not onely suborned by techers, but also enforced bj pryuye scholemasters, as- 
sembled together a great company of talle personages: assuring them, that their attept was 
both honorable to God and the king, and also profitable to the common wealth, promisyng 
them, that if either by force or pollicie, they might once take the kyng, the Queue, & other 
their counsaillers, into their handes and gouemauce, that they woulde honorablie er.treate 
the kyng, and so sharply handle his eounsaillers, that neither fiftenes should hereafter be- 
"demanded, nor once any imposicions, or tax should be spoken of. These perswasions, with 
many other fayre promises of libertie, (whiche the common people more affect & desire, 
rather then reasonable obedience, and due conforrnitie) so animated the Kentishe people, 
that they with their capitayne aboue named, in good order of battell (not in great number) 
came to the playue of Blackehethe, betwene Eldhatn and Grenewyche. And to the entent 
that the cause of this gloiious capitaines corny ng thither, might be shadowed from the kyng 
and his counsaill, he sent to him an humble supplicacion, with louyng woordes, but with 
malicious entent, affirmyng his comyng, not to be against him, but against diuers of his 
counsail, louers of them selfes, and oppressers of the pore comonaltie, flatterers to the kyng 
and enemyes to his honor, suckers of his purse, and robbers of his subiectes, perciall to 
their frendes, and extreme to their enemies, for rewardes corrupted, and for indiflferencie, 
nothyng doyng. This proude byll, was both of the kyng, and his counsaill, disdainfully 
taken, and thereupon great consultacion had, and after long debatyng, it was concluded, 
that suche proude rebelles, should rather be suppressed and tamed, with violence and force 
then with fayre woordes or amycable aunswer : Wherupon the kyng assembled a great army, 
and marched toward the, whiche had lyen on Blackeheath, by the space of. vii. dayes.- 
The subtill capitayn named lack Cade, entendyng to bryng the kyng farther, within the 
eompassc of his net, brake vp hisCampe, and retyred backwarde to the towne of Seuenocke 
in Kent, and there exspectynge his pray, encamped him selfe, and made his abode. The 
Queue, which bare the rule, beyng of his retrayte well aduertised, sent syr Humfrey Staf- 
ford knyght, and William his brother with many other genteltnen, to folow the chace of the 
Kentislmien, thinkynge that they had fledde, bat verely, they were desceyued: for at the 
fyrst skyrmish, both the Staffordes were slayne, and all their companye shamfully discom- 
fited. The kynges armye, beyng at this tyme come to Blackheath, hearynge of this dis- 
comfiture, began to grudge and murmure ernongest them selfc: some wishing the duke of 
Yorke at home, to ayde the capitayne his cosyne: some desiryng theouerthrow of the kyng 
and his counsaill Bother openly cryeng out on the Quene, and her complices. This rumor 
opely spoken, & comoly published, caused the kyng, & cerlayn of his counsaill, notleddeby 
fauor, nor corrupted by rewardes (to the entent to appeace the furious rage of the incon- 
stant multitude) to commit the lord Say, Tlireasorcr of England, to the Towre of London ; 
and if other, against whome, lyke displeasure was borne had been presente, they had like- 
wise ben serued. But it was necessary that one should suffer, rather then aH the nobilitie 
then should perish. When the Kentish capitayn, or y couetous Cade, had thus obteyned 
victory, and slayne the two valeaunt Staffordes, he appareled hym selfe in their rych armure, 
and so with pompe and glory returned agayn toward London : in whiche retrayte, diuers idle 
and vacabonde persons, resorted to. him from Sussex and Surrey, and from other partes to a 
great nubec. Thus this glorious Capitayny compassed about, "and enuironed with a multi- 
tude of euil rude and rusticall persones, came agayn to the playn of Blackeheath, and there 
strogly en camped him selfe: to whome were sent by the kynge^ the Archebishop of Canter- 
bury, and Ilumfrey duke of Buckyngham, to comon w-ith hym, of his greues and requestes. 

These 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI., 221 

These lordes found him sober in communicacion, wyse in disputyng, arrogant in hart, and 
styfe iu his opinion, and by no ways possible, to be perswaded to dissolue his armye, except 
-the kynge in person wolde come to him, and assent to all thynges, which he should requyre, 
These lordes, perceyuyng the wilful pertinacy, and manifest contumacie of this rebellious 
lauelyn, departed to the kyng, declaring to hym, his temerarious and rashe wordes,- and pre- 
sumptuous requestes. The kyngsomwhat hearyng, and more markyng the saiynges of thys' 
outragious lose!, and hauyng dayly reporte of the concurse and accesse of people, which-' 
cotinually resorted to him, doubtyng asrnuch his familiar seruauntes, as his vnknowe sub- 
iectes (which spared not to speake, that the capitaynes cause, was profitable for the common 
wealth) departed in all haste 'to the castell of Kylyngworthe in Warwyckeshyre, leauyng only 
behynd him y" lord Scales, to kepe the Towre of London. The capi-tayn beynge aduertised 
of the kyngt's absence, came first into Southwarke, and there lodged at the white hart, pro- 
hibityng to all men, Murder, Rape, or Robbery: by whiche colour he allured to hym the 
hartes of the common people. But after that he entered into Londo, and cut the ropes of 
the draw bridge, strikyng his sworde on London stone, saiyng: now is Mortyrner lorde of 
this citie, and rode in eiiery strete lyke a lordly Capitayn. And after a flatteryng declara- 
ci on made to the Mayre of the citie of his thither commyng, he departed agayn into South- 
warke. And vpon the thyrde daye of lulij, he caused syr lames Fynes lord Say, and Threa- 
sorer of Englande, to be brought to the Gylde halle of London, and there to be arrayned: 
whiche beyng before the kynges justices put to aunswere, desired to be tryed by his peeres, 
for the lenger delay of his lite. The Capitayne perceiuyng his dilatorie pie, by force toke 
him from the officers, and brought him to the standard in Cheape, and there before his con- Thei or je 
fession ended, caused his head to be cut of, and pitched it on a highe poole, which was opely 
borne before hym through the stretes. And this cruell tyraunt not content with the murder 
of the lorde Say, wente to Myle end, and there apprehended syr lames Cromer, then 
shreue of Kent, and sonne in law to the sayd lord Say, hym without confession or excuse in 
heard, caused there likewyse to be bedded, and his head to be fixed on. a poole, and with 
these two heddes, this blody butcher entered into the citie agayn, and in despyte caused them 
in euery strete, kysse together, to the great detestacion of all the beholders. 

AFTER this shamefull murder, succeded open rapyn and manifest robbery in diuers 
houses within the citie, and in cspeciall in the house of Philip Malpas, Alderman of London, 
and diuers other: oucr & besyde raunsonyng, & fynyng of diuers notable marchamites, for- 
thetuycio and securitie of their lyfes and goodes, as Robert Home alderman, which payed. 
v.C. markes, and yet neither he, nor no ether person was either of lyfe or substance in'a 
suretie or sauegard. He also put to execution in Southwarke diuers persons, some for in- 
fryngyng his rules and preceptes, bycausehe wolde be sene indifferent, other he tormeted of 
his olde acquayntance, lest they shoulde blase & declare his base byrthe, and lowsy lynage, 
disparagyng him from his vsurped surname of Mortymer, for the which, he thought and 
doubted not, both to haue frendes and fautors, both in Londo, Kent, and Essex. The wise 
Mayrc, and sage magistrates of the citie of London, pereeyuyng theselfes, neither to be sure 
of gooties nor of lyfe well warranted, determined with feare to repel and espulse this mis- 
chienous head, and hys vngraciotis copany. And because the lord Scales was ordeyned keper 
of y Tow re of London, with Mathew Gough, the often named capitayne in Normandy, (as you 
haue harde before) they purposed to make them pryuye both of their entet and enterprise. 
The lord Scales promised the hys ayde, with shotyng of ordinaunce, and Mathew Goughe was 
by hym appoynted, to assist the Mayre and the Londoners: bycause he was both of manhode, 
and experience greatly renoumed and noysrcl. So y Capitaynes of the citie appointed, toke 
vpon them in the night to kepe the bridge of London, prohibiting the Kentishme, either to 
passe or approche. The rebelles, which neuer soundly slepte, forfeare of sodain chaunces, 
h earyng the brydge to be kept and manned, ran with grcate haste to open their passage, 
where hetwene bothe partes was a lerce and cruell encounter. Mathew Gough, more ex- 
perte in marcial feates, then the other cbeuetaynes of the citie, perceiuyng the Kentishmen, 

better. 



THE. XXVIII. YERE OF 

better tostande to their taclyng, then his imagination expected, aduised his copany no fur- 
ther to precede, toward Southwarke, till the day appered: to the entent, that the citezens 
hearing where the place of the ieopardye rested, might occur re their enemies, and releue their 
frendes and companions. But this counsail came to small effect: for the multitude of re- 
belles draue the citezens from the stoulpesatthe bridge foote, to the drawe bridge, and began 
to set fyre in diuers houses. Alas vvhat-sorow it was to beholde that miserable chaunce : for 
some desyrynge to eschew the fyre, lept on his enemies weapon, and so died: fearfull women 
with chyldren in their armes, amased and appalled, lept into the riuer: other doubtinge how 
to saue them self betwene fyre, water, and swourd, were in their houses suffocat and smol- 
dered. Yet the Capitayns nothing regarding these chaunces, fought on the draw bridge all 
the nighte valeauntly, but in conclusion, the rebelles gate the draw bridge, and drowned 
many, and slew Ihon Sutton alderman, and Robert Heysande a hardy citizen, with many 
other, beside Mathew Gough, a man of great wit, much experience in feates of chiualrie, 
the which in continual warres, had valeauntly serued the kyng and his father, in the partes 
beyod the sea (as before ye haue hearde). But it is of;e.i sene that he, whiche many tymes 
hath vanqueshed his enemies in straug countreys, and returned agayn as a conqueror, hath 
of his awne nacion afterward been shamfully murdered, and brought to confusion. This 
hard and sore coflict endured on the bridge, til. ix. of the clocke in the morninge, in doutfuli 
chaunce, and fortunes balaunce: for some tyrne the Lodoners were bet back to the stulpes 
at sainct Magnes corner, and sodaynly agayne the rebelles were repulsed and driuen backs, 
to the stulpes in Southwarke, so that both partes, beyng faynte, wery and fatigate, agreed to 
desist from fight, and to leue battail til the next day, vpon condition : that neither Londoners 
should passe into Southwarke, nor the Kentishme in to London. 

AFTER this abstinence of warre agreed, the lusty Kentishe Capitayne, hopyng on more 
frendes, brake vp the gayles of the kinges benche and Marshalsea, and set at libertie, a 
swarme ofgalates, botlunete for his seruice and apte for his enterprise. The archebishop of 
Canterbury, beyng then chauncelor of England, and for his suerty lyenge in the Towre of 
London, called to him the bishop of Winchester, whiche also for feare, lurked at Halywell." 
These two prelates seyng the fury of the Kentish people, by reason of their betyng backe, 
to be mitigate and minished, passed the ryuerof Thamyse from the Towre, into Southwarke, 
bringing with them vnder the kynges great seale, a general .pardon vnto all the offenders T 
which they caused to be openly proclaimed & published. Lorde how glad the poore people 
were of this Pardone (ye more then of the great lubile of Rome) and how thei accepted 
thesame, in so muche that the whole multitude, without biddyng farewel to their capitain, 
retired thesame night, euery man to his awne home, as men amased, and strike with feare! 
But Ihon Cade desperate of succors, whiche by the frendes of the duke of Yorke wer to hym 
promised, and seyng his copany thus without his knowledge sodainly depart, mistrustyng the 
sequele of y matter, departed secretly in habile disguysed, into Sussex: but all his meta- 
morphosis or transfiguration, litle preuailed. For after a Proclamation made, that whoso- 
He^ euer C0uld a PP reliende thesaied lac Cade, should haue for his pain, a. M. markes, many 
"f iad?/ sought for hym, but few espied hym, til one Alexander Iden, esquire of Kent found hym in a 
garden, and there in his defence, manfully slewe the caitife Cade, & brought his ded body to 
London, whose hed was set on Londo bridge. This is the successe of all rebelles, and this 
fortune chaunceth euer to traytors. For where men striue against the streame, their bote 
neuer cometh to his pretensed porte. 

AFTER this commotion, the kyng himself came into Kent, & there sat in Judgement vpo 
the offenders, and if he had not mitigated his iustice, with mercie and compassion, more 
-then fiue. C. by the rigor of his lawe, had been iustely put to execution: but he cosidcred, 
bothe their fragilitie and innocencie, and how they with peruerse people, were seduced and 
deceiued: and so punished the stubburne heddes, and deliuered the ignorat Sc miserable 
people, to the greate reioysyng of all his subiectes. 

DVRYNG this commotion aboute London, Raufe bishop of Salisbury, was by his awne 

tenantes, 



Ode. 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 223 

tcnantes, & seruautes, murdered at Edyngton, and so from thensefurth daily succeded, 
murder, slaughter, & discencion. 

f THE. XXIX. YERE. 

THese variable chaunces in Englande, were not vnknowen to the French kyng, wher- 
fore, he makyng foundacion vpon the English discord, determined to get into his possession, 
the duchie of Acquitayne, while the princes of Englande, wer in cotrouersie, for their titles 
and superioritie: and therfore like a spedy puruior, whiche slacketh not tyme, he sent 
therles of Ponthieure, and Perigot, with many valiant capitaines, to ley siege to the toune 
of Bergerac set vpo the riuer of Dordone, of whiche toune was capitain, Iho Geddyng, 
whiche hearyng of the yeldyng of Roen, and conquest of Normandy, consideryng the puys- 
saunce of the Frenche army, vpon reasonable condicios, rendered the toune: yet all this 
notwithstandyng, the lord Cameyse, sir George Seymour, sir Ihon Arundell, and other va- 
liaunt capitaines, whiche had the gouernance of the countrey, manned tounes gathered 
people, and animated the cold stomackes of the fearefull Gascons: requiryng them to be 
constant in their fidelitie, true to their natural prince and vndoubted souereigne lorde, send- 
yng daily letters to the kyng of England and his counsaill, declaryng to him the weakenes 
of his subiectes, and the strength of his enemies, assertenyng hym for a suertie, that with- 
out spedy aide, and redy succors, the whole countrey were like to be gotten fro his posses- 
sio. Many letters were sent, and many faire aunswers wer brought, but relief neither ap- 
pered, nor one man of war was thether shipped. " By reason wherof, the Gascoyns per- 
ceiuyng their enemies at hand, intendyng aswell to destroy the countrey, as to subdue the 
people, began euery man for hymself, to regard nothyng, but the sauyng of their tounes, 
geodes, and corne: neglectyng defence, and fearful of assaultes, least by small resistence, 
thei might receiue more detriment, then after ihei could recouer again, either with great 
force, or muche labor. But thenglishmen, (whose natures are not to be faint harted, euen^ 
at the very Jeopardy of death) with al their wittes studied, bothe how to repulse & conuince 
their enemies, & to turne awaie the euil chances whiche thei sawe likely, (if pollicie did not 
helpe) sodainly to fal, and shortly to insue. But al their pollices little preuailed in coclu- 
sion, because succors failed, and force wanted: For after the Frenchmen, had the toune 
of Bergerac to them rendered, the fortresses of lonsac, of Bonefoy, and diuerse other places 
willyngly & frely, yelded themselfes to the French subieccion. Duryng whiche tyme, the 
lorde Doruall, third sonne to the lorde Delabreth, with a greate numbre of men, aswel on 
horsebacke as on foote, departed from Basas, to conquere and destroy the isle of Madoce : 
whereof hearyng the Maire of Bordeaux, with a conuenient crewe of men, issued out of the 
citie, and encontered with his enemies, betwene whom, was a hard fight and a dedly bat- 
taill : but the Frenchmen, more with multitude, then with force, vanquished thenglishemen,. 
and killed and toke prisoners, aboue. vj. C. Englishmen and Gascoynes, but of the Frenche- 
men which wer in double numbre, aboue their aduersaries (as writers affirme) there wer 
slain, viii. C. persones. For whiche cause, the capitaines folowed no farther the chace, lest 
the English people would again returne. This slaughter of the Englishe parte, the Frenche 
writers set furthe with the moste, but of their awne losse, thei speke not one word. Suche 
indifferency, is in their Chronographiers. This discomfiture so amased the wittes, & ap- 
palled the hartes of the meane Gascons that thei offered many tounes to the French part, 
before the same wer of them demanded. 

AFTER this, the Bastard of Orleaunce, erle of Dumoys, and Loguile, lieuetenantgene- 
rail for the Frenche kyng, accompanied with his brother, Ihon erle of Angulesme, whiche, 
had been long prisoner in England, and many valiant capitaines, and expert men of warre, 
besieged the Castle of Montguyon, whiche to them was rendered. After this, the saied 
army besieged the fortresse of Blay, standyng on the. riuer of Gyrond, whiche toune is the 

> very. 



224 THE. XXIX. YERE OF 

very keye of the porte of Bordeaux, and this toune was besieged bothe by water and by 
lande, and fiersly assaulted and manfully defended, and in conclusion by very force;, for 
lacke of insistence, conquered and gayned. The bastard of Kendall capitaiu of tiie Castle, 
seyng the toune lost, vpon certain condicions, deliuered his fortresse, into the possession of 
the lord lieuetenant. After this toune gained the fortresses of liourge and Liburne yelded, not 
without flue Wekes besiegyng. The wittie capitaines perceiuyng fortunes fauor towardes 
them, thought it necessary to take the tyme, while their good planet reigned. Wherfore, to 
preuent the aide of the Englishmen, whom thei daily expected to come to the succour of 
their people: they appoynted foure armies, to make war in foure seueral partes. The lurde 
Charles Delebreth, accompanied with Ihon lorde of Tartas and Aymon, lorde of Doruall 
his sonnes, and therJe of Foys, and the Viscount Lawtrec his brother, and many noble 
men of Guyen, laied siege to the toune of Acques, in the whiche bediuerse hoie bathes. 
Therle of Arminack extreme enemy to the realme of Englande, for breakyng the mariage 
concluded betwene kyng Henry and his daughter (as before you haue heard) besiged 
with a greate puyssaunce, the strong towne of Ryon. Therle of Pothyeure, with many 
noble barons, besieged the toune of Chastillon in Perigot, and the erle of Dumoys, enui- 
roned with a great puyssance the toune of Fronsacke. Thenglishemen within this toune, 
perceiuyng the greate ordinaunce on the French part, and the small prouision on their 
side, couenanted with the said erle, that if the toune wer not succored, and the Frenchemen 
foughten with all, before the feast of the natiuitie, of. S. Iho Baptist next ensuyng, that then 
the toune of Fronsacke should be. yelded to them, whiche was the strogest fortresse of all 
the countrey, and the very key of Guyen, and chief chamber of Burdeaux: and lor perform- 
ans hereof, pledges wer deliuered, and writynges autentique sealed. This agreruent once 
blowen through the countrey, the citie of Burdeaux, and all other tounes, (except Bayon) 
made like agrement, and deliuered pledges. So did all the noble men and getlemen, which 
wer subiectes and vassals to the croune of Englande. Alacke alacke, euery daie was lok- 
yng for relief, and euery houre was gapyng for cofort, but wisshyng serued not, nor hopyng 
nothyng helped: for the pestiferous diuision whiche reigned in Englande, so inueglid the 
braines of the noblemen there, that the honor of the realrne was clerely forgotten, & 
nothing yearthly but their priuate phantasies looked on and remembred. Now to conclude, 
the daie appoynted came but succor loked for came not: so that all the tounes in Acqui- 
tayne (except Bayon) deliuered their keyes, and became vassals to the French nacion, yet 
, the citezens of Burdeaux hopyng of rescous, offred themselfes to fight with the Frenchemen, 

and desired a daie of battaill to be appoynted, whiche request was to them graunted. But 
at the daie assigned, they beyng in dispaire of all refuge and succor, rendered themselfes and 
the toune, to their aduersaries, their lifes and goodes reserued, with licence and sal'econduyte 
to all persons whiche would depart and saile into Englade. When the cities and tounes of 
Gascoyne wer set in good ordre, the Erie of Dumoys and Foys, with greate preparacion of 
vitaill, municion and men, came before the citie of Bayon, where with mynes and battery, 
thei. so dismaied the fearful inhabitantes, that .neither the capitain nor the souldiors, could 
kepe them from yeldyng: so by force they deliuered the toune, and their capitain as a pri j 
soner, oftred a great some of money for ihe safegard of their lifes and goodes. Beside these 
agremeutes taken with tounes, diuerse noble men made seaerall composicions, as Gaston de 
Foys, Capdaw of Buessz, whom kyng Henry the fifth, made erle of Longuile and knight of 
the garter, whose auncestors wer euer true to Englad, whiche agreed that he, and Ihon de 
Foys his sonne, whom kyng Henry the sixt, created erle of Kendale, and made also knight 
of y garter, should enioy all their landes in Acquitayne, geuen to them by the kyngos of 
England, or by the Dukes of Acquitayn. And because their intent was still to senue the 
Kyng of England, their souereigne Lorde, they agreed, to deliuer into the custody of therle 
of Foys, their cosyn, the sonne and heire of the saied erle of Kendale, being of the age of 
three yeres, to the intent, that if he at his full age, denied to become subiect and vassaill to 
ihe Frenche kyng, or before that tyme disceased7 that then, after the death of his father and* 

graund- 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 

graundfather, all thesaied landes should wholly remain, to the next heire of their bloud, 
either male or female, beyng vnder the obeysance of the Frenche kyng or his heires. Many 
noble men whose hartes were good Englishe, made like composicions, and some came into 
Englande, and other went to Caleis, and wer great officers there: as the Lord Duras 
whiche was Marshall there, and Monsire Vanclere, whiche was there deputie, vnder therle 
of Warwick, (as after shalbe shewed.) Now haue I declared to you, the losse, of Fraunce, 
Normandy, & Acquitayn: wherfore, hauyug no more cause yet to speake of theim, I will 
returne to the greate trouble, discencion and diuision, whiche long was cloked, & now 
openly set abrode, and burst out in the realme of Englande. 

-&' 
[ THE. XXX. YEIIE. 

YOU haue heard before, how the duke of Yorke, as heire to Lionell Duke of Clarence, The. 
pretended priuily, a title to the Croune, and how his frencles ccunmoned secretly, with di- >ere ' 
uerse persones of that matter, and excited theim to set forward, and auaunce that parte to 
the vtterrnost: and howe the saied duke was sent into Ireland, where he was daily aduer- 
tised by his assured frendes, of all thynges doen in Englande, and by the knewe in what es- 
tate he stode, bothe with the nobilitie, and comonaltie, Wherfore, he mindyng no leger to 
dreame in his waightie matter, nor to kepe secrete his right and title, returned out of Ire- 
lande, and came to Londo in the Parliamet tyme, where he deliberately consulted, with his 
especial frendes: as Ihon Duke of Norffolke, Richard Erie of Salisbury, and Lorde Richard 
his sonne, whiche after was Erie of Warwick, Thomas Courtney, erle of Deuonshire, and 
Edward Broke, lord Cobham a man of a greate witte and muche experience: requiryng them 
bothe of aduise and counsaill, how he might without spot of treason, or colour of vsurpa- 
cion, set forth his title, and obtein his right. 

AFTER long consultation, it was thought expedient, first to seke some occasion and 
picke some querell, to the duke of Somerset, whiche ruled the kyng, ordred the realme, and 
moste might do \vith the quene : Whom, the commons, for the losse of Normandy, worse 
than a Tode or Scorpion, hated, disdained and execrated, in KO muche that dinerse euill 
ruled persones, brake his house, & spoyled his goodes, within the blacke Friers of the citie 
of Londo: which malefactors, accordyng to their desertes, wer iustly executed & punished. 
For wel knew the duke of Yorke and his adherentcs, that if the Duke of Somerset sawe 
or smelled, any poynt of their purposed enterprise, that he would with speare and 
sheld, with might and main, withstand and repel thesame, to thextreme point of death, and 
to their vtter confusion. Wherfore to abbridge his power, and to minishe his aucthoritie, 
they determined to bryng hym, into the hatred of the people, and into the disdain of the nobilitie. 
And to be the stronger in the settyng forth of their feate, they, what with rewardcs and t'aire 
promises, & what with declaracion of greate enormities, committed by the kinges councilors, 
against the common wealth, allected & allured to them, lusty bachelars, & actiue persons, of 
a great numbre, protestyng and declaring, that thei neither meant euil, nor thought harme, 
either to the kinges person, or to his dignitie : but that their intent was, for the reuenging of 
great iniuries doen to the publique wealth, and to persecute and rcforme diuerse rulers 
about the kyng, which daily cotrary to right and equitie, vexed & pilled thenglish people, 
without reason or measure: so y no man was in suretie, either of his awne goodes, or sucr 
of his proper lades or possessios. These great enormities, they caused to be published, to 
thintent y their chief purpose should not be espied, or perceiued. 

WHEN the duke of Yorke had thus framed thentery into his log intended iorney, he 
with lielpe of his frendes, assembled a great army in the Marches of Wales, publisbyng 
openly, that the cause of his mocio was for the publique wealth" of the realme, and great 
profile of the comons: whiche faire told tale, allured to hym muche people, aswcll of the 
chiualry as of the meane sort. The kyng rauche astonnied with this s odain commocion, by 

G <f the 






fl <26 THE. XXX. YERE OF 

the aduise of his counsail, raised a greate hoste, and marched forward toward the duke r but 
he being of his approche, Credibly aduertised, by his espials, diuerted from the kynges- 
waies, and toke his iorney toward London: and Iiauyng knowledge, that he might not be 
suffered with his army, to passe through London, he crossed ouer the Thamese at Kyngston 
bridge, and so set forth toward Kent, where he knewe that he had bothe frendes and good 
vvillers, and there, on brente Heath, a mile from Dertford, and. x. miles from Londo, he 
embattailed himself, and encamped his army very strongly, bothe with trenches and artilery. 
The king being therof aduertised, with greate diligece, brought his army to blacke Heath, & 
there pight his tetes. While both tharmies lay thus embattailed, the kyng by thaduise of his 
counsaill, sent the bishoppes of Winchester and Elie to the duke, both to knowe, what 
was the cause of so greate a tumult and commocion, and also to make a concord, if the re- 
questes of the duke and his company, semed to them consonant to reason, or profitable to- 
the people. The duke hearyng y message of the two bishops, either doubting the variable 
chaunce of mortal battaill, or lokyng for a better occasio, or a more luckey daie, aunswered 
the prelates, that his corrupyng was neither to dampnifie the kyng, neither in honor, nor in 
persone, nor yet any good man, but his intent was to remoue fro hym, certain euil disposed 
persons of his counsailL which wer the bludsuckers of the nobilitie, the pollers of the clear- 
gie, and oppressors of the poore people : emongst who he chiefly named, Edrnond duke of 
Somerset, whom if the kyng would commit to warde, to aunswere to suche articles, as against 
hym should in open parliament, be both proponed and proued, he promised not onely to 
dissolue his armie and dispatche his people, but also offered hymself, like an obedient sub- 
iecte, to come to the kynges presence, and to do him true and faithful seruice, accordyng to 
his truth & bofiden duelie. When the messengers wer returned with this reasonable aun- 
swere: The kyng perceiuyng, that without great bludshed, he could not bridle the duke of 
Yorke, nor without war he could not appeace the furious rage of the comon people, bejng 
ence set on fire, except he folowed their mindes, and grauted their requestes, caused the 
duke of Somerset to be committed to ward, as some saie : or to kepe hymself priuye in his 
awne house, as other write, till the fury of the people wer somevt hat asswaged and pacified^ 
Whiche thyng doen, the duke of Yorke the firste daie of Marche, dissolued his army, & 
brake vp his campe, and came to the kynges tent, where beside his expectacio, and cotrary 
to the promise made by the kyng, he found the duke of Somerset, set at large, and at libertie, 
whom the duke of Yorke boldly accused, of treason, of bribery, oppression, and many other 
crimes. The duke of Somerset not onely made aunswere to the dukes obieccions, but also 
accused hym of high treaso, towarde the kyng his souereigne lorde: affirming, that he with 
his fautors and complices, had consulted together how to obtein the croune and scepter of 
the realme. By meane of whiche wordes, the kyng remoued straight to Lodon, and the 
duke of Yorke as a prisoner, rode before hym, & so was kept awhile. The kyng assem- 
bled together a great counsaill at Westminster, to here the accusacios of the. ij. dukes, the 
one obiectyng to the other, facinorousactcs & detestable crimes. But the duke of Somerset, 
whiche now concerned in his mynd the thyng that shortely folowed, incessantly exhorted the 
eounsaill, that the Duke of Yorke, by compulsion, or otherwise, might be compelled to 
confesse his offence, and so beyng attainted of treason, to be put to execucion, and his- 
children to be taken enemies and aduersaries to their natiue countrey:. to the intent that by 
the losse of this onely Prince and his sequele, all ciuill warre, and inward diuision might 
cease and be repressed: besechyngalmightie God, that so greate an enemy to the kyng and 
his bloud, might neuer escape punishment, nor continewe long in life. The duke of Somer- 
set set furththis matter the more vehemently, because he knew perfitely, that the duke of 
\orke dayly studyed how to get the crowne, and obteynthe gouernance, and to depose and 
destroy both the kyng and hym. But the necessitie of destinie, can not by a,ny mans deuise, 
be either letted or interrupted : for many thynges (to common iudgementes) declared the 
duke of Yorkes trought and innocecye in this case. First his free and voluntary comyug 
to the kyng, when he with his power was uble to eucouter. with the kynges puyssance, which 

was 






KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 227 

was an open token and manifest argument, that he neither meiile treason, nor yet fraude. 
Secondarily, his humble submission, his reasonable requestes, and profitable peticions, for the 
pore commons, wer iudged no pointes of a man, that desired souereignetie, or rule aboue 
other which thinges he did onely fora cautelc, (as afterward oj>enly appeared). While the 
cousail treated of sauing or losing of this dolorous duke of Yorke, A rumour sprange 
throughout London, that Edward erle of Marche, sonne and heyre apparaunt to the sayd 
duke, a yong prince of great wit and much stomacke, accompanied with a stronge armye 
of Marchcmen, was comyng toward London, which tidinges sore appalled the Queue and 
the whole counsail. Beside this, thesame very daye came Ambassadours from the heades and 
Magistrates of the citie of Burdeaux, whereof the chefe were, the erle of Kendal, and the 
lord Lesparre, whiche signified to the counsaill, that if they woulde send an armye into 
Gascoyne, the Gascoyns wolde reucrte & turne agayne to the English part: aduertising 
them, that there was in those partes no puissaunce or garrison of Frenche men, to with- 
stand them, & therefore there was no doubt of the regayning or recoquest: requyring the w 
all diliget celeritie, to take so fayre a prey so opely to them offered, & to mynd nothyng be- 
fore the regayning of so fruictful a countrey. These, ij. thinges sore troubled the heades of 
the kinges counsaill, whiche, leste this discencion betwene two persones, might be the let of 
outward conquest, set the duke of Yorke at libertie, and permitted him to returne to his 
favre Castel of Wigmore, in the Marches of Wales, where he studied, both how to displease 
his enemies, & to obteyn his purpose: And so by meanes of y absece of y duke of Yorke, 
which was in maner banished y court & y kinges presece,,5~ duke of Somerset rose vp in 
in high fauor w y king & y quene, & his worde only ruled, his voyce was only hearde. 

; 

f THE. XXXI. YERE. 

THe counsaill of Englande, not forgettinge the offer of the Gascons, and that thei might The. 
now haue the citie of Burdeaux with the coutrey round about, by offer and request, whiche y" e - 
with great charge longe warre, they coulde scant agayn recouer or repossesse, appointed 
the veterane souldiour, and valiaunt Capitayn, Ihon lord Talbot, and erle of Shrewsburye, to 
l>e chefetayn of the armye, which should in all haste be transported and conueyed into 
Acquitayn. The lordes of Gascoyn, both well pleased and glad of their aunswere, re- 
turned into their countrey, in as secret maner, as they from thense departed, declaringe 
to their nacion, the Capitaines, & the powre, that was 'to the coming : exhorting euery 
man to be firing and stable to the kyng of England and his heyrs, vnder whose libertie and 
fredom, thei had prospered & reioysed, aboue. iij. C. yeres, rather then now to fal into 
the French captiuitie : whose taxes were vnreasonable, and whose dayly exaccions were to 
them importable. "When the valiant Talbot, the hardy erle of Shrewsbury was appointed 
to assemble an army of men, and them to couey into the duchie of Acquilayn, Lord, how 
busy he was in mustering howe diliget in setting forward, and how ientelly he entertayned 
his men of warre, as though he went first to warre, and neuer had take payne, either to 
serue his price or to gayn honor. What should I speake, how that he thought euery houre, 
as thre, till his armie were ready, or write, what payne he toke to se them shipped and 
vitayled. But verely men iudge, that as this labor was the ende and extreme point of all 
his worldly busynes so he should shew him self: fearce, coragious, & feareful to his ene- 
mies in the extreme point of his death and naturall departing. Thys English Hector & 
marcial flower, elected to him, the most hardy & coragious persons, which he could espye, 
preparing also, horses, municions vitayles, and all thinges necessarie to such an army, and 
to so great an enterprise. Whe all thinges were shipped, and wynd and wether serued he 
toke his chaunce, and sayled into Gascoyn, where without resistece, he peaceabli arriued 
in y Isle of Madre, where he reposed his army, beyng scant, iii. M. men, and destroyed 
all the countrey, betwene Burdeaux and Blay, and toke the strog towne and castel of Fron- 

G g 2 sac, 



228 THE. XXXI. YERE OF 

sac and diuers other townes and fortresses. The inhabitautes of Burdeaux, hearying of 
the' cries Arriual, sent to him messengers in the darke night, thriking and congratulating 
him for his thither commiug, and also requiryng him to accelerate, and spede his iorney 
towardc their citie, enformyng him. that now the time was propice for his purpose: and 
tyme not taken, was labor niispent. This aunciet Fox, and pollitique Capitayne lost not 
one houre, nor spared one mynet, till he came before the citie of Burdeaux. The citezens 
glad of hi'scommynge, made not the French capitayns, which had the gouernaunce of the 
towne, either parities or priuies of their entcnt: yet some of them wolde, that the French- 
men, in securitie both of lifes and goodes, should departe out of y town but their will was 
no will: for the multitude, abhorryng the French seruitude and embracing the English li- 




lish army. After the regaynyng of Burdeaux, arriued at Blay, the bastard of Somerset, 
sir Ihon Talbot, lord Lisle, by his wyfe sonne to the sayd erle of Shrewesbury, the lord 
Molyns, the lordes Haryngton and Cameus, syr Ihon Howard, sir Ihon Montgomerye, 
syr Ihon Vernon with. xxii. C. me with vitailes and municios. Whe the erle of Shrewes- 
bury was thus accordyng to his entent of all thinges furnished and adorned : firste he for- 
tified Burdeaux with Englishmen & victayle : after that, he rode into the countrey abrode, 
where he obteined cities, and gat townes without stroke or det of swourde : for the poore 
and nedy people beyng fatigate, and wery with the oppressio of their new landlordes ren- 
dered their townes before they were of them requyred, and beside this the townes & cities 
farre distauncte fro Burdeaux sent messengers to the erle, promisyng to him both seruice 
& obeysaunce. And etnonge other the towne and castell of Chastillon in Perigotte, was to 
him deliuered by the Frenchmen vpon coposicion, that they might with their lifes sauely 
departe: which town, the erle strogly fortified both with men and ordinaunce. The French 
kynge lyeng at Towers in Towrayne, beyng of the erles actes in Gascoyn credible enformed, 
was not a litle exasperate & quickned : wherefore he mynding to resist the first storme, and 
repulse the first surge, assembled a great army to the number of. xxii. M. men, and en- 
teringe into Acquitayne came to Lusigneum, and from thence accompanyed with the erle 
of Ponthyure, the lordes of sainct Seuere and Boucat, marched toward Caleys in Gas- 
coyn, and with fay re promises obteyned the town. And after that towne gayned, the 
Frenche kynge diuided his army into two parties, wherof the one was gouerned by the erle 
of Cleremont, sonne in law to kyng Charles, and heyre to the duke of Burbon, in the 
which were. xv. M. men, in whome consisted the wayght and peyse of the whole enterprise. 
This army he appointed to take the next way toward Burdeaux : the other army wherof he 
was Capitavn and leadar him self, accompaned with the peres and noble men of his 
realme, he kept and reteyned still beside Caleys, and sent the two Marshals of Frauce with 
xviii. C. men of armes, beside archers, to besege the towne.of Chastylon in Perigot, and 
in goyng thither, they gat a forteresse, whiche they manned, and so departed to Chastilone, 
which they enuyroned with a strong seage, & cast highe trenches, and made depe dytohes 
on euery side : and in a place where their encmyes must come, they layde ordinaunce both 
great and small, wherof so great a number was neuer before sene in France. The erle of 
Shrewesbury hearing of these newes, and pcrceiuing that he must of necessitie encouter, 
and fight with two armies, determined \V him selfe, first to assay the least power and weeker 
puyssaunce: wherfore without longer procrastinacion, he assembled togither. viii. C. horse- 
me, wherof the lord Lisle his sonne, the lord Molyns, the lord Cameus, sir Edward Hull, 
syr Ihon Haward, & sir Ihon Verno were chefe, and so marched forward toward Chasty- 
lon, appoyntyng. v. M. fote men vnder the conduyte of the erle of Kendalle, and the lord. 
Lespar to folowe hym with all spede. In hys way he assautedy Towre, which the Frechmen 
had taken, and by force entered, and slew all that he founds within and by the way he mett. 
v. C. Frenchmen, goyng a forregyng, of whom he slew the greatest parte, and chaced the 

other 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 22p 

other to the campe. The Frechmen knowyng by these good runers away of fy erles ap- 
prochyng, with al diligece left the seage, and retired in good order, into the place which 
they had treched, dytched, and fortefied with ordenaunce. They within the towne seyng 
the seage remoued, sent out woorde to the Englishmen that the Frenchmen fledde. The 
coragious erle hearyng these newes & feryng, leste through long taryeng the byrdes might 
be flowen awaye, not tarieng till his foteme were come, set forward, toward his enemies, 
which were in mynd surely to haue fledde, as they confessed afterward, if the feare of the 
French kynges rebuke, whiche was not farre of, had not caused them to tarye, and yet in 
this army were present the Marshal and great Master of France, the erle of Pothyeure, 
the Senescal of Poythiew, the lord Bessire, and many valeant Barons and Knightes. When 
the Englishmen were come to the place where the Frenchine were encamped, in the which 
(as Eneas Siluius testifieth) were. iii. C. peces of brasse, beside diuers other small peces, 
and subtill Engynes to the Englishmen vnknowen, and nothing suspected, they lyghted al 
on fote, the erle of Shrewesbury only except, which because of his age, rode on alitle hake- 
ney, and fought fiercely with the Frechme, & gat thentre of their campe, and by fyne force 
entered into thesame. This coflicte continued in doubtfull iudgement of victory, ii. longe 
houres: durynge which fight the lordes of Montamban and Humadayre, with agreatcom- 
panye of Frenchmen entered the battayle, and began a new felde, & sodaynly the Gon^ 
ners perceiuynge the Englishmen to approche nere, discharged their ordinaunce, and slew. 
iii. C. persons, nere to the erle, who perceiuynge the imminent ieopardy, and subtile la- 
birynth, in the which he and hys people were enclosed and illaqueate, despicynge his awne 
sauegarde, and desirynge the life of his entierly and welbeloued sonne the lord Lisle,. wiU 
led, aduertised, and counsailled hym to departe out of the felde, and to saue hym selfe. 
But whe the sonne had auswered that it was neither honest nor natural for him, to leue his 
father in the extreme ieopardye of his life, and that he woulde taste of that draught, which 
his father and Parent should assay and begyn : The noble erle & comfortable capitayn sayd _ 
to him : Oh sonne sonne, I thy father, which onely hath bene the terror and scourge of 
the Freeh people so manyyeres, which hath subuerted so many, townes, and" profligate and 
discomfited so many of them in open battayle, and marcial conflict, neither ca here dye, for 
the honor of my countrey, without great laude and perpetual!' fame, nor flye or departe with- 
out perpetuall shame and cdtinuailc infamy. But because this is thy first iourney and enter- 
prise, neither thy flyeng shall rcdounde to thy shame, nor thy death to thy glory: for as Lardy a 
man wisely flieth, as a temerarious person folishely abidethe, therefore y fleyng of me shalbe 
5" dishonor, not only of rue & my progenie, but also a discomfiture of all my company: 
thy departure shall sauc thy lyre, and make the able another tyme, if I be slayn to reuenge 
my death and to do honor to thy Prince and profyt to his Realme. But nature so wrought . 
in the sonne, that neither desire of lyfe, nor thought of securitie, could withdraw or pluck 
him fro his natural father: Who cosideryng the constancy of his chyld, and the great daun-r 
ger that they stode in, comforted his souldiours, cheared his Capitayns, and valeautly set 
on his enemies, and slew of ihem more in number than he had in his copany. But his 
enemies hauyng a greater company of men, & more abiidaunce of ordinaunce then before 
had bene sene in a battayle, fyrst shot him through the thyghe with a hfulgone, and slew 
his horse, & cowardly killed him, lyenge on the ground, whome they neuer durste loke-in-.v 
the- face, whyle he stode on his fete, and with him, there dyed manfully hys sonne the lord 
Lisle, his bastard sonne lleary Talbot, and syr Edward Hull, elect to the noble order of 
the Gartier, and. xxx. valeant personages of the English nacion, and the lord Molyns was 
there taken prysoner with. Ix. other. The residew of the Englishe people fled to Burdeaux 
and other places, wherof in the flight, were slayne aboue a. M. persons. At this battayl of 
Chastillon, fougnt the. xiii. day of lulij, in this yere, ended his lyfe Ihou lord Talbot, and 
of his progenio y fyrst erle of Shrewesbury, after that he with muche fame, more glory, 
and moste victorie had for his prince and coutrey, by the space of. xxiiij. yeres and more, 
valeantly made vvarre, and serued the kyng in the partes beyond the sea, whose corps was 

1 left 



850 TITE. XXXI. YERE OF 

left on the ground, & after was found by hys frendes, & coueyed to Whitchurch in Shrop- 
shyre, where it is- intumulate. This man was to the French people, a very scorge and a 
daily terror, in so much that as his person was fearful!, and terrible to his ad uersaries pre- 
sent: so his name and fame wasspitefuil and dreadfull to the common people absent, in so 
much that women in Fraunce to feare their youg childre, would crye, the Talbot commeth, 
the Talbot commeth. After this discomfiture, diuers lordes fled to Bordeaux, but the erle of 
Kendall, the lordes of Montferrant, of Rosayne, and of Dangladas, entered into the Castel of 
Chastjllon, which they by the space of. x. dayes manfully defended, but in conclusion beyng des- 
perate of all succors redered the fortresse, and came safe to Burdeaux. After this town was 
yelded the townes of sainct Million, Bybourne & all other, which the erle of Shrewesbury had 
conquered, rendered the selfes to the FrSche obeysaunce, Burdeaux onely except. The 
which citie beyng the last refuge, and onely consolacion of the Englishe people in Gas- 
coyne, the French kyng in person with all his puissaunce, strSgly beseged & dayly assauted, 
in the which he more lost then gayned : beside this, the Englishmen issued out, and cora- 
giously fought with their enemies: likewise did the citezens, which lokyng for no fauor at 
the French kynges hand, because of their late coniuracion againste him, manfully defend- 
ed themselfes, and sore noyed and hurt their enemies. But in conclusion bothe garrisons 
and the inhabitates, oppressed with muche penurye & extreme famyne were coacted to ren- 
der the citie vpon reasonable condicions, to them by the French kyng sent and oblated : the 
effect whereof was that no offence, before tyme committed or done by any of the citezes 
should herafter be imputed, or leyd to the charge of any of them. Also that all English- 
men and Gascons myght safely departe into Englande or to Caleys with ail their substance, 
and that the lordes Lespar, Duras and. xxx. other, should neuer vpon payn of death be 
founde within any of the French kinges dominions, which lord Lesparre, after beyng taken 
dis<mysed in Gascoyn was made shorter by the hedde. When this composicion was agreed 
and sealed, the Englishmen had their shippes and al thinges necessarie for their iorney, to 
them deliuered, which, when wynd and whether were to them propice and conuenient, were 
shortly transported into Englad, in the moneth of October this present yere. Thus was the 
duchye of Acquytayn, which had cotynued in the English possession, from the yere of our 
Lord. M. Iv. which is. iii. C. & od yeres, by y manage of Alienor, doughter and heyr to 
William duke of Acquittvyn wyfe to kyng Henry the second, finally reduced, and brought 
agayne to the French obedience and seruitude. The kepyng of which duchye was neither 
costly nor troblesome to the realme of England, but both pleasant and profitable: for by 
the soueraingtie of that countrey, yonge gentela^en learned the experiece of warre, and 
expert me were promoted to many richc offices, & great liumges within thesame. For with- 
in that onely Duchye, be. iiij. Archebishoppes, xxxiiij. Bishoppes. xv. erledos. ii. C. and. 
ij. Baronies, and aboue a. M. Capitaynshippes and baylywyckes. All though this great 
l sse chaunced this yere to the Englishe nacion, yet a greater detryment hapned in thesame 
season to the whole flocke of Christen people. For Machumet, called the great Turk be- 
seaged the citie of Constatynople in Grece, with an innumerable nuber of Turkes, and 
fiftye dayes togither gaue to it a continuall assaut, and on the. iiii. day of lune, toke it per- 
force, steyng man, woman and chyldren, except the Emperour Palialogus, and diuers 
other of tlie blode Royal, whome he toke prisoners, and after caused them to be behedded. 
Turk*"' If I should write the detestable murder of men, the abhominable and cruel slaughter of 
children, the shameful rauishmet of women and virgyns, which were perpetrate and done 
by the vnmercifull pagans and cruel Turkes, I assure you that your eares would abhorre y 
Thebuh nearin S and our e y es woulde not abyde the readynge, "and therfore I passe the ouer. In 
of price this trobleous season on y. xiii. daye of October, was y quene deliuered at Westmynster of 
Edwardc, a f a y re sonne, which was Christened & named Edward," and after grew to a goodely & per- 

sonne to/*, c i it i i ^ o ^ 

kyn R HEry nght man, as alter you shall heare : whose mother susteyned not a litle slaunder and ob- 
loquye of the commo people, saiyng that the kyng was not able to get a chyld, and that 
this was not his sonne, with many slaunderous woordes, to the quenes dishonor, whiche 

6 here 



KYNG HENRY THE. VI. 231 




here nede not to be rehersed After the birthe of this child, the Kyng highly auaunced his _ 

twoo brethren on his mothers side. For Edrnond he created erle of Richemod, which was ren created 
father to kyng Henry the. vij. and lasper he created erle of Penbroke, whiche died without "'" 
issue. , 

,^, f 

1TTHE. XXXII. YERE. 

WHen foren warre and outward battailes, were brought to an end and finall conclusion: The. *;;. 
domeslicall discord and ciuill discencion began again to renew and arise, within the realme y e - 
of Englande: for when the care of outward hostilitie (whiche kept the myndes of the 
Princes in the realme occupied, and in exercise) was taken awaye and vanished, desire of 
souereigntie, and ambicion of preeminence, sodainly sprang out so far re, that the whole 
Realme was diuided into twoo seuerall faccions, and priuate partes. For kyng Henry, dis- 
cended of the house of Lancastre, claymyng the croune from kyng Henry the. iiij. his 
graund father, first aucthor of this diuision : and Richard duke of Yorke, as heire to Lio- 
nell, the third sonne to kyng Edward the third: wresteled for the game, and stroue for the 
wager. By reason whereof, the nobles aswell as the common people, were into partes di- 
uided, to the destruccion of many a man, and to the great ruyne and decaye of this region. 
For while the one" part studied to vanquishe and suppresse the other, all commo wealth was 
set aside, and Justice and equitie was clerely exiled. For the duke of Yorke whiche sore 
gaped and more thirsted for the superioritie and preeminence, studied, deuised, and prac- 
tised al waies & meanes, by the whiche he might attain to his pretesed purpose, and long 
hoped desire. And emongest all imaginacios, one semed moste necessary for his purpose, 
whiche yet again was to stirre and prouoke the malice of all the people against the duke 'of 
Somerset, who onely ruled the Kyng, and ordered all thynges at his pleasure and will: 
Imaginyng, that he beyng made out of the waie, his purpose should shortly come to a good 
conclusion. Wherefore, to the nobles of the realme he complayned, lamented, and detested, 
the miserable state and daily ruyne of this noble countrey: notyng and affirmyng, the duke. 
of Somerset, to be the very roote and cause of the same, whom lie named and called, an 
vniust man, a mischeuous persone, a tyrannicall gouernor, and a coueteous cousailor: laiyng 
also great offences to kyng Henry, saiyng, that he was a man, neither of wit nor stomacke, 
neither mete to be a kyng, nor apt to gouerne a common wealth, and therefore it was the 
duetie of the noble men, and great Princes, not onely to thiiike on this weightie matter, but 
spedely to prouide a remedy, and to set the Realme in another staye. By whiche complaintes- 
and perswasions, the duke of Yorke, so altered the myndes of many persones of high estate, 
that th